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Courts of justice, with due execution of the same in a city, do much enable and enlarge and enrich it; for it fasteneth a great liking in a city to virtuous men, and such as be wealthy, that therein they may be free and in safety from the violence of the oppressions of covetous and wicked men ; and there will be rather resort thither to inhabit, or traffick there, as occasions may minister unto them. And many others that have cause of suit will repair thither, where they may be sure to find judgment and justice duly executed, whereby the city must needs be enlarged and enriched : for our lives, and all that ever we have, are in the hands of justice, so that if justice be not administered amongst men, in vain is there any society and commerce, nor any other thing can be profitable or safe ; so much is love and charity failed, and iniquity increased upon the face of the earth.

The excellency and multitude likewise of artificers exercising their manual arts and trades, do marvellously increase and enrich a state, whereof some are necessary, some commodious for a civil life, other some are of pomp and ornament, and other some of delicacy and curiosity, whereof doth follow concourse of people that labour and work, and current money which doth enrich and supply materials for labourers and workmen, buying and selling, transportation from place to place, which doth employ and increase the artificious and cunning parts of the wit of man; and this art and exquisiteness of workmanship and skill is so powerful herein, that it far excels the simple commodities and materials that nature produceth, and is alone sufficient of itself to make a city or state both magnificent and glorious : and the daily experience we have in these our days, and in former times, doth manifestly approve the same, and make evident without all contradiction.

Some natural benefits that a city also may have for the excellency of art, or workmanship of some special commodities above any other place, either through the quality of the water, or other matter whatsoever, or some hidden mystery of the inhabitants in working thereof, may be a great help for the enlargement and enriching of a city.



The command of a country that affordeth some proper commodity is of itself sufficient mightily to bring a city to great wealth, and to advance it to great power, and draweth thereby dependency and concourse, much advantageous also, as well for the public weal as the private person.

A city also may be lord of much merchandise and traffick, by means of the commodious situation to many nations, to whom it serveth and hath relation, as warehouses, roomth, and storehouses, by reason whereof the nations adjoining do use to resort thereunto to make their provisions of such things. And this consisteth in the largeness of the ports, the fitness of the gulphs and creeks of the seas, in the navigable rivers and channels, and the plain and safe ways that lead to the city, or that come or turn by and near it.

Privilege and freedom from customs and exactions doth greatly increase the trade, and draw inhabitants to a city, whereby the same may become both rich and powerful; whereof the marts and fairs and markets bear good witness, which are frequented with great concourse of people, tradesmen, and merchants, for no other respect, but that they are there free and frank from customs and exactions. And the cities in Flanders are lively testimonies hereof, where the customs are very small.

By reason whereof all such as have erected new cities in times past, to draw concourse of people unto it, have granted large immunities and privileges, at the least to the first inhabitants thereof.

The like have they done that have restored cities emptied with plague, consumed with wars, or afflicted with famine, or some other scourge of God. In respect whereof freedom of cities hath been often granted to such as would with their families inhabit there, or would bring corn and other necessaries for provision of victual.

The Romans, to increase their cities, made the towns that well deserved of them (which they after called municipia) to be partakers of their franchises and privileges.

The first means the Romans used to allure people to make their habitations rather in Rome than elsewhere, was

the opening the sanctuary, and giving liberty and freedom to all that would come unto them. In respect whereof there flocked thither, with their goods, numbers of people that were either racked with exactions, thrust out of their habitations, or unsafe, or unsure for their lives in their own countries for religion sake.

The very same reason in a manner hath increased so much the city of Geneva: forasmuch as it hath offered entertainment to all comers out of France and Italy, that have either forsaken or been exiled their countries for religion sake.

Likewise triumphs, goodly buildings, battles on the water, sights of sword-players, hunting of wild beasts, public shows and sights, plays solemnized with great pomp and preparation, and many other such things, draw the curious people to a city inspeakably; which leave behind them much treasure, and for such cause will rather settle themselves to inhabit there than in other places. This was also the device of Rome in her infancy to enlarge herself.

The causes that concern the magnificency of a city. TO confirm a city in her greatness, justice, peace, and plenty are the undoubted means: for justice assureth every man his own; peace causeth all arts and negotiations whatsoever to flourish ; and plenty of food and victual, that sustaineth the life of man, with ease and much contentment. To conclude, all those things that cause the greatness of a city are also fit to conserve the same.


The sceptic doth neither affirm, neither deny any position ;

but doubteth of it, and opposeth his reasons against that

which is affirmed or denied, to justify his not consenting. His first reason ariseth from the consideration of the great difference amongst living creatures, both in the matter and manner of their generations, and the several constitutions of their bodies.

Some living creatures are by copulation, and some without it: and that either by fire, as crickets in furnaces; or corrupt water, as gnats; or slime, as frogs; or dirt, as worms; or herbs, as cankerworms; some of ashes, as beetles; some of trees, as the worm psenas, bred in the wild fig-tree; some of living creatures putrified, as bees of bulls, and wasps of horses. By copulation many creatures are brought forth alive, as man; some in the egg, as birds; some in an unshapen piece of flesh, as bears. These great differences cannot but cause a diverse and contrary temperament and

quality in those creatures, and consequently a great diversity in their fancy and conceit; so that though they apprehend one and the same object, yet they must do it after a diverse manner; for is it not absurd to affirm, that creatures differ so much in temperature, and yet agree in conceit concerning one and the same object ?

But this will more plainly appear, if the instruments of sense in the body be observed: for we shall find, that as these instruments are affected and disposed, so doth the imagination conceit that which by them is connexed unto it. That very object which seemeth unto us white, unto them which have the jaundice seemeth pale, and red unto those whose eyes are bloodshot. Forasmuch then as living crea

tures have some white, some pale, some red eyes, why should not one and the same object seem to some white, to some red, to some pale? If a man rub his


the figure of that which he beholdeth seemeth long or narrow; is it then not likely, that those creatures which have a long and slanting pupil of the eye, as goats, foxes, cats, &c. do convey the fashion of that which they behold under another form to the imagination than those that have round pupils do?

Who knoweth not that a glass presenteth the outward object smoother or greater according to the making of the glass? If it be hollow, the object seemeth smaller than it is; if the glass be crooked, then the object seemeth long and narrow. And glasses there be which present the head of him that looketh in them downwards, and the heels upwards. Now then seeing the eye, which is the instrument of sight, in some living creatures is more outward, in some more hollow, in some plain, in some greater, in some less ; it is very probable that fishes, men, lions, and dogs, whose eyes so much differ, do not conceive the selfsame object after the same manner, but diversely, according to the diversity of the eye which offereth it unto the fancy.

The same reason holdeth in touching; for seemeth it not absurd to think, that those creatures which are covered with shells, those which are covered with scales, and those which are covered with hairs»ind those which are smooth, should all be alike sensible in touching; and every one of them convey the image or quality of the same object which they touch in the very same degree of heat or cold, of dryness or moisture, roughness or smoothness, unto the imagination ?

So might it be shewed in hearing: for how can we think that the ear which hath a narrow passage and the ear which hath an open and wide passage do receive the same sound in the same degree? or that the ear whose inside is full of hair doth hear in the same just measure that the ear doth whose inside is smooth ? since experience sheweth, that if we stop, or half stop our ears, the sound cometh not to us in the same manner and degree that it doth if our ears

be open.

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