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the same state when others be thought that the all-wise are chosen, and that for the and only-wise God should act glory of God. Which calumny otherwise, who does all his is, that according to them, works in wisdom, and has God made man to damn him; wisely designed them for his whereas, according to their own glory. (Prov. xvi. 4.) real sentiments, God decreed They think also that this way to make man, and made man of conceiving and speaking of neither to damn him nor save these things best expresses the him, but for his own glory; sovereignty of God in them, which end is answered in them as declared in Rom. ix., where some way or other.-Again: he is said to will such and such They argue that the end is things, for no other reason but first in view before the means; because he wills them: and and the decree of the end is, hence the objector to the in order of nature, before the sovereign decrees of God is decree of the means ; and what brought in, saying, “ Why is first in intention is last in doth he yet find fault ; who execution. Now as the glory hath resisted his will ?" And of God is the last in execution the answer to it is taken from it must be first in intention; the sovereign power of the wherefore men must be con- potter over his clay ; to which sidered in the decree of the is added : 66 What if God end as not yet created and willing," &c. to do this or fallen; since the creation and that, who has any thing to permission of sin belong to the say against it? He is accountdecree of the means, which, able to none. (v. 15--22.) in order of nature, is after the And this way

of reasoning is decree of the end. And they thought to suit better with the add to this, that if God first instance of Jacob and Esau : decreed to create man, and “ The children being not yet suffer him to fall, and then born, and having done neither out of the fall chose some to good por evil, that the purgrace and glory, he must de pose of God, according to crèe to create man without an election, mightstand,”(v. 10.) end, which is to make God to than with supposing persons, do what no wise man would: considered in predestination, for when a man is about to do as already created, and in the any thing he proposes an end, corrupt mass; and particuand then contrives and fixes larly it best suits with the unon ways and means to bring formed clay of the potter, out about that end ; and it cannot of which he makes one vessel to honour and another to dis- who are called Sublapsurians, honour : on which Beza re- and are for men beingconsidermarks, that if the apostle had ed as created and fallen in the considered mankind as cor- decree of election, urge John rupted, he would not have said xv. 19: I have chosen you out that some vessels were made to of the world. Now the world honour and someto dishonour; is full of wickedness, it lies in but rather that, seeing all the it, is under the power of the vessels would be fit for dis.. wicked one, the inhabitants honour, some were left in that of it live in sin, and all of dishonour, and others trans- them are corrupt and abominlated from dishonour to ho- able; and therefore they who nour. They further observe, are chosen out of them must that elect angels could not be be so too. But this text is not considered in the corrupt mass to be understood of eternal when chosen, since they never election, but of effectual vocafell; and therefore it is most tion, by which men are called reasonable that as they, so. and separated from the world, those angels that were not among whom they have had chosen were considered in the their conversation before consame pure mass of creature- version, and have lived acship; and so in like manner cording to the course of it. men: to which they add, the They further observe, that human nature of Christ, which the elect are called Tessels of is the object of election to a mercy, wbich supposes them greater dignity than that of to have been miserable, and angels and men, could not be sinful, and to stand in need considered in the corrupt mass, of mercy, and must be so consince it fell not in Adam, nor sidered in their election : but never came into any corrupt though through various means state ; and yet it was chosen the elect are brought to hapout of the people : (Psal. piness, which are owing to the lxxxix. 19.) and consequently inercy of God; such as the the people out of whom it was mission of Christ to save them, chosen must be considered as the forgiveness of their sins, yet not fallen and corrupt, and their regeneration and salva-, who also were chosen in him, tion, and so titly called vessels. and therefore not so consider- of mercy; yet it follows not ed.--These are hints of some that they were considered as of the arguments used on this in need of mercy in their side of the question.

choice to happiness. - It is “On the other hand, those also said that men are chosen

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in Christ as Mediator, Re- just condemnation and wrath deemer, and Saviour; which for their sins ? But on the implies that an offence is given other hand, what reason also and taken, and reconciliation can there be to charge God is to be made, and redemption with injustice, that in as much from sin, and the curse of the as all are considered in the law broken, and compleat sal- pure mass of creatureship, vation to be effected by Christ: that some should be chosen in all which supposes men to be it, and others be passed by in sinful, as it does. But then it, and both for his own glory? men are chosen in Christ, not These are some of the prinas the meritorious cause of cipal arguments used on both. election, but as the mean or sides. The difference is not so medium of bringing them to great as may be thought at the happiness they are chosen first sight: for both agree in to.--It is moreover taken notice the main and material things of that the transitus in scrip- in the doctrine of election ; ture is not from election to as,-(1.) That it is personal, creation, but to vocation, jus- and particular; is of persons tification, adoption, sanctifi- by name, whose names are cation, and salvation. But, for written in the Lamb's book of instance, can vocation be sup- life.—(2.) That it is absolute posed without creationIt is and unconditional, not dethought that this way of con- pending on the will of men, sidering men as fallen in the nor on any thing to be done decree of election, is more by the creature. (3.) That mild and gentle than the it is wholly owing to the will other, and best accounts for and pleasure of God, and not the justice of God; that since to the faith, holiness, obediall are in the corrupt mass, it ence, and good works of men ; cannot be unjust in him to nor to a foresight of all or chuse some out of it to un- any of these.-(4.) That both deserved happiness, and to elect and non-elect are conleave others in it, who perish sidered alike, and are upon an justly in it for their sins ; or equal foot in the decree of that since all are deserving predestination; as those that of the wrath of God for sin, are for the corrupt mass they where is the injustice of ap- suppose that they were both pointing some not unto the considered in it equally alike, wrath they deserve, but unto so that there was nothing in salvation by Christ, when the one that was not in the others are fore-ordained to other; which was a reason


why the one should be chosen món adversary, the Arminjans. and the other left : so those Dr. Twiss, who was as great a that are for the pure mass sup- Supralapsarian as perhaps ever pose both to be considered in was, and carried things as high ihe same, and as not yet born, as any man ever did, and as and having done neither good closely studied the point, and nor evil.(5.) That it is an as well understood it, and pereternal act in God, and not haps better than any one did; temporal, or which commenced and yet he confesses that it not in time, but from all eter, was only apex logicus, a point nity: for it is not the opinion in logic; and that the differof the Sublapsarians that God ence only lay in the ordering passed the decree of election and ranging the decrees of after men were actually cre- God : and, for my own part, ated and fallen, only that they I think both may be taken m; were considered in the divine that in the decree of the end, mind from all eternity in the the ultimate end, the glory of decree of election as if they God, for which he does all were created and fallen. Where- things, men might be consifore, though they differ in the dered in the divine mind as consideration of the object of creatable, not yet created and election, as thus and thus diver- fallen; and that in the decree sified, yet they agree in the of the means, which, among thing, and agree to differ, as other things, takes in the they should, and not charge mediation of Christ, redempone another with unsoundness tion by him, and the sanctiand heterodoxy, for which fication of the Spirit, they there is no reason.

might be considered as created, Calvin was for the corrupt fallen, and sinful, which these mass ; Beza, who was co-pastor things imply. Nor does this with him in the church at suppose separate acts and deGeneva, and his successor, crees in God, or any priority was for the pure mass; and and posteriority in them, yet they lived in great peace, which in God are but one love, and harmony. The Con- and together; but our finite tra-remonstrants in Holland, minds are obliged to consider when Arminianism first ap- them one after another, not peared among them, were not being able to take them in agreed in this point ; some together and at once."] took one side of the question, SWEDENBORGIANS, SO and some the other; but they called from the late Hon. both united against the com- Emanuel Swedenborg, son of Jasper Swedenborg, bishop of importance, compared with West-Gothia. He was born the distinguished privilege of at Stockholm in the year 1689, having, as he supposed, his : and died in London in 1772. spiritual sight opened, and He early enjoyed all the ad- conversing with spirits and vantages of a liberal educa- angels in the spiritual world. tion, having studied with great He first began to have his attention in the academy of revelations in London. He Upsal, and in the universities asserted, that on a certain of England, Holland, France, night a man appeared to him and Germany. Endued with in the midst of a strong shinuncommon talents for the ac- ing light, and said, “ I am quirement of learning, his pro- God, the Lord, the Creator, gress in the sciences was rapid and Redeemer: I have chosen and extensive; and at an early thee to explain to men the period in life he distinguished interior and spiritual sense of himself by various publications the sacred writings. I will on philosophical subjects. His dictate to thee what thou philosophic studies led him to oughtest to write." He affirmrefer natural phenomena to ed that after this period his spiritual agency, and to sup- spiritual sight was opened som pose that there is a close con- far, that he could see in the nexion between the two worlds most clear and distinct manof matter and spirit. Hence ner what passed in the spirihis system teaches us to consi- tual world, and converse with der all the visible 'universe, angels and spirits in the same with every thing that it con- manner as with men. Accordtains, as a theatre and repre- ingly, in his treatise concernsentation of the invisible world ing heaven and hell, he relates from which it first derived its the wonders which he saw in existence, and by connexion the invisible worlds ; and gives with which it continually sub- an account of various, and sists.

heretofore unknown particuBaron Swedenborg's extra- culars, relating to the peace, ordinary genius and learning, the happiness, the light, the accompanied with the purity order of heaven ; together with of his life and uprightness of the forms, the functions, the his character, attracted the habitations, and even the garpublic notice. Hence he re- ments of the heavenly inhabiceived various literary and po- tants. He relates his converlitical honours. These, how- sation with angels, and deeyer, he considered of small scribes the condition of jews,'

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