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45 all ended in the twenty-first year of identified with
the Hittites, the his reign, when the Egyptian troops Amorites, the Philistines, and the appear to have retired from Syria, inhabitants of Tyre, Tarsis, Sodom, leaving the Hittites in successful and Accho or Acre. rebellion behind them. During the This conqueror was succeeded by remainder of his long reign of sixty- a number of insignificant kings, also six years, he devoted himself to his named Ramses, and then a great magnificent and ostentatious monu- revolution took place. The Theban ments at Karnak and elsewhere, dynasties were overthrown by the particularly at Aboosimbel, in sacerdotal caste, and the sceptre was Nubia. This profusion led, as often assumed by, a priest of Ammon happens, to cruelty and oppression; from Zoan, in Lower Egypt. After the bondage of the Israelites, which four kings of little note, Sheshonk, had been severe, was fearfully aggra- or Shishak, the conqueror of Jeru. vated. Their murmurs grew loud salem, founded the twenty-second and deep, and though the storm did or Bubastic dynasty. His famous not break in Ramses' life, he left expedition to Palestine is the kingdom in a wretched state of memorated on the walls of Karnak, dissatisfaction and decay.
where the king of Judah (or as The misfortunes of Menophres, Baron Bunsen says, Judah personihis successor, were owing to his fied as a king) appears as one of a father's crimes, but-and here we huge row of captives, amongst have surer testimony than Baron whom can be recognised the chiefs Bunsen's—he deserved them for his of Maharaim, Bethhoron, and Me. own. The Israelites revolted and giddo. quitted the country. The king eg. Here Baron Bunsen closes his caped the waters of the Red Sea, Egyptian history for the present. but an irruption of the Philistines In the short abstract we have offered and the discontent of his subjects we have carefully abstained from forced him to flee into Ethiopia, doing more than give the results of from whence he did not return for his laborious investigations, without thirteen years.
questioning any more than pledging It may perhaps be considered as a ourselves to their accuracy. The corroboration of Holy Writ that he world owes much gratitude to inhad no son to succeed him, but was quirers like him, even should his the last of his family. Ramses III., conclusions be hereafter questioned the first king of the twentieth or disproved. Where authorities dynasty, if a relation at all, was cannot be referred to, as obviously only a distant one. He was a great must be the case in the present in. commander, and for a time restored stance, praise or blame will be of the fallen glory of the nation. The little value; but we cannot but give theatre of his campaigns was Pales. it as our own opinion, that in this tine as far as Phænicia, but they account of the New Empire we see can hardly be considered as more nothing but what is a very fair de. than mere transitory incursions. duction from the premises. They, however, served an important
We fear we cannot say quite the purpose in repressing the power of same with respect to the Baron's the tribes which inhabited that views on Scripture chronology, concountry. While these events were tained in this volume. We have transacting, the Israelites, under not the slightest desire of accusing Joshua, numbering, six hundred any one of impiety or infidelity who thousand men capable of bearing does not happen to believe that arms, were encamped beyond Jor: Noah lived pine hundred and fifty dan, and did not cross that river years, or because he thinks that the till the Egyptians had definitively sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt withdrawn. The list of nations lasted fourteen centuries, but still vanquished by this king is a long the English mind is hardly prepared one. Amongst them may be dis- for such expressions as the followtinguished the Kheta, the Amar, ing :the Pursata, Rabu, the men of Tira, The ordinary chronology, then, we Tuirsa, and Saintana, and the Gai. declare to be devoid of any scientific krui; who may very probably be foundation; the interpretation indeed
by which it is accompanied, when care- Scripture Genealogies. The noble fully investigated, makes the Bible a and reverend author, who, it need tissue of old women's stories and chil
hardly be said, writes in a spirit as dren's tales which contradict each other.
far removed as possible from GerWhen confronted with authentic chronology, it generally leads to impossible tirely independent grounds at very
man neologism, has arrived on enresults. It does not harmonize with anything which historical criticism finds
nearly the same conclusion as the elsewhere, and which it is under the
Baron. He starts from the fact necessity of recognising as established that between Nahshon, Prince of fact. It is, as regards the religious Judah at the time of the Exodus, views of educated persons, the same
and David there were only four thing as the stories in the Vedas about generations-Salmon, Boaz, Obed, the world-tortoise are to those who are Jesse. It is obviously impossible, supposed to believe them--a stone of
he remarks, that there can have stumbling; and it will become more and
been four generations averaging more so every ten years. For it contradicts all reality, and necessitates the
more than a hundred years each ; denial of facts which are as clear as the
still more when we find nearly all sun; or if it does not succeed in that,
the other genealogies of the time to compels them to be passed over alto
contain about the same number of gether as inatters of no moment. In names. • Either, then, the genealocountries where research cannot be pro- gies are defective, or the chronology hibited by the police, or is not punish- is at fault.' We have not space to able by excommunication, this indeed give all the minute circumstances in the long run becomes exceedingly which have led Lord A. Hervey to laughable, but it does not on that ac- the conclusion that the latter is the count cease to be immoral. — Vol. iii.
His manner of treating the
historical part of the book of Judges Though not quite yet, we fear, is even bolder than Baron Bunsen's. unprejudiced enough to believe it to For instance, he considers that be immoral to prefer the literal Othniel and Barak may have been Bible to Baron Bunsen, we are far, cotemporary at one time; and we beg leave to say, from the super- Ehud, Gideon, and Jephthah at anstitious reverence for it with which other, all engaged as independent it has been too much regarded. chieftains in the war of liberation, Romanists and Protestants have and each with his own local his. both erred in this respect. The torian. former treat the sacred volume as Baron Bunsen proceeds in a some Oriental despots have been slightly different manner. Egypt, treated by their ministers, who, according to him, being invaded by while they issued decrees in his the Philistines, was in no condition name, would never allow him to be to molest the Israelites, though they seen by his subjects. The latter marched through countries formerly have, on the other hand, too often subject to it, and the latter acbrought it into discredit, by parad. cordingly reached the left bank of ing it, like a constitutional king, on the Jordan without serious impedithe most trivial occasions, and citing ment. But there they found the it as authority when it was never Hittites too powerful to be attacked; intended for such.
nor was it till Ramses III. had In the outset we must say that broken down their power that Joshua we entirely agree in the change the ventured to cross. His war lasted Baron proposes to make in the re- only five years, and he died in the ceived computation of the time be- twenty-fifth year of his leadership. tween the Exodus and the building The Israelites now enjoyed eighteen of the Temple; which, instead of years of prosperity and indepenlengthening, as might perhaps have dence, till another foe came down been expected, he shortens from
A vast empire was four hundred and eighty or four founded by Ninus in Assyria; and hundred and forty years to about not long afterwards one of its Meso. three hundred and six. We strongly potamian satraps, Chushan Risha. recommend those who are interested thaim, subjugated the whole of Pa. in this topic to read the rery able lestine. His domination did not work by Lord Arthur Hervey, on last more than eight years, but the
Bunsen's Explanation of Scripture Chronology.
rising power of the Israelites re. to the Hebrew Epos' over the ceived such a check that they Hellenic. After this we fear Lord thenceforward had to contend on Arthur Hervey's solution will equal terms with the Pagan tribes appear tame and commonplace ; around them. It is needless to say it being merely that the different that the Baron unhesitatingly re- sheets of contemporaneous and in. jects the terms of forty and eighty dependent histories got mixed, and years for the various rests under their sequence disordered when colthe heroes; and few will doubt that lected at a subsequent period. these numbers merely mean an in- Having dealt thus leniently with definite time, as indeed they do in the Book of Judges, the Baron the East at the present day. He makes amends by the havoc he allows about a hundred and forty- causes in the earlier history of the five years for the contests and de. Pentateuch. The patriarchs fare liverances under Ehud, Deboral, extremely badly at his hands ; their and Abimelech. Tola and the in- ages, nay, even the existence of ferior judges in the north-west he most of them, being dismissed as considers to have been cotemporary merely childish delusions.' with Jair and Jephthah in the None but those who still cling to the south; and by placing the exploits infatuation that Noah and Shem lived of Samson entirely within the forty from six hundred to one thousand years, years allotted
Eli and Sa he have any excuse to offer for such purely arrives at the before-mentioned childish delusions, persistence in which term of three hundred and six years can only be productive of doubt and between the Exodus and the build
unbelief.-P. 340. ing of the Temple.
This solitary heir (Isaac) of the patri
archal emir could not have been at The scheme by which the German
than sixteen when the writer accounts for the discrepancy faithful Eliezer was commissioned to seek of the chronology is so truly cha- a wife for him.-P. 340. racteristic that we must give it at There is no country in which it is so length:
improbable that a man of one hundred I think the best way of meeting this
years old should have a son, as in a land demand, in furtherance of the purpose
of early development like Syria and
Canaan.-p. 341. of this book, is to lay before our readers in a summary manner, the simple idea Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, these which, with all its childlike simplicity,
are allowed to be real personages; is truly sublime and epical. . The but their ages, instead of 175. 180, aim and purpose of the authors (of the and 147, are cut short to 100, 80, sacred narrative) was not to make a and 97. As for the others, they are compilation of the dry annalistic entries
nearly all allegorized away. The of ordinary external events. Their ob
years assigned to Arphaxad, Salah, ject was to bring into notice the guidance of the people of God, from genera
and Heber being somewhat similar, tion to generation. . Hence, as
438, 453, 464, our author boldly might be expected, there sprung up an
considers them to be in fact the Epos which was an intermediate step same number, and to refer to the between Mythos and strict history. It sojourn of the race in the primeval exhibits no trace of the mythological land --- Arra-pakhitis, whence Arfictions which give historical form to phaxad. In the same crucible Salah the idea of the relation between the becomes the Mission,' Heber "the divine and the human. It is this which
Settler, Peleg 'the Partition,' or murks its superiority to every heathen names of erents turned into names Epos, not excepting even altogether the Hellenic. Its basis is historical, exclu.
of men. Reu and Serug are changed
into Rohi and Sarug, districts, we sisely historical ; the shape in which it is composed is exclusively popular epic,
are informed, near what is at preby generations of forty years.---p. 300.
sent Edessa. Lastly, the number
600, which our author finds, we No one can doubt the perfect don't exactly see how, in the ages good faith in which this explanation of both Noah and Shem, is 'the is given, but few readers in this original Chaldaic equation between country will, we hope, be disposed lunar and solar time' (p. 368). to acquiesce in the extremely qua
After this we
can only be too lified superiority which is granted thankful to be spared the discovery
VOL. LX. NO. CCCLV,
that Enoch lived 365 years, and that must have taken 13,500 years to consequently he is Apollo, Hercules, collect. But at this depth of 39 Baal, and every other sun-god in feet, his instrument brought up every heathen Pantheon ; but this fragments of burnt brick and potis perlaps reserved for volume tery, one inch square.* These burnt four.
bricks must have been made by It may possibly be imagined that man, consequently man existed the Baron, having thus demolished
13,500 years ago. Q. E. D. (See the extraordinary longevity assigned Transactions of the Royal Society, to the Patriarchs, and even got rid 1855.) of some of them altogether, is Wonderfully slight data these for disposed to shorten the received so momentous a conclusion. All the chronology, and give a much less annals of circumstantial evidence duration to the sojourn of man upon can produce nothing like this piece the earth than is commonly sup
of burnt brick one inch square. posed. Far from it; for instead of Indeed it proves a little too much. the usual term of less than 6000 There are no old buildings of burnt years, he considers it proved that brick in Egypt now, because the man has existed at least 13,000, and climate does not require them. very probably 20,000. The proofs Consequently, if used there, the of this, founded on that very uncer. climate must have changed. If the tain guide, the theory of language,' climate has changed, what becoines he promises us in his next volume; of the inundation of the Nile mud? but he considers that he has found But, in fact, the whole argument a remarkable corroboration of his rests on the assumption that 13,000 views in Mr. Horner's researches years ago the rate of increase of near Cairo. What this authority Nile mud was exactly the same as amounts to may be stated in a few at present, which it is obviously words, and we leave our readers to impossible, in the present state of judge for themselves. There is a our knowledge, to prove. certain statue of Ramses the Great We must here conclude this short lying near Cairo, and from the notice of Baron Bunsen's third position in which it lies it is com- volume. We have neither space puted that there has been an acen- nor time to notice his remarks on mulation of nine feet four inches of Indian, Chinese, and Bactrian chroNile mud since that statue was nological systems; all of which will erected. Now, Ramses lived, ac- repay perusal by those who are cording to Lepsius, about 1394 B.C., fond of these subjects. We desire consequently some 3245 years ago.
to do all honour to his profound This would give a mean rate of in- learning, his indefatigable industry, crease of deposited mud of about 3} and his genuine religious feeling ; inches a century. Now, close to and can only wish it joined to a the statue, Mr. Horner excavated to little less dogmatism, and somethe depth of 24 feet, and bored 17 what less readiness to believe in any more', the two last of which were idle conjecture which may appear sand. making. 39 feet of mud; to militate against the statements of which, at the above-mentioned rate, Holy Writ.
* It may perhaps be surmised that these pieces of brick, &c. were placed where they were found by the excavators themselves. We, however, entirely disbelieve this. The researches were directed by Hekekyan Sey, one of those remarkable self-taught men who occasionally rise up in the East, and whose attainments and enthusiasm in the pursuit of knowledge form a remarkable rontrast to the ignorance and apathy of those around them. He is well known to many English travellers in Egypt; and none, we think, will believe him capable of any fraud in this matter or any other. He may have been imposed upon by his labourers ; but we should doubt it ever occurring to an uneducated fellah that pieces of brick would have so much significance,
NOTES ON THE NATIONAL DRAMA OF SPAIN.
BY J. R. CHORLEY.
OUTLINES. is not requisite for the purpose gree of the Spanish Drama, from in remote and obscure places, his the cradle of 'mimetic art in the general accuracy is surprising; inMiddle Ages. It would occupy too deed, he will rarely be found in much space to describe the process error on any point of consequence. by which its several elements were This tribute is offered here, not gradually evolved and matured, merely as the acknowledgment until the time was ripe for the which one much indebted to his genius who moulded them into form, guidance is bound to pay, but also and animated that form with a life for the benefit of other students, to which the nation claimed as its own. whom no better instructor can be Our business here is with the recommended. comedy which Lope de Vega planted Referring, therefore, to Ticknor and brought to maturity on the and Von Schack for particulars, I ground prepared by the endeavours may briefly observe that in the of many previous ages. To trace earliest rudiments of a drama in the the rise
and progress of those essays Middle Ages two distinct elements down to the period when the gene- are visible—the religious, fostered tic nisus ended in a new and bril- by the Church, that turned to the liant creation, is the office of the profit of its influence the propensity historian.
inherent in mankind to enliven the That office has been ably fulfilled utterance of their conceptions or by Professor Ticknor; in whose feelings by dialogue and gesture ; History of Spanish Literature,
and the profane, which whether, as chap. 13 to 15, vol. i., and chap. some think, derived by unbroken 7 and 8, vol. ii., will be found an succession from the mimes of the account of the antecedents of the Roman period, or spontaneously national drama, sufficient for general produced by natural causes, must purposes. But those who wish to have been at least as old as the study them in detail must be re- other. Were there not proof, ferred to the first volume of Von which there is, of the early use of Schack's History,* a work to which purely secular shows and mumI owe many obligations. The mings, it might be inferred from author, a man of fine taste, and the recourse of the Church to a learned as well as diligent, was the principle which it did not create, first to unveil to modern eyes the but must have found among the full figure of the Spanish drama, laity: since this is implied by and to do justice to its neglected its effect as an aid to religious poets. The light he throws on all offices. It is therefore erroneous the material parts of his subject is to describe the Church mysteries or invaluable to the student; not less 80 miracle plays as the sole root of the is tls genial criticism with which modern drama. The copious inhe displays its poetic worth. It fusion of profane matter, indeed, in is a book, too, the fidelity of which those sacred exhibitions, would of may be trusted. Considering the itself attest the existence of another, vast extent of the field, which be- which also contributed to its growth. fore him was all but untrodden, It was natural that, in times when
* Geschichte der Dramatischen Kunst und Literatur in Spanien. Von Adolf Friedrich von Schack. 2te Ausgabe. Frankfurt. 1854. I name this second edition, or rather re-issue of the first, because it is enriched by an appendix containing much that is new and important, chiefly obtained from private libraries in Spain, and hitherto unpublished. It is to be regretted that this excellent work bas no index.