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Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania; against those of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina. Georgia was divided. The other article was in these words: “Art. XVII. In determining questions, each colony shall have one vote.” July 30, 31, August 1. Present, forty-one members. Mr. Chase observed, that this article was the most likely to divide us, of any one proposed in the draught then under consideration; that the larger colonies had threatened they would not confederate at all, if their weight in Congress should not be equal to the numbers of people they added to the confederacy; while the smaller ones declared against a union, if they did not retain an equal vote for the protection of their rights. That it was of the utmost consequence to bring the parties together, as, should we sever from each other, either no foreign power will ally with us at all, or the different states will form different alliances, and thus increase the horrours of those scenes of civil war and bloodshed, which, in such a state of separation and independence, would render us a miserable people.— That our importance, our interests, our peace, required that we should confederate, and that mutual sacrifices should be made to effect a compromise of this disficult question. He was of opinion, the smaller colonies would lose their rights, if they were not, in some instances, allowed an equal vote; and therefore that a discrimination should take place among the questions which would come before Congress. That the smaller states should be secured in all questions concerning life or liberty, and the greater ones in all respecting property. He therefore proposed, that in votes relating to money, the voice of each colony should be proportioned to the number of its inhabitants.” Dr. Franklin thought, that the votes should be so proportioned in all cases. He took notice that the Delaware counties had bound up their delegates to disagree to this article. He thought it a very extraordinary language to be held by any state, that they would not confederate with us unless we would let them dispose of our money. Certainly, if we vote equally, we ought to pay equally; but the smaller states will hardly purchase the privilege at this price. That had he lived in a state where the representation, originally equal, had become unequal by time and accident, he might have submitted rather than disturb government; but that we should be very wrong to set out in this practice, when it is in our power to establish what is right. That at the time of the union between England and Scotland, the latter had made the objection which the smaller states now do; but experience had proved that no unfairness had ever been shown them; that their advocates had prognosticated that it would again happen, as in times of old, that the whale would swallow Jonas, but he thought the prediction reversed in event, and that Jonas had swallowed the whale; for the Scotch had in fact got possession of the government, and gave laws to the English. He reprobated the original agreement of Congress to vote by colonies, and, therefore, was for their voting, in all cases, according to the number of taxables. Dr. Witherspoon opposed every alteration of the

article. All men admit that a confederacy is necessary. Should the idea get abroad that there is likely to be no union among us, it will damp the minds of the people, diminish the glory of our struggle, and lessen its importance; because it will open to our view future prospects of war and dissension among ourselves. If an equal vote be refused, the smaller states will become vassals to the larger; and all experience has shown, that the vassals and subjects of free states are the most enslaved. He instanced the Helots of Sparta and the provinces of Rome. He observed that foreign powers, discovering this blemish, would make it a handle for disengaging the smaller states from so unequal a confederacy. That the colonies should, in fact, be considered as individuals; and that, as such, in all disputes, they should have an equal vote; that they are . now collected as individuals making a bargain with each other, and, of course, had a right to vote as individuals. That in the East India Company they voted by persons, and not by their proportion of stock. That the Belgick confederacy voted by provinces. That in questions of war, the smaller states were as much interested as the larger, and therefore should vote equally; and indeed, that the larger states were more likely to bring war on the confederacy in proportion as their frontiers were more extensive. He admitted that equality of representation was an excellent principle, but then it must be of things which are co-ordinate; that is, of things similar, and of the same nature; that nothing relating to individuals could ever come before Congress: nothing but what would respect colonies. He distinguished between an incorporating and a

federal union. The union of England was an incorporating one; yet Scotland had suffered by that union, for that its inhabitants were drawn from it by the hopes of places and employments; nor was it an instance of equality of representation: because, while Scotland was allowed nearly a thirteenth of representation, they were to pay only one fortieth of the land tax. He expressed his hopes, that in the present enlightened state of men's minds, we might expect a lasting confederacy, if it was founded on fair principles. John Adams advocated the voting in proportion to numbers. He said, that we stand here as the representatives of the people; that in some states the people are many, in others they are few; that, therefore, their vote here should be proportioned to the numbers from whom it comes. Reason, justice, and equity, never had weight enough on the face of the earth to govern the councils of men. It is interest alone which does it, and it is interest alone which can be trusted; that, therefore, the interests within doors should be the mathematical representatives of the interests without doors; that the individuality of the colonies is a mere sound. Does the individuality of a colony increase its wealth or numbers ? If it does, pay equally. If it does not add weight in the scale of the confederacy, it cannot add to their rights nor weigh in argument. A. has £50, B. £500, and C. £1000 in partnership. Is it just they should equally dispose of the moneys of the partnership ! It has been said we are independent individuals, making a bargain together: the question is not, what we are now, but what we ought to be when our bargain shall be made. The confederacy is

to make us one individual only; it is to form us, like separate parcels of metal, into one common mass. We shall no longer retain our separate individuality, but become a single individual as to all questions submitted to the confederacy. Therefore, all those reasons which prove the justice and expediency of equal representation in other assemblies, hold good here. It has been objected, that a proportionable vote will endanger the smaller states. We answer, that an equal vote will endanger the larger. Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts, are the three greater colonies. Consider their distance, their difference of produce, of interests, and of manners, and it is apparent they can never have an interest or inclination to combine for the oppression of the smaller; that the smaller will naturally divide on all questions with the larger— Rhode Island, from its relation, similarity, and intercourse, will generally pursue the same objects with Massachusetts; Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland, with Pennsylvania. Dr. Rush took notice, that the decay of the liberties of the Dutch republick proceeded from three causes: 1. the perfect unanimity requisite on all occasions; 2. their obligation to consult their constituents; 3, their voting by provinces. This last destroyed the equality of representation, and the liberties of Great Britain also are sinking from the same defect. That, a part of our rights is deposited in the hands of our legislatures. There, it was admitted, there should be an equality of representation. Another part of our rights is deposited in the hands of Congress; why is it not equally necessary, there should be an equal repre

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