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1 CHAP. IX.

II’NSURRECTION 1N SCOTLAND.—— PARLIAMENT DISSOLVED-
— EXECUTION OF LANGHORNE. -- TRIAL OF SIR G-
WAKEMAN.— KING’S ILLNESS. -—— RETURN OF THE DUKE
OF YORK.—DISGRACE OF MONMOUTH AND SHAFTES-
BURY- —- PROROGATION OF PARLIAMENT. —- MEAL-TUB
-PLOT.—-RETIREMENT OF ESSEX AND HALIFAX.—-THEIR
CHARACTERS. — PETITIONS FOR THE MEETING OF PAR-
LIAMENT. —- ABHORRING ADDRESSES. — WHIGS AND
TORIES.— CHARACTER OF THE PARTIES SO CALLED.

IN the spring of the year 1679, the insurrection which is known by the name of the rising of Bothwell Bridge, broke out in Scotland. In the first encounter with the insurgents, which happened at London Hill, Captain Graham, afterwards celebrated as Viscount Dundee, was defeated. When this news was communicated to the council, Lord Russell stood up and began a speech, saying, “' he was so far from wondering that this trouble happened now, that be rather wondered it did not happen long ago, since His Majesty thought fit to retain incendiaries near his person, and in his very council.” Upon which the Duke of Lauderdale, seeing that be

May 29.

June 2.

, was aimed at, and recollecting the parliamentary

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At the time of the Restoration, it became a question at court, whether prelacy should be reestablished in Scotland. Lauderdale, whose sufferings, abilities, and knowledge of his mum trymen, gave weight to his opinion, advised, that the Presbyterian form of church government should be continued, as more congenial to ‘the religious opinions of the nation. But Clarendon and Middleton advised the restoration of prelacy,

1* North Ex. p. 79.

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in conformity to their own prejudices and the policy of the King’s father. Unhappily their counsel prevailed. Middleton, who was sent down as King’s commissioner, obtained from an obsequious parliament, not only the measures which had been proposed at court, but an act annulling the four parliaments which had sate since the-year 1633. The bishops, too, were restored, not as they had been during the reign of Charles the First, subject to the controul of a presbytery and synod, but invested with supreme and exclusive jurisdiction in ecclesiastical affairs. All ministers who refused or neglected to secure induction from a bishop were displaced. Three hundred and fifty clergymen were in this manner ejected from their livings. But the people, sincerely attached to the presbyterian worship, followed'their pastors, and as they had not houses large enough to hold their congregations, conventicles were held in the open fields. The lukewarm and irregular behaviour of the new clergy tended to promote the secession of their flocks. Upon this proof of the determined spirit of the people, the severities of the government were increased. By an order of the privy council, the ejected clergy were forbidden to approach within twenty miles of their former parishes; declared sedi

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tious if they attempted to preach ', and all those

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who presumed to give them subsistence, subjected to the same penalties. And although Middleton was soon afterwards supplanted by Lauderdale, these acts were confirmed, and others still moresevere added by the parliament which be assembled. On separation or absence from the parish church, the penalty for landholders was the forfeiture of a fourth part of their rents ; for citizens the loss of a fourth part of their substance, the freedom of their corporations, and the privilege of trade; besides which, all were made liable to whatever corporal punishment the privy council might choose‘to inflict. The severity of these laws was exceeded by the rigour of their execution. An ecclesiastical commission went round the country, bound by no form of law, and filling the gaols with those who refused to take the oath of supremacy. In the western counties, a military persecution was introduced, and the recusants were ruined by fines arbitrarily imposed, and the still more indefinite exactions of the 'soldiery. After three years’ continuance of extreme oppression, the. people were driven into an insurrection, but their force was easily beaten and dispersed on the Pentland hills. Frequent executions, oftenqpreceded by torture, took place on thatoccasion, both in Edinburgh and the country, till an order arrived

1666.

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