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ALTHOUGH the operations of the war are Chap. . * Yur

foreign to this work; yet those events, from "^

which important circumstances have arisen, and ,».-.

which having either been misrepresented by other „ , .

i • , . , • • m Battle of

writers, or been entirely omitted, it is necestary Rosoach,

to mention. Ot this nature was the.'King of ^n<i its Prussians great victory at Rosbach; over the French q°"nec'es. and Germans, on the sifth of November, 1757. No event during the war was attended with such interesting consequences. This victory may be faid to have changed the scene, the plan, and the piincipleof the war. Besides the emancipation which it immediately gave lo the King of Prussia, its effects were no less instantaneous and powersul on the councils of Great-Britain. The British minister possessed an understanding to distinguish, and a genius to seize, a fortunate circumstance, and to improve it to the utmost advantage. Parliament had been appointed to meet on the 15th of November. Intelligence of this vistory arrived

Chat, rived at St. James's on the 9th, in the morn

XIV- ing. The moment the dispatches were read, the

minister resolved to prorogue the parliament for

Sudden a fortnight; notwithstanding every preparation

prorogate j]acj keen macje for opening the session on the on or par- V.

liament. sifteenth. The reason or this sudden prorogation was to give time to concert a new plan of operations, and to write another speech for the King — undoubtedly the speech that had been designed would not apply to this great and unexpected change of affairs. Whether there was any precedent for this extraordinary step, was not in the contemplation of the minister. In taking a resolution, that involved concerns of the greatest magnitude, he was not to be influenced by precedents. Forty thousand Hanoverians, who had laid dov/n their arms, but not surrendered them, composed such an engine of power and strength as might,-if employed against France, not'for Hanover ; or, to speak in more direct terms* if ordered, to act offensively, instead of defensively, might, divide her power, and thereby sacilitate the conquest of her potTdsions, in America, Africa and Asia. .'". .•1: . V. 1'. #,Y'< . 1>>x <-'

George the Second, though not possefled of brilliant talaits, yet to a strong sirmness of mind, he added a long experience of men and public afsairs, with a sufficient share of penetration to distinguish, even in his. present short acquaintance with Mr. Pitt, and particularly by his infant reso lution of proroguing the parliament, that he was a bold and intelligent minister^ qua

lities which were perfectly agreeable to the King Ck*». •—because personal courage was' not amongst - *• his desects. The King himself sirst suggested to 1757. his minister the resumption of his Hanoverian troops. It was the very measure which Mr. Pitt had resolved to propose, when he advised the prorogation of parliament; and it was only by accident, or chance, that the proposition came sirst from the King. The King and his minister therefore were in persect unison upon the sirst mention of this important subject. From this moment the King gave his confidence to Mr. Pitt; and the latter, upon discovering the whole of the King's views, faw he could make them secondary and subservient to the interests of Great Britain. During the remainder of the reign they acted together, under the influence of the same congeniality of sentiment, and thereby naturally sell into a persect union •and cordiality of opinion upon all public measures.

Immediately after the battle of Rofbach the The King King of Pruffia wrote a letter to the King of Eng- °f,Prus" land, in which he strongly recommended thecommenresumption of the allied army, and Duke Ferdi- da''01*' nand of Brunswick to the command of it: and he accompanied this letter with a plan of operations, in which he proposed to act in concert with the Duke. Independent of the policy of the measure, there were not wanting very sair and honourable reasons to support it. The French troops had repeatedly broken several articles of the convention; and had, in genera],


CHip. from the time they entered the electorate^ conXVI- ducted themselves in a manner, more like a 1757. banditti of barbarians, than an army of disciplined soldiers. Hanove- Mr. Pitt adopted the whole of the King of nans re- Prussia's recommendation; but so modelled the der Duke German measures, as-to make them cooperate Ferdi- with his own plans of attacking France in every n other quarter at the same time. The King of

Prussia highly approved of Mr. Pitt's alterations of his plan. Mr. Pitt's plan was bold and comprehensive; but it should be remembered, that timidity in war is as criminal as treachery; and therefore it is proverbially said, that the boldest measures are the fasest. The King of Prussia faw it in this sense-, and therefore he gave it his warmest approbation. In concert with the King .of Prussia, the plan of operations was formed. Emden was secured, and the coast of France was annoyed, at his request.*—Duke Ferdinand drove the French out of Hanover, and pursued them with such rapidity, that France was pre._' sently under the necessity of preparing for the . • - defence of her own frontiers. This sudden change of affairs, and the victories gained by the King of Prussia in Silesia, shewed that a war upon the continent of Europe, conducted upon

* The King of Pruffia saw, and sully comprehended the wisdom of the attempt upon Rochfort; and he adopted the idea of annoying the coast of France, from that measure. He conceived a very savourable opinion of Mr. Pitt's political talents from that circumstance, although it had not been successful.

British British principles, was highly serviceable to the Cha*. interests of this country. France, so sar from XVIbeing able to invade Great Britain, could not i>}^. send troops to strengthen her garrisons and set- obscrvatlements abroad: and in a sew months her first tions on object was, to provide a fresh army to slop thel ^ "~r^ progress of Duke Ferdinand: while Mr. Pitt, on the other hand, prepared expeditions against her coast, to co-operate with the Duke. In this situation, the councils of France were distracted. Her whole force was kept at home. A German war, conducted upon this principle, against France, was the most advantageous war that Great Britain could make; and, notwithstanding the expence has been urged as the greatest objection to it, yet when it is recollected that this war employed the armies of France, and prevented succours being sent to her settlements abroad, it was the most (economical war that the British minister could carry on. The expence of transporting troops, forage, stores, &c. to a short distance, is insinitely less than to a great one. Whoever will be at ihe trouble to look over the charges of the American war, which commenced in 1775, and of the German war, which commenced under Mr. Put's direction in 1758, will see the sact indisputably confirmed. It need only be added, that if the armies of France had been to be conquered in Canada, in the West Indies, in Africa, and in Asia, the expence to this country, of transporting and maintaining an adequate force to encounter them


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