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joined to the purest matter,* the scriptures teach us that and placed in those regions of the soul of the Messiah was the universe which were most created before the beginning suitable to the purity of of the world. (Phil. ii. 5-7.) essence they then possessed. This text must be understood For that the souls of men are of Christ's human soul, bean order of essentially incore cause it is unusual to pro-porate spirits, their deep im- pound the Deity as an exam-. mersion into terrestrial mat- ple of humility in scripture. ter, the modification of all Though the humanity of their operations by it, and Christ was so God-like, he the heavenly body promised emptied himself of this fulness in the gospel, as the highest of life and glory, to take upon perfection of our renewed na- him the form of a servant. - It iure, clearly evince. There was this Messiah who confore if our souls existed before versed with the patriarchs they appeared inhabitants of under a human form : it was the earth, they were placed in he who appeared to Moses a purer element, and enjoyed upon the holy mount: far greater degrees of happi- he who spoke to the prophets ness. And certainly he, whose under a visible appearance: overflowing goodness brought and it is he who will at last them into existence, would come in triumph upon the not deprive them of their clouds, to restore the universe felicity, till, by their mutabi- to its primitive splendour and lity, they rendered themselves felicity. less pure in the whole extent 4. That at the resurrection of their powers, and became we shall be.clothed with ethedisposed for the susception of real bodies. For the elements such a degree of corporeal life of our terrestrial compositions as was exactly answerable to are such as almost fatally their present disposition of entangle us in vice, passion, .; spirit. Hence it was necessary and misery. The, purer the that they should become ter- vehicle the soul is united with.. restrial men.

the more perfect is her life 3. That the soul of Christ and operations. Besides, the was united to the Word be- supreme Goodness who made fore the incarnationit For all things assures us he made

* Origen supposed that our souls, being incorporeal and invisible, always stand in need of bodies suitable to the nature of the places where they

exist,

+ See this subject more fully illustrated in Dr. Watts's Glory of Christ.

all things best at first; and thing analogous to this in the therefore his recovery of us intellectual system : and since to our lost happines (which is the spirits created by God are the design of the gospel) must emanations and streams from restore us to our better bodies his own abyss of being, and and happier habitations, which as self-existent power must is evident from 1 Cor. xv. 49, needs subject all beings to 2 Cor, v. 1, and other texts of itself, the Deity could not but scripture,

impress upon her intimate na5. That, after long periods tures and substances a cenof time, the damned shall be tral tendency towards himself, released from their torments, an essential principle of re. and restored to a new state of union to their great original. probation. For the Deity has 6. That the earth after its such reserves in his gracious, conflagration shall become hạ. providence as will vindicate ' bitable again, and be the man. his sovereign goodness and sion of men and other ani. wisdom from all disparage- mals, and that in eternal vicis. ment. Expiatory pains are a situdes. For it is thus ex. part of his adorable plan : for presssed in Isaiah : Behold, I this sharper kind of favour make new heavens, and a new has a righteous place in such earth, &c.; and in Heb. i. creatures as are by nature 10-12, Thou, Lord, in the mutable. Though sin has ex- beginning hast laid the foundatinguished, or silenced the tions of the earth ; as á vesture divine life, yet it has not de- shalt thou change them, and stroyed the faculties of reason they shall be changed, &c. and understanding, considera- Where there is only a change tion and memory, which will the substance is not destroyed, serve the life which is most this change being only as that powerful. If, therefore, the of a garment worn out and vigorous attraction of the sen- decaying. The fashion of the sual nature be abated by a world passes away like a turnceaseless pain, these powers ing scene, to exhibit a fresh may resume the seeds of ą and new representation of better life and nature. As in things; and if only the prethe material system there is a sent dress and appearance of gravitation of the less bodies things go off, the substance is towards the greater, there supposed to remain entire.* must of necessity be some- OSIANDRIANS, a deno

* Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. vol. i. p. 219, 225. Cudworth’s Intellectual System, vol. ii. p. 818. The Phønix, vol. i. pp. 16–57. Cheyne’s Philosiphical Principles of Religion, pp. 47–84, Travels of Cyrus, pp. 235, 238,

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mination among theLutherans, 2. That man becomes & which was founded in the year partaker of this divine righ1550, by Andrew Osiander, a teousness by faith, since it is celebrated German divine, in consequence of this uniting whose doctrine amounted to principle that Christ dwells in the following propositions : the heart of man with his divine

1. That Christ, considered righteousness. Now, wherever in his human nature only, this divine righteousnessdwells. could not, by his obedience to there God can behold no sin : the divine law, obtain justifi- therefore, when it is present cation and pardon for' sinners: with Christ in the hearts of neither can we be justified be- the regenerate, they are on its fore God by embracing and account considered by the applying to ourselves through Deity as righteous, although faith, the righteousness and they be sinners. Moreover : obedience of the man Christ. this divine and justifying righIt is only through that eternal teousness of Christ excites the and essential righteousvess faithful to the pursuit of holiwhich dwells in Christ, consi- ness, and to the practice of dered as God, and which re- virtue.* sides in his divine nature, that OSSENIANS, a denominais united to the human, that tion in the first century, which mankind can obtain complete taught that faith may and justification,

ought to be dissembled.+

APISTS, so called by open the gates of heaven to

,

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adhering to the pope. Roman communicate obstinate offenCatholics is the title which they ders. And he wears the triple apply to themselves. The word crown, to inform the christian pope is derived from the greek world that he is constituted of Ilarinas, which signifies a with spiritual jurisdiction over father. Hence he is styled priests, emperors, and kings. the Father of the Church. This denomination suppose This pontiff

' is likewise called that the bishops of Rome are the Vicar of Jesus Christ, the the descendants of St. Peter, Visible Head of the Church, and in that quality have from and the Successor of St. the beginning exercised juris Peter. He wears the keys, as diction over the churches. On an emblem of his power to the other hand, many protest

* Mosheim, vol. iv. p. 46.
+ Dufresnoy's Chronological Tables, vol. ii. p. 195,

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tant writers have dated the established a spiritual domis rise of the papal power from nion over the minds and conthe year 606, when Pope Boni- sciences of men, to which all face the third assumed the Europe submitted with imtitle of Universal Bishop, con- plicit obedience, till at length ferred upon him by Phocas, their formidable power was ending A. D. 1866. Others weakened by the reformation. fix it about the middle of the The principal points which cighth century, A. D. 756, distinguished the papists from when Pepin invested Pope the protestants, together with Stephen with the temporal a few of the reasons they dominion of Rome, and the bring to support their sentineighbouring territories, upon ments, are comprised in the the ceasing of the exarchate following summary : of Ravenna. They suppose

1. That St. Peter was dein the primitive church the signed by Christ to be the head jurisdiction of bishops was of the church; and the bishops equal and co-ordinate. They of Rome, being his successors, derived perhaps some degree have the same apostolic authoof pre-eminence from the rity. For our Saviour declares dignity of the see in which in Matt. xi. 18, Thou art Peter, they presided. They possess- and upon this rock will I build ed, however, no real authoriy my church: therefore thechurch or pre-eminence, but what is built upon Peter.* A sucthey acquired by superior cession in the church is now abilities, or superior sanctity. necessary in the new testament, As Rome had been so long the as Aaron had his succession in seat of empire, and capital of the old; but there can be no the world, its bishops were certain succession now shewn on that account entitled to only in the chair of St. Peter respect. They received it: at Rome: therefore the bishops but during several ages, they of Rome are the true succesclaimed and received nothing sors of Peter. The church of more. om these humble the old testament was a figure beginnings they advanced with of the church under the

new; such an adventurous and well but they had a high priest directed ambition, that they above the rest : therefore the

* The general doctrine of the church of Rome is, that Peter was not only appointed by our Saviour the chief of the apostles and head of the universal church ; but that, after having been seven years bishop at Antioch, he came to Rome, where he was bishop twenty-five years, and suffered martyrdom under the Emperor Nero,

seven

pope is superior to other assures us that, in St. Paul's bishops.

epistles, there are some things 2. That the Roman Catholic hard to be understood, whick church is the mother and mis- they who are unlearned and tress of all churches, and can- unstable urest, as they do also not possibly err in matters of the other scriptures, to their own faith : for the church has the destruction. (2 Pet. iij. 16.) Spirit of God to lead it into We are directed to stand fast, all truth. The gates of hell and hold the traditions which shall not prevail against it. we have been taught, whether (Matt. xi. 18.) Christ, who is by word or by epistle. 2 Thess. the way, the truth, and the life, ii. 15. has promised to the pastors 4. That there are and teachers of the church sacraments instituted by Jesus

be with them always, even Christ ; viz. baptism, confirto the end of the world.* (Matt. mation, eucharist, penance, xxviii. 10.) It is from the extreme unction, orders, and testimony and authority of the matrimony ; and that they cburch that we receive the confer grace.--To prove that scriptures, and believe them confirmation, or imposition of to be the word of God; and hands, is a sacrament, the as she can assuredly tell us Roman catholics argue from what particular book is the Acts viii. 17: They did lay word of God, she can with their hands upon them, and the same confidence inform they received the holy Ghost. us what is the true sense of This imposition of hands, toseripture in controvertedpoints gether with the prayers here of faith.

specified, was no doubt the 3. That the scriptures are sacrament of confirmation; not sufficient without tradition, for here is an outward sign and that apostolical traditions and spiritual grace : therefore are of equal authority with confirmation is a sacrament. the scriptures. For St. Peter - Penance is a sacrament, in

* The catholics do not profess to believe that the pope is infallible sepa. rate from the church. According to them, infallibility resides in the represemtatives of the universal catholic church; i. e the body of bishops, unit. ing and agrecing with their head, the bishop of Roipe,

The church of Rome maintains that confirmation is that which makes us perfect christians. The bishop administers this sacrament to baptized persons only, by the imposition of hands and prayer. He likewise uses the ceremony, which is not considered universally to be essential, of anointing the confirmed person in the forehead with consecrated oil and balm in the manner of a cross, and pronounces these words : “I sign thee with tbe siga of the cross, and confirm thee with the chrism of salvation, in the name of the Father, Son, and holy Ghost.”

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