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marched to Newburyport, and on the 19th, embarked for the River Kenebec, where they arrived on the 20th; land. ed, and embarked on board their batteaux the 22d, 23d, and 24th, in three divisions, and began to ascend the river, on their way to Canada, to co-operate with an army under the command of General Montgomery, then about to cross Lake Champlain, and commence the conquest of Canada. All this was effected in just fourteen days from the time of the order given to draft the 1100 men. Such expedition is rare to be found. October 3d, the detachment arrived at Norridgewog, and on the 10th, they arrived at the great carrying place, twelve and a half miles across, after having endured great hardships and dangers in ascending the river, in overcom. ing the obstructions, rapids, carrying places, &c. together with such privations as they endured from short supplies of provisions; which were now reduced to the allowance. of 3-4 pound of pork and 3-4 pound of bread, or flour to each man per day. On the 13th, Colonel Arnold had the imprudence to dispatch a letter to his friend in Quebec, by the hand of a wandering Indian, giving him notice of his expedition, and the object of destination of his army. This letter was delivered to the governor of Quebec, and the friend to whom it was addressed, was thrown into prison, and the city put upon its defence. 4 On the 12th, Colonel Enos arrived with his 4th division; but such was the scarcity of provisions, that he called a council of war to consult on the state of the army, in which it was coolly, and maturely decided, that Colonel Enos with his division, should return, and leave the other divisions to prosecute the expedition in the best manner possible.” Colonel Enos returned to Cambridge with his division, where he was tried by a special court martial, and honorably acquitted. On the 27th of October, they reached the height of land, at the head of the river, after surmounting incredible

difficulties, dangers, and hardships, with many losses from the rapidity of the current, on account of the great freshet which the late rains had occasioned. ... From the head of the Kenebec, they traversed the forests of the highlands, which extend from Georgia to Canada, under the general name of Alleghany mountains, and on the 1st of November came down upon the head waters of Chaudiere river, which falls into the St. Lawrence. Having left their batteaux behind, they proceeded by land down to Quebec. Such were the privations of the troops in passing the mountains, that they ate their dogs, and even their cartouch boxes, leather breeches, shoes, &c. be. fore they could reach the French settlements. Thirty one days they traversed the desert, in ascending the river, and crossing the mountains, without meeting with one solitary hut, or the footsteps of one human being, except of their own party, until they came down upon the settlements in Canada, where they were kindly received, and hospitably treated. f When Colonel Arnold arrived in the vicinity of Point Levi, (which is opposite to Quebec,) and learnt that the enemy, when apprised of his approach, (by the letter, before mentioned) had removed all the boats, he dispatched a letter to General Montgomery, giving him notice of his arrival, and of the fate of his letter. On the 9th of November he formed his encampment at Point Levi. To recount the sufferings, and hardships, as well as the losses, and privations this detechment endured in ascending the river, in hauling their boats, up the rapids, in transporting them, together with their provisions, and stores over carrying places, obstructed by ledges, morasses, and mountains, all covered with almost impenetrable forests, the abodes only of wild beasts, would be impossible : to add to these distresses, they were constrained to multiply these distances, by being obliged to pass, and repass several times at each portage, to transport their effects. In these scenes of distress they lost all their powder, except what was contained in their horns, and cartridges, their pork was all expended, and they subsisted on half a pound offiour each per day for four days, and before they reached the settlements in Canada, their whole stock was consumed, and they would have travelled thirty miles without food, had not Colonel Arnold arrived unexpectedly with a supply of cattle, which relieved their necessities, and soon made them forget all their sufferings, in the enjoyment of plenty, and enabled them to boast of the exploits they had performed. During these operations General Montgomery penetrated into Canada with his army, by the way of Lake Champlain, accompanied by General Schuyler, who joined him at the Isle le Motte, and published his unanifesto, in which he proclaimed peace with the Canadians; but war with the British. On the 8th General Schuyler returned with his division to the Isle Aux Noix, and fortified that position; but General Montgomery, being reinforced, commenced the siege of St. Johns. During the operations of this siege, Col. Ethan Allen and Major Brown concerted an attack upon Montreal, which failed, through the failure of Major Brown, and Colonel Allen, after having crossed over upon the Island of Montreal, and sustained a sharp conflict with General Carleton, was constrained to surrender, with all his party, with the loss of 15 killed, and 7 wounded, out of 73, which constituted the whole force under his command. When rash measures fail, they always incur censure; such was the sate of the attack upon Montreal. September 25th. On the 18th of October, Majors Brown and Livingston, passed the fort of St. Johns, with a small detachment in batteaux, and surprised the fort of Chamblee, where they found six tons of powder, &c. with this ammunition they pushed the siege of St. Johns. Governor Carleton mustered a party of Canadians, and Indians, at Montreal, and marched to the relief of St. Johns ; but Colonel Warner with about 300 Green Mountain Boys, met the general at their landing, threw then into disorder, and drove them back to Montreal; on the 2d of November St. Johns surrendered to General Montgomery by capitulation, and the garrison marched out with the honours of war. On the 12th General Montgomery entered Montreal in triumph, and on the 17th eleven sail of vessels, with General Prescot, and several other officers, and about 120 privates, with a large supply of flour, beef, butter, &c. besides cannon, small arms, and military stores, were taken; all which were highly acceptable to the American army, in prosecuting the reduction of Canada. But Governor Carleton had escaped in a single batteaux with muffled paddles in the night, and retired to Quebec. General Montgomery determined to brave the season. and follow up his successes by marching directly down to Quebec and joining Colonel Arnold before that city; but the distance was great, the season cold, and the troops began to be homesick, and pressed in crowds for furloughs. or discharges; these could not be resisted; such was the state of discipline, or rather want of discipline, by which his army was weakened, and the expedition ruined. Colonel Arnold had crossed over upon the Quebec shore. on the 13th of November, and formed his troops on the plains of Abraham ; but he found his numbers so reduced. and their muskets and ammunition in such a bad condition, that he could not with safety meet the enemy, and he prudently retired and fixed his position at Point au Tremble, November 19th ; the same day Governor Carleton

arrived at Quebec from Montreal, and brought the news of its surrender.

On the 1st of December General Montgomery arrived with his army, (if that could be called an army which was reduced by detachments left in garrisons, and those who had returned home, to the pitiful number of about 300 men,) supported by three armed schooners, and well furnished with all such supplies as were necessary to the comfort and convenience of the whole army, as well as for the operations of the siege. On the 5th the general set down before Quebec, and prepared to carry the place by storm. The cold had now become severe, as is usual in this climate, and the sufferings of the army in conducting a siege against a wailed town, had become incomparably distressing. Nothing short of that patriotie firmness, bothin the general and his brave officers and soldiers, could have supported them under such fatigues, with but a handful of men, say eight hundred at most, and these raw undisciplined troops, unaccustomed to a siege, or even to a single campaign in those mild climates, and in those mild seasons, when soldiers commonly keep the field. This Gibraltar of America was then garrisoned by about 1500 men, under the command of the governor of Can. ada, Sir Guy Carleton; yet the brave General Mont... gomery set down before this strong hold in the severity of winter, and opened his trenches in the snow, (the ground being impenetrably fixed by the frost,) and hardened these trenches with water frozen into ice, and commenced the operations of a siege. In this state of things, insep. arable difficulties presented themselves; his cannon were too light to make any impression upon the walls; his troops were wasting their strength in vain, under the burthen of such incredible hardships as were likely to diminish their number, and exhaust their spirits. Added to this, their engagments in service were short, and many

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