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quainted herewith, because a stannary cause is suffered to be prosecuted in that court ; and therefore I am bold to put you in mind thereof, and to pray you to dismiss the same out of the star-chamber, to be tried in the stannaries where it is determinable. And so I humbly take my leave. From my castle at Sherborne, the 2d of May, 1594. Your lordship's most humble at commandment,

WALTER RALEGH. To the Right Honourable my

very good Lord, the lord
keeper of the great seal of

To Sir Robert Cecil. SIR, I am not wise enough to give you advice; but if you take it for a good counsel to relent towards this tyrant, you will repent it when it shall be too late. His malice is fixed, and will not evaporate by any of your mild courses; for he will ascribe the alteration to her majesty's pusillanimity, and not to your good nature, knowing that you


upon her humour, and not out of any love towards him. The less you make him, the less he shall be able to harm you and yours; and if her majesty's favour fail him, he will again decline to a common person. For after-revenges, fear them not; for your own father was esteemed to be the contriver of Norfolk's8 ruin, yet his son h followeth your father's son, and loveth him. Humours of men succeed not, but grow by occasion, and accidents of time and power. Somerseti

& Thomas duke of Norfolk, be- cond wife Anne Stanhope. This Edheaded June 2, 1572.

ward seems to be called Somerset in * Probably bis second son, lord this letter, because he actually enThomas Howard, who was restored joyed for some time that title, as well in blood by an act of parliament, as the lands of his father, as not forand sammoned in 1597 to parliament feited by the crime, for which the by the title of lord Howard of Wal- latter suffered death : but in the sesden. In July 1603 he was created sion of parliament in the fifth and earl of Suffolk, and in July 1614 was sixth years of king Edward VI. there made lord treasurer.

passed an act by the influence of i Edward Seymour, son of the pro- John Dudley, duke of Northumber. tector duke of Somerset, by his se- land, by which this Edward Seymour

made no revenge on the duke of Northumberland's heirs. Northumberland k, that now is, thinks not of Hatton's! issue. Kelloway lives, that murdered the brother of Horsey; and Horsey let him go by all his lifetime. I could name a thousand of those; and therefore after-fears are but prophecies, or rather conjectures, from causes remote: look to the present, and you do wisely. His son shall be the youngest earl of England but one, and if his father be now kept down, Will. Cecil m shall be able to keep as many men at his heels as he, and more too. He may also match in a better house than his, and so that fear is not worth the fearing. But if the father continue, he will be able to break the branches, and pull up the tree, root and all. Lose not your advantage ; if you do, I read your destiny.

Let the queen hold Bothwelln while she hath him; he will ever be the canker of her estate and safety. Princes are lost by security, and preserved by prevention. I have seen the last of her good days and all ours after his liberty.

Yours, &c.

WALTER RALEGH. was deprived of his titles and lands. given to the earl of Essex by sir However, queen Elizabeth, in the Walter Ralegh from Francis Stuart, first year of her reign, created liim earl of Bothwell, son of John Stuart, earl of Hertford.

one of the natural sons of king James k Henry Percy, earl of Northum-' V. of Scotland. This earl, who had berland, son of that earl Henry, who been created so by king James VI. being imprisoned in the Tower on a and likewise made lord admiral of charge of being in a conspiracy with Scotland, not thinking that he had the Guises for invading England, and the power at court which his birth setting free the queen of Scots, was and place deserved, joined with the found, June 21, 1585, dead in his popish lords, who bad been banished, bed, shot with three bullets under bis and afterwards occasioned much tronleft pap; the verdict of the coroner's ble during that king's reign. He was inquest being, that he bad killed him. first condemned for treason 24 May self: but the Roman catholics, ac- 1589; and that sentence was renewed cording to Camden, cast some suspi- in 1591. After this be made two secion upon a servant of sir Christo. veral attempts upon the king, one at pher Hatton, which servant had been Holyrood-house, and the other at charged with the custody of the earl Falkland; but was soon after parjust before his death.

doned for all his offences in 1593. I Sir Christopher Hatton dying Notwithstanding which he was imme20 November 1591, unmarried, left diately again declared rebel; wherehis nephew by his sister sir William upon he raised a small army, and Newton bis beir, who took the name fought the king on the Borrow-muir of Hatton.

Dear Edinburgh : but being obliged m William, only son of sir Robert to retire, fled to England, from Cecil, and afterwards earl of Salis- whence he went to France, and afterbury.

wards to Naples, where he died about • This name seems to have been December 1012.

To Prince Henry. MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HIGHNESS, The following sheets are addressed to your highness, from a man who values his liberty and a very small fortune, in a remote part of this island, under the present constitution, above all the riches and honours that he could anywhere enjoy under any other establishment. You see, sir, the doctrines that are lately come into the world, and how far the phrase has obtained of calling your royal father God's vicegerent; which ill men have turned both to the dishonour of God, and the impeachment of his majesty's goodness. They adjoin the vicegerency to the idea of being all-powerful, and not to that of being all-good. His majesty's wisdom, it is to be hoped, will save him from the snare that may lie under gross adulations; but your youth, and the thirst of praise which I have observed in you, may possibly mislead you to hearken to these charmers, who would conduct your noble nature into tyranny. Be careful, O my prince, hear them not, fly from their deceits! You are in the succession to a throne from whence no evil can be imputed to you, but all good must be conveyed by you. Your father is called the vicegerent of Heaven. While he is good he is the vicegerent of Heaven. Shall man have authority from the fountain of good to do evil? No, my prince, let mean and degenerate spirits, which want benevolence, suppose their power impaired by a disability of doing injuries. If want of power to do ill be an incapacity in a prince, with reverence be it spoken, it is an incapacity he has in common with the Deity.

Let me not doubt but all plans which do not carry in them the mutual happiness of prince and people, will appear as absurd to your great understanding, as disagreeable to your noble nature.

Exert yourself, O generous prince, against such sycophants, in the glorious cause of liberty; and assume an ambition worthy of you, to secure your fellow-creatures from slavery; from a condition as much below that of brutes, as to act without reason is less miserable than to act against it! Preserve to your future subjects the divine right of being free-agents, and to your own royal house the divine right of being their benefactors. Believe me, my prince, there is no other right can flow from God. While your highness is forming yourself for a throne, consider the laws as so many common places in your study of the science of government. When you mean nothing but justice, they are an ease and help to you. This way of thinking is what gave men the glorious appellatives of deliverers and fathers of their country. This made the sight of them rouse their beholders into acclamations, and made mankind incapable of bearing their very appearance without applauding it as a benefit. Consider the inexpressible advantages which will ever attend your highness, while you make the power of rendering men happy the measure of your actions. While this is your impulse, how easily will that power be extended! The glance of your eye will give gladness, and your every sentence have the force of a bounty. Whatever some men would insinuate, you have lost your subject when you have lost his inclination; you are to preside over the minds, not the bodies of men. The soul is the essence of a man; and you cannot have the true man against his inclination. Choose therefore to be the king or the conqueror of your people; it may be submission, but it cannot be obedience, that is passive.

I am,

Your Highness' most faithful servant,

August 12, 1611.

• See Steele's Englishman, a sequel as sir Richard seems to have been, to the Guardian, 12mo. 1714. p.9. I that this letter is justly ascribed to am not, however, so well convinced, Ralegh. CAYLEY.






You shall receive many relations, but none more true than this. May it please your honour therefore to know, that on Sunday, being the 20th of June, the English fleet came to anchor in the bay of St. Sebastian, short of Cales half a league. My lord admiral, being careful of her majesty's ships, had resolved with the earl of Essex that the town should be first attempted; to the end that both the Spanish galleons and galleys, together with the forts of Cales, might not all at once beat upon our navy. Myself was not present at the resolution; for I was sent the day before toward the main, to stop such as might pass out from St. Lucar, or Cales, along the coast. When I was arrived back again, (which was two hours after the rest,) I found the earl of Essex disembarking his soldiers; and he had put many companies into boats, purposing to make his descent on the west side of Cales; but such was the greatness of the billows, by reason of a forcible southerly wind, as the boats were ready to sink at the stern of the earl; and indeed divers did so, and in them some of the armed men: but because it was formerly resolved, (and that to cast doubts would have been esteemed an effect of fear,) the earl purposed to go on, until such time as I came aboard him, and in the presence of all the colonels protested against the resolution; giving him reasons, and making apparent demonstrations that he thereby ran the way of our general ruin, to the utter overthrow of the whole armies,

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