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votary to the gods, who had brought him safe through so many perils.
One part of the spoils he had gained, he bestowed in building a noble temple to Diana, after the model of that of Ephesus. The ftatue of that goddess was of ebony, and ex• actly like the golden one at Ephesus, and was to be seen in Pausanias's time. The temple was built in the midst of a forest, watered by the river Helene; and at the entrance of it were inscribed these words, Territory confecrated to Diana. He likewise ordered annual facrifices to her; and, on the day appointed for that festival, the tenths of the product
of that territory were offered to the goddels; · and the rest were performed with the greatest
ceremony, a vast concourse of people attending; the edifice being on the high-road between Sparta and Olyinpia, and about twenty ftades from the temple of Jupiter Olympius. So that this grand feast, which was also preceeded with a general hunting of the Sciluntines, and other neighbouring towns, and with other marks of joy, seems designed, by its founder, as a perpetual monument of this glorious retreat. His sons usually assisted at the hunting; and it was on their account that he wrote his two treatises of hunting and horsemanship ; in which he endeavours to in. culcate the beauty and virtue of making our delights subservient to religion, of which all his writings shew his heart to have been full.
Thus ended this noble expedition, which our author concludes in the following words: “ The whole of the way, both of the pupalt; “ tion and retreat, consisted of two hundrea
" and fifteen days march, of eleven hundred “ and fifty five parasangs, and of thirty four “ thousand six hundred and fifty ftades; and " the time employed in both, of a year and of three months.”
A fuccin&t account of the dreadful perfecution the Jews underwent at Alexandria, and of Philo's embally to the Emperor Caius -Caligula. -. THIS. dreadful persecution happened in the
1 2d year of the Emperor Caligula's reign, and 39th of the Christian æra, while Egypt was governed by a Roman knight, nanied Avillius Flaccus, to whose base connivance it was chiefly owing. Flaccus had governed that province with great reputation, during the five last years of the reign of Tiberius, who had a particular value and kindness for him. But, up. on the death of that prince, and the accellion of Caligula to the empire, he changed his conduct, grew remiss in the administration of justice, and made it his whole study .to gain the affections of the people of Alexandria ; hoping, by that means, to recommend himself to the favour of the new Emperor, whose reTentment he dreaded ; and, indeed, not without reason ; for he was no friend to the fami. ly of Germanicus: and was generally thought to have contributed to the disgrace' and death of Agrippina, the mother of Caligula. Three crafty Egyptians, Dionysius, Lampo, and Ilidorus, who had been declared enemies to Flaccus, while he ruled with due severity, being ap
prised prised of his fears, remonstrated to him, under colour of friendship, that the sureft means of winning the hearts of the Alexandrians, was to withdraw his protection from the Jews, of whom many thousands lived in Alexandria, and to abandon them to the mercy of the Egyptians, who had ever borne an irreconcileable hatred to the Jewish nation. This counsel Flaccus readily embraced; well knowing, that it would not displease the Emperor, whose hatred the Jews had provoked, by refusing to acknowledge his pretended divinity. Besides, Flaccus was, of himself, it seems, m friend to the Jewish nation : for that people having the year before, in the first month of Caligula's reign, decreed him all the honours which were consistent with their religion, and consigned the decree to Flaccus, that, by his means, it might be conveyed to the Emperor, he, instead of transmitting it to Rome, as he promised to do, suppressed it; which was doing them the greatest unkindness imaginable, and drawing upon them the resentment of a cruel and ambitious prince. .
In the mean time, Agrippa, who had been set at liberty by Caligula, and declared King of the tetrarchy, which his uncle Philip had held, with the addition of that of Lylanias, arriving from Rome at Alexandria, on his journey to his new kingdom, was insulted by the populace of that metropolis in a most outragious manner; though, to avoid the concourse of people, he had entered the city by night. As Flaccus winked at these insults, instead of restraining them, the rabble grew more outragious; and, assembling in crowds,
began, with great tumult and uproar, to de mand, that the statues of Caius might be placed in the Jewish oratories, or places of prayer; of which there were many in Alexandria, and all over Egypt. Flaccus not offering to oppose, but seeming rather to approve the design, the rabble thronged immediately to the oratories, cut down the groves and trees about them, levelled some of them with the ground, and set fire to others; which, together with the oratories, consumed several noble monuments erected by the emperors in honour of the Jews, and a great many ad. joining houses. Such oratories as the rioters could not demolish, because the Jews, who lived near them, were very numerous, they prophaned, by placing in them the Emperor's. Statues. In the largest of them all, they erected a statue of brass, reprefenting Caius in a chariot drawn by four horses, which had been formerly consecrated to Cleopatra, the great grandmother of the last queen of that name. They did not, as Philo observes, thew great respect for Gaius, in dedicating to him what had been formerly dedicated to a woman. But the merit, on which they laid the chief stress, was their increasing the number of temple: consecrated to his pretended deity; though, even in that, they did not so much regard his honour, as the fatisfying their own hatred to the Jews. The Alexandrians took care to acquaint the Emperor with the transactions of each day, who is said to have read their ace: counts with incredible satisfaction, partly be. cause he hated the Jews, and partly because he believed the Alexandrians chiefly actuated, - Q2
in afflicting the Jews, by a fincere zeal for his honour. The example of Alexandria was followed by all the other cities of Egypt; in which province there were at this time a million of Jews, and a vast number of oratories, of which the largest and most beautiful were styled fynagogues : all which were either des molished, or consumed by fire, or profaned with the Emperor's statues.
A few days after the Jews had been thus Aript of their oratories, Flaccus published an edict, declaring all the Jews aliens at Alexandria, without allowing them time to make good their claim to the rights of citizens, which they had long enjoyed undisturbed. The Jews, who were never famous for bearing in. juries with patience, when they could prevent or revenge them, made, in all likelihood, some efforts towards the maintaining of their rights; which, though Philo has not thought fit to mention, gave, probably, occasion to greater disorders. For the Alexandrians, considering them as men abandoned by the Emperor to their mercy, laid hold of this opportunity to vent their rage upon a people whom they had ever abhorred, and looked upon as enemies to the rest of mankind. The city of Alexan. dria was at that time divided into five quare ters, which took their names from the first five letters of the alphabet. In each of thele fome Jews dwelt; but two were almost entirely peopled by them, and thence called the quarters of the Jews. They were, therefore, by the outragious multitude, violently driven out of all the other parts of the city, and cona fined to one quarter ; the houses from which