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inscribe any new notions they pleased. On the contrary, their minds are completely preoccupied and powerfully influenced by principles of thinking and reasoning derived from their own venerated writers, and grounded on the ancient sacred writings, the Vedas, which they regard as inspired. Any teacher, therefore, who would make himself thoroughly intelligible to such men, and would venture to indulge the hope of bringing them to take any real interest in the truths of European science, must study the systems in which they take a pride; must distinguish between the truth and the error contained in their speculations; must recognise and appreciate the former, while he attempts to overcome and neutralise the latter; and will act wisely if he takes the many truths which are embodied in the Indian theories as the starting-point and basis of the new truths, scientific or religious, which he wishes to communicate to the learned Indians. These are the enlightened principles by which Dr Ballantyne has been guided in his endeavours to introduce the science and learning of Europe to the notice of the students of Sanscrit.

In pursuance of this object, he has judged it expedient first of all to bring to light the principles of the six orthodox systems of Hindu philosophy, by publishing (with translations) either some of those brief Sanscrit treatises in which they are expounded, or the introductory portion at least of those more detailed aphorisms in which the different systems are authoritatively explained. Simultaneously with his labours in this department, which are still proceeding, he has been endeavouring to apply in practice the knowledge thus acquired. Finding that of the six systems of philosophy the principles of the Nyaya are the most reasonable, he has taken it as the basis of a Synopsis of science, which he has published in English and Sanscrit, for the purpose of initiating Sanscrit students in the whole circle of European knowledge, physical and moral. The Indian system in question does not, however, appear prominently after the introductory chapter, and the bulk of the work is devoted to a summary exposition of western science. This work has the great advantage of being not only accurately, but scientifically rendered into Sanscrit. The author's researches, aided by the skill and knowledge of the firstrate native scholars by whom he is surrounded, have enabled him to make use of the proper technical terms existing in the Sanscrit writers, in all cases where they have treated of the particular subjects under consideration. The translation is not a literal one, which would be of little value, and nearly unintelligible to native scholars. It professes to do no more than employ equivalent terms and expressions, and this it does in a peculiar idiomatic way. The book is thus cast in a peculiarly Indian mould.

The work named at the head of this paper, which obtained the moiety of a prize offered some years ago for the best refutation of

the Hindu philosophy, and the best demonstration of the fundamental truths of Christian theism, may be regarded as a continuation of the "Synopsis of Science" above described. The position of the author, as head of a government college in which Christianity is not allowed to be openly inculcated, prevented him from introducing that subject into his Synopsis. In the present publication, that deficiency is in some measure supplied. It is a work of remarkable ability and interest, the production of a man gifted with great clearness of view and much speculative ac ness. We have here the first attempt which has been made to reason with the learned Hindus in the technical language of their own philosophy, the most essential parts of the book being accompanied with a version into idiomatic Sanscrit. In thus succinctly presenting the principles of our apologetic theology, together with the truths of Christianity, in the scholastic forms to which the Indian Pandits are accustomed, Dr Ballantyne has asserted a new claim on their attention, and has taken possession of ground which none of our professional missionaries has yet been able to occupy. The plan of the treatise is as follows:

We have first an introduction, in which the author inculcates the necessity of delicacy and address in all cases where interference with long-established religious opinions is attempted, the duty of abstaining from rude assaults, and the expediency of paying attention to the learned class, and generally of practising conciliation. Proceeding on the opinion that speculative error may often be allowed to lie dormant, and be neutralised, or even superseded, by sound practical principles, without being directly redargued, the author adds the very judicious remark, that a primary refutation of Hinduism is not necessarily required for the propagation of Christianity. And yet the missionary should always possess such a knowledge of the tenets which he is seeking to overthrow as may enable him most effectually to adapt his lessons to the peculiar tendencies and wants of those whom he is seeking to convert. The writer then supplies a brief but lucid account of the fundamental tenets of the three principal systems of Indian philosophy, the Nyaya, the Sankhya, and the Vedanta, which may be roughly characterised as the Theistical, the Atheistical, and the Pantheistic systems. He next proceeds, in five books-headed respectively, (1.) A Partial Exposition of Christian Doctrine; (2.) The Evidences of Christianity; (3.) Natural Theology; (4.) Of the Mysterious Points of Christianity; and (5.) The Analogy of Religion to the Constitution and Course of Nature-to argue the truth of Christianity as a Divine revelation, grounded on miracles and prophecy, and supported by analogy; and to deduce from its truth, so established, the falsity of any of the dogmas of Indian philosophy, atheistic or pantheistic, which are inconsistent with its funda

NEW SERIES.-VOL. XI. NO. I.-JAN. 1860.

M

mental principles. It is the author's opinion that reason, left to itself, would conduct the inquirer to Pantheism, as the most probable theory of Universal Being; and he is therefore compelled to ground his refutation of that system on its inconsistency with the theistic principles inculcated by the Christian revelation, whose truth he has first sought to demonstrate. Though, however, this is the principal process applied by the author for the refutation of Hindu errors, he also urges the difficulties suggested against Pantheism by consciousness and reason; and argues against the necessity for admitting the practical inferences drawn by the Hindu teachers from their Pantheistic philosophy, even though the principles of that philosophy were admitted, or at least left in dubio.

We shall not attempt to discuss the momentous question here raised by the author, viz., Whether or not philosophical speculation necessarily issues in Pantheism; and whether, if it did so, we could have any basis left from which we could establish the truth of Christianity. This opinion is common to our author with the clergy of France, who of late years have been urging against the Spiritualist philosophers of that country, that there is no middle point between the Church and Pantheism. The maintainers of this view have lately been answered by a distinguished French metaphysician, M. Emile Saisset, who endeavours to prove the reverse of Dr Ballantyne's proposition, and to show that, on the contrary, philosophical speculation leads to a belief in one supreme, personal, intelligent, and righteous Creator and Governor of the universe.

Dr Ballantyne begins his preface by professing that his work is "but an imperfect sketch of what the writer would wish to offer as a help to the missionary among the learned Hindus. Many topics which might advantageously receive full treatment are here scarcely more than indicated." This is a correct account of his book, when compared with that complete discussion of the subject which we ought to have. It is evidently nothing more than an outline of the subject, and a brief specimen of what the author is capable of producing; and we trust that he may be able to carry out what he proposes, viz., to continue his work, and to expand this imperfect sketch into a full and exhaustive discussion of the important subject-matter.

The volume concludes with an Appendix of notes and dissertations, more or less closely connected with its central subject, which will all amply repay perusal.

Popular Tables, arranged in a new form, giving information at sight for ascertaining, according to the Carlisle Table of Mortality, the value of Lifehold, Leasehold, and Church Property, Renewal Fines, &c., the Public Funds, Annual Average Price and Interest on Consols from 1731 to 1858; also, various interesting and useful Tables, equally adapted to the office and the library table. By CHARLES M. WILLICH, Actuary and Secretary to the University Life Assurance Society. Fourth Edition. 1859. Pp. 192. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.

In size little more than that of a pocket volume, Mr Willich presents to the public a fourth edition of his " Popular Tables," which, in forms admitting of easy reference, contain just that kind of information which every buyer and seller of property and invester of money ought to possess. It furnishes one of the most striking examples with which we are acquainted of the scientific condensation of facts gathered from a large induction. Statistical results are so skilfully combined and arranged as to make the solution of the most intricate questions a matter of simple reference. A careful perusal of the Tables produces a feeling of surprise at their variety and comprehensiveness. Few business men have not felt the want of such a book as this; and it cannot fail to be welcomed as a most important addition to the class of literature to which it belongs. Referring to the Index, it may be noticed that the book contains Simple and Compound Interest Tables; Investment Tables, with and without the contingency of human life; Annuity and Life Interest Tables, where one, two, and three lives are involved; Tables of the Values of Reversions and Presentations of Livings; Tables for Estimating the Fines to be paid on renewing Leases granted on one, two, or three lives, on the failure of one or more of the lives; Tables of Logarithms; Tables of Foreign Coins, Currency, and Measures; and many others of equal importance required in practice. We cannot, of course, give practical illustrations of all these Tables; but certain of them (Nos. IV., VI., VII., and XV.), published, we believe, for the first time, are so important and valuable, in connection with the practical working of the principle of accumulation, that we take the opportunity of pointing out their application and utility.

Suppose a person lending such a sum upon land as would form an annual charge of L.200 upon the rents for a period of 33 years, so as to repay principal and interest at the rate of 5 cent. per

The first and ordinary calculation gives the sum invested in such a transaction,

L.3200

But it is clear that, if the party making such an investment be so situated that he cannot reinvest the instalments of principal as they are paid up also at the rate of 5 per cent., the whole investment would not actually produce to him 5 per cent. over the whole period.

Now, Table XV. tells us that, if no more than 3 per cent. be received on the instalments of principal after they are paid up, the sum that ought to have been paid for the annual rent-charge referred to, so as to secure 5 per cent. on the whole amount paid for the whole period, is only

2934

The difference being

L.266

Comparatively small sums, like annuities and rents, can seldom be invested (except by large public companies) at so high a rate of interest as principal sums; and the Tables alluded to are thus of decided practical utility, and direct attention to one of the subtleties in transactions involving the element of future accumulation which is very apt to be overlooked.

Besides the Tables alluded to, Mr Willich's book contains many others pertaining to mathematical and philosophical subjects, which men of science will know how to appreciate.

We cordially recommend these "Popular Tables" to the acceptance and daily use of men of science and business, as combining simplicity and elegance of structure with the largest amount of practical utility. S. R.

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES.

British Association for the Advancement of Science.
Meeting at Aberdeen, September 1859.

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE.

On the Necessity for incessant Recording, and for simultaneous Observations in different Localities, to investigate Atmospheric Electricity. By Professor W. THOMSON.-The necessity for incessantly recording the electric condition of the amosphere was illustrated by reference to observations recently made by the author in the island of Arran, by which it appeared that even under a cloudless sky, without any sensible wind, the negative electrification of the surface of the earth, always found

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