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This change of the Ministry operated like a a convulsion on the nation. The people wereex~^7^ asperated beyond measure, at the dismissions of Mr. Pitt and Mr. Legge, whom they now joined together, as the political saviours of the kingdom. These dismissions were universally ascribed to the secret influence which, it was believed, the late ministers still possessed in the King's closet.

It was judged unconstitutional to address the throne upon these changes; therefore another method was adopted to convince the King os the sentiments of the nation. This was to send adwlth Sh« dresses of thanks to the dismissed patriots, exfreedom pressing the highest approbation of their conduct; of several wim presents of their freedom of most of the principal corporations, in gold and other boxes, of great value and curious workmanship.

This intestine commotion alarmed the Court exceedingly. They saw the danger of permitting the ferment to encrease. The Duke of Newcastle, though at this time not in office, was the first person who went to the King, and advjsed his Majesty to recall Mr. Pitt. The Monarch wept: He complained of all his servants. He

distresses. , r I

thought none of them had acted with fidelity towards him, since the time of Sir R. IValpoU. At length, he consented to give the Duke of New castle full power to negociate with Mr. Pitt, and all his friends. The Duke of Newcastle saw Mr. Pitt and Lord Temple privately: for although the stream of popularity run in favour of Mr. Pitt


and Mr. hqgge, yet in all measures of conse- Cha». qnence Mr. Pitt solely consided in Lord Tempi* XIV* The Duke informed Mr. Pitt, that he was com- i757. mi^pn^d by the King to agree to Mr. Pitt's terms; and he hoped, and trusted, that such Condescension in his Majesty would meet with the most savourable interpretation. Mr. Pitt's reply was sull of gratitude and humility to the made ^j. King. The Duke then said, that it was his nister on Majesty's wish to form an liealing administration, hlS own and he had left it entirely to the Duke of Newcastle and Mr. Pitt, to settle every arrangement, in the most amicable manner.

Mr. Pitt's sirst proposition was the exclusion of Lord Anson from the cabinet. The Duke of Newcastle pleaded earnestly to have Lord Hardivicke in the cabinet. He faid it was the King's lequest. Mr. Pitt consented, on condition that Sir Robert Henley had the great seal: this stipulation was desired by Leicester-house, Lord Temple to be privy seal. Himself secretary of state, as before. The Duke of Newcastle offered Lord Temple the treasury. Mr. Pitt interposed, and said, " that could not be; his Grace must go jhere himself.* But if at any time hereafter, he


* There were two reasons for this. The sirst was, the' House of Commons had been chosen by Mr. Pelham; at whose death, his pocket list (as it is called) was given to the Duke of Newcastle, and this circumstance made another stipulation in the arrangement; which wi, that the Duke should transfer his majority to Mr. Pitt. Mr. Pitt himself described this sact, on a subsequent pecasion, in these words, " I borrowed the Duke of Newcastle's majority to carry on the public business."


v»^* should think proper to retire, Lord Temple should

s^-r-^s succeed him." Having gone on some time, in

•757- making the arrangements, the Duke said, what

shall we do with Mr. Fox> Mr. Pitt replied,

"he may have the pay office." This was a tri

His tri- umph to Mr. Pitt—to put Mr. Fox below him,

TMPh°ver and into the office he had left. But it was a tri

Mr. Fox.

umph too diminutive for the dignity of Mr. Pitt's

mind. However, he enjoyed it; which shews the influence of little* passions in men of the sirst abilities. Lord An/on was proposed for the admiralty. Mr. Pitt declared, that' Lord Anfon should never have the correspondence. The Duke replied, that would be such an alteration of the board, as could not be made without his Majesty's consent. Here the conserence broke off. Mr. Pitt had an audience of the King. He laid before his Majesty the difference between the Duke of Newcastle and himself, concerning the admiralty. The King consented, that the correspondence with the naval officers, usually in in the board of admiralty, should be given to Mr. Pin, and that the board should only sign the dis' patches, without being privy to their contents.*


The other was—Lord Temple would have had his brother, Mr. George Gren>vllle, for his chancellor of the exchequer; and in that cafe what could have been done with Mr. Legge f the public would not at that time have approved of any other person in that situation. Mr. Pitt also knew that there had been a private understanding between the Duke of Newcastle and Mr. Legge, for some time past.

* The rule or custom is, the secretary of state sends all the orders respecting the navy, which have been agreed to in

the It was at this audience ihat the following remat liable words were spoken, which Lord Nugent re- v peated in the House of Commons, in the year 1784; Mr./V/rsaid, " Sire, give me your confidence, and I will deserve it." The King replied without hesitation, " Deserve my confidence, and you shall have it." Lord Nugent added, " that Mr. Pitt at last so won upon the King, that he was able to turn his very partialities in savour of Germany to the benefit of his country." Lord Anson took the Admiralty, under Mr. Pitt's limitation; and Mr. .FoA^took the pay-osfice. Mr. Legge had the exchequer. AU the arrangements being settled, the parties all kissed hands in July 1757; and the nation was thereby restored to tranquillity and satissaction.

the cabinet, to the admiralty, and the secretary to the board writes those orders again, in the form of instructions, from the admiralty to the admiral, or captain of the fleet, expedition, &c. for whom they are designed: which instructions must be signed by three of the board. But during Mr. Pitt's administration, he wrote the instructions himself, and sent them to their Lordships to be signed; always ordering his secretary to put a sheet of white paper over the writing. Thus they were kept in persect ignorance of what they had signed. And the secretary and clerks of the board were all in the same state of exclusion.


. '> CHAP. XV.

Failure of the Duke of CumberlandExpedition against RocbefortDistresses of the King of Prussia Hanover plunderedMr. Pitt's two propositions; one, to fend a fleet into the Baltic; the other", to cede Gibraltar to Spain—Anecdote of the treaty of peace made in 1783—Effefis of Mr. -Pitt's first administration—Miscarriage of the expedition' against Louisbourg—Union of Russia, Sweden and Denmark, for the neutrality of the BalticTaking of the Dutch ships—Mr. Pitt opposes the proposition of sending the Britijh fleet to the assistance of the Duke of Cumberland.

C£y*' Th E Duke of Cumberland sailed on the continent. His Royal Highness attributed his failure* 1757. to the want of British troops arid money. His ^ jJJearmy was not only inferior to the enemy in num*' of Cum- Der» Dut consisted entirely of Germans. The" berland. French pursued him almost to the sea coast. The King of Denmark commiserated his situation; and, under that Monarch's mediation, a convention was signed, in the month of September 1757, between the Duke and Marshal Richelieu, the French general; by which the allied army were to retire to their respective countries.


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