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before. Thus, with the universal gratulation of his subjects, he came into Scotland, to possess the kingdom. It is true, the memory of his parents was of great force to procure him the favour of the people; yet his own virtue was such, that he stood in need of no adventitious help: for, as in other virtues he equalled other good kings, so in his condescension to hear the causes of the poor, he was much superior to them. As for the complaints of the rich, he heard them himself; and if a false judgment had been given, he would not set it aside, but compelled the judge himself to pay the damages awarded. He restrained luxury, which then began to spread, according to the example of his father. He banished Epicures, and such as studied arts to provoke the appetite, out of the kingdom. He far exceeded the beneficence of his parents and kindred, which were worthy rather of pardon than praise, in increasing the revenues of the church. He repaired monastries, whether decayed by age, or ruined by the wars; and he also built new ones from the ground. To the six bishopricks which he found, he added four more; Ross, Brechin, Dunkeld, and Dumblain. He almost impoverished the succeeding kings, to endow them; for he bestowed upon them a great part of the crown-lands. John Mair, who, when I was but a youth, was famous for his Theological studies, having highly praised this king for his other actions, yet he blames his profuse lavishness in endowing monastries, in a solemn (and I wish it had been an undeferved) oration. And I the more wonder at

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this immoderate profusion of the publick money and patrimoney, because, in those very times, St. Barnard sharply reproves the priests and monks in his severe sermons, for their excessive luxury and expence; which yet, if compared with that of our age, seems but moderate. The fruits which followed these donations, shew, that the design was not wellgrounded: for as in bodies too corpulent, the use of all the members ceases; fo the sparks of wit, oppressed by luxury, languished in the abbies. The study of learning was quite left off, piety degenerated into superstition, and the seeds of all vices sprung up in them, as in an uncultivated field. All the time of his reign he had but one domestick commotion; and that was rather a tumult, than a civil war; and it was quickly ended, in the slaughter of Æneas Earl of Murray, with a great number of his followers. Malcolm Macbeth, endea. vouring to raise a new fedition, was commit. ted prisoner to the castle of Roxburgh.' 0ther matters succeeded according to his desire: but yet a double calamity fell upon him; onefrom the untimely death of his wife; the other of his son. As for his wife Maud, she was a woman of high descent, of exquisite beauty, and most accomplished manners: he loved her passionately whilft she lived.; and the loss of her, in the flower of her age, did ro affect him, that, for twenty years after, he lived a widower, neither did he touch any other woman all that while; and yet the greatness of his sorrow was no hinderance to him from managing the publiek offices andconcerns both of peace and war.

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DAVID

DAVID thus addicted himself to the arts of peace; but some troublesome matters in England, drew him unwillingly into a war. The occasion was this: All the offspring of Henry of England, except his daughter Maud, were drowned in their passage from France into England; which misfortune fo grieved him, that, it is reported, he was never seen to

laugh after that time. Maud, who ‘only fur· vived, and escaped that calamity, married the Emperor Henry IV. Her Husband dying, without children, the returned into England to her father. He was willing to settle the succeflion on her; and in order to it, because the was a widow and childless, and considering his own mortality, he caused all the nobility to fwear an oath of fealty to her; and, in hopes that she might have children, he married her to Geoffry Plantagenet, Earl of Anjou. Five years after that marriage, Robert Duke of Normandy and King Henry died; and Geoffry of Anjou falling into a dangerous disease, lay bed-rid.

In the mean time, Stephen Earl of Bologne, in this want of royal issue, took heart to assume the crown of England; neither did he look upon it as a design of any great difficulty, both by reason of the weakness of the adverse party, and also because he himself had fome royal blood running in his veins; for he was born of a daughter of William the Norman, which had married the Earl of Bloys. He himself had also married Maud, daughter of the former Earl of Bologne, and cousingerman to Maud the Empress, and born of Mary, sister to David King of Scotland. Upon

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the confidence of so great alliancēs, by reason of the absence of Maud the Queen, and the ficha ness of Geoffry, he thought he might easily obo tain the crown of England. And to make his way clearer, without any confcience or regard of his oath, which he and the other kindred had taken to Queen Maud, he drew in, by great promises, the bishops of England, who had also taken the same oath, into his unlawful design; and especially Turftan Archbishop of York, who was the first that swore allegiance to: Queen Maud;, and Roger Bishop of Salisbury,, who had not only taken the oath himself, but. had also read the words of it to the other nobles when they took it..

Upon this confidence, even before his uncle Henry was buried, he stept into the throne,. and the two first years reigned peaceably ea. nough; whereupon, growing infolent, he bee. gan to neglect his agreement made with the English, and also to deal arrogantly with his: neighbours. After he had compelled all the - English, partly by feary, and partly by fair, promiles, to take an oath of allegiance to him, he sent anbefadors to David King of Scots, to put him in mind ton take the same oath, for the counties of Cumberland, Nor-thumberland, and Huntington, which he held of him. David returned answer, that he, to.. gether with Stephenr himself, and the other nobles of England; had, not long since, bound themselves by an oathi to obey Maud, their lawful Queen ; and that he ought not; nor would acknowledge any other monareh, as long as Die was alive. When this answer was brought "Lo Stephen, prefently a war began. The En

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glish entered upon the adjacent Scots, with fire and sword; the Scots doing as much for them. The next year an army of Scots, under the conduct of the Earls of March, of Monteith, and of Angus, entered England, and met the English at the town of Allerton, whose General was the Earl of Gloucester. A sharp battle was there fought, with equal flaughter on both sides, as long as both armies stood to it. At last the English being overthrown, many perished in the flight, and many of the nobility were taken prisoners; amongst whom was the Earl of Gloucester himself. Stephen, very much concerned at this overthrow, and fear. ing it might otherwise alienate from him the affections of the friends and kindred of the captive nobles, refused no conditions of peace. The terms were these : “ That the English pri"foners should be released without ransom: " that Stephen should quit the claim which, as Chief Lord, he pretended to have aver Cum“ berland.” But Stephen observed those conditions no better than he did the oath formerly taken to Maud, his kinswoman : for before the armies were quite disbanded, and the prisoners released, he privately surprised some castles in Northumberland, and, by driving away booties from the Scots countries, renewed the war. The Scots gathering a sudden army together of the neighbouring provinces, and, despising the English, whom they had overthrown in battle the self-fame year, run rafhly on to the conflict at the river Teise ; where they paid for their folly of undervaluing the enemy, and received a signal overthrow; they were likewise compelled to quit Northumberland.

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