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Chap, his resolution to hasten those measures, and to* >—TMV, send the fleet and army, as soon as those islands 1761. were reduced, against the Havannah, the key of the Spanish West Indies; and also to reinforce the army with the troops from North America, where the conquests were completed. . . Martinico, St. Lucia, Grenada, and St. Vinco &c. cent, were taken by his orders. The .French taken. power in the East Indies was totally destroyed. And Belleifle, on the coast of France, was taken. Mr. Pitt's There was a very unaccountable negligence design of jn eqUipping the expedition against the Havan

takingthe ,M v\ b. r./ ,b . . .

Havan- nah, under the lublequent administration, who nah« could not avoid attempting this conquest; be

cause the plan ofit was left to them by Mr. Pitt. After taking the last of the French islands in the West Indies, the victorious troops remained idle a considerable time. Had they been sent immediately against the Havannah, as Ms. Pitt intended, the Spaniards would have been attacked before they were prepared, and the place would have been taken before the unhealthy season commenced. The misfortune was, that though the ministry sent only four ships from England, to join the armament Mr. Pitt had assembled in the West Indies; yet these ships did not sail from England until the month of March 1762; at which time, according to Mr. Pitt's plan, they would have been before the Havannah; for Martinico surrendered on the 12th of February. Our great loss of men at the Havannah nah was more owing to the unhealthy season, Chap than to the sire of the enemy, f

* There was a suspicion, and the cooled impartiality must allow, that it seems to have been founded on neither ordinary nor weak probability, that the ministry would have rejoiced at a deseat besore the Havannah. The officers were appointed upon the recommendation of the Duke of Cumberland, who was not less obnoxious to the saction, called the King's Friends, than Mr. Pitt h>mself. They were ssr.t in the manner abovementioned. Th." advices of this important conquest arrived in England while the negotiation' so.- peace were on the tapis, which were in some measure impeded by it, because ministers were obliged to encrease their demands respecting the terms of pence; a circumstance that was quite opposite to their private wishes, which were to obtain peace upon any terms, rather than carry on the war*

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CHAP. XX.

Slate of FranceMr. Pitt opposed in bis design to fend some ships to NewfoundlandThat place? takenRetakenMr. Pitt opposed in his designto attack the Spanijh FlotaMr. Pitt and Lord Temple opposed in their advice to recall Lord Bristol from MadridThree Councils upon it--~ Mr. Pitt and Lord Temple resignDesign against Panama and Manilla---Assertions of Lord Temple and Lord Bute7he Gazette account of Mr. PitCs resignationHis Letter to the City of LondonAll the Spanish treasure arrived in SpainExplanatory noteMr. Pitt greatly applauded in the City of London—~War declared against SpainEpitome of Mr. Pitt's Administration.

Chap* i-4

XX. .*> RANCE at this time was reduced to the 1f-^J lowest ebb of distress and despondency. All her 17<51" colonies were in the hands of Great Britain. State of Her arms had been discomhtted in every quarter; France. Trig payment of her public bills was stopped; and siie might literally be called a bankrupt nation: She was reduced to a more distressed and humbled condition, in the three years administration of Mr. Pitt, than by the whole ten year3 war of the Duke of Marlborough.* Her navy

was

* France was never more pressed by England, than by Ms. Pitt's administration. An Englishman might at this period,

with?

2

[graphic]
[graphic]

was ruined: She had not at this time ten ships
of the line sit for service; yet, with these, her
ministers resolved to make one more effort.
Their design was to obtain a share of the sishery
in the North American seas, at a cheaper rate
than they could hope to gain it by treaty. From
a circumstance that happened during the late
nogociation, Mr. Pitt foresaw that they would
make this attempt. His diligence and penetra-
tion were constant and uniform; and they were
not less apparent on this, than they had been
on every former occasion. Immediately on the -

Mr Pi ft

departure of M. Busy, he proposed to send four opposedin ships of the line to Newfoundland: But to his1'1'8 design great surprise, he was opposed in this measure. J^ct'"S The cabinet put a negative upon his proposition, foundland.

with some propriety ask, Where were now her 450,000 sighting men, which her ministers boasted of in the reign of Louis the Fourteenth? and where were her sailors, who, in the same reign, fought on board one hundred ships of war? It may be answered, that we had thousands of her sailors in prison; and that their number ps land forces were sufficient for her purpose. But we know, that so reduced was her navy besore November, 1759, me was obliged to force the peasants into that service. We know, that however diminished her armies might be, compared with the flpurifliing times of Louis the Fourteenth, still it was with the greatest difficulty the government could pay and provide for those armies; and had they resolved upon the augmentation of tr»em, their revenues would have sailed to support them; and what is more, the augmentation itself was impracticable. The dregs of the people, and the lower artificers were already swept away by the recruiting serjeant; and the sields were in a manner abandoned. Whoever travelled through France at that juncture, might see the women not only drive, but hold the plough. And in some provinces it was no uncommon spectacle, to behold two women yoked with one cow, drawing the plough.

Th;

Chap. The consequence was, the French took New*

xx? foundland. As soon as Lord Amherst, who was

1761. ac New York, heard it, he seiu his brother and

jjew. Lord Colvil'e to retake the island, which they

foundland accomplished before the arrival of any orders

*ak,en, from England. Retaken. °

Mr. tilt now saw and selt the strength of the new King's party. He did not, however, resign upon this check; because his grand object was Spain. His design was by an early and vigorous exertion to cripple that power. He did not suspect the house of .Bourbon to have so many friends in England, as he afterwards found. The King of Spain had. at thi time an immense treasure at sea coming from America. He was sensible the King of Spa>n would not declare himself until that treasure had arrived. Mr, Pitss design was to intercept it and bring it to England. He was consident of the hostile intentions of Spain. The plan of union, which had been negotiating between the courts of France and Spain all the summer at Paris, was now completed, and Mr. Pitt had been surnished with a copy of this treaty of alliance, which included all the branches of the house of Bourbon, and is commonly called the Family Compact. He communicated to the cabinet his resolution of Mr. Pitt's attacking Spain. Lord Bute was the sirst person design of who opposed it; he called it rash and unadvisth^Spa-6 abIe* Lord Grenville thought it precipitate, and nifliflota desired time to consider of.it. Lord Temple supopposed. ported Mn plUj which he h£jd done unisermly

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