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the deep lanes of this fertile country. This is, however, still the most favoured land of Brahminism, and the temples are larger and more beautiful than any which I have seen in Northern India. They are also decidedly older ; but as to their very remote age, I am still incredulous.'
The date of this letter gives it a melancholy interest. It was probably the last that this admirable man wrote. Next day being Sunday, he again preached and confirmed, a rite which he administered once more on Monday morning in the Fort Church. He returned home to breakfast; but before sitting down, took a cold-bath, as he had done the two preceding days. His attendant, thinking that he stayed more than the usual time, entered the apartment, and found the body at the bottom of the water, with the face downwards. The usual restoratives of bleeding, friction, and inflating the lungs, were instantly tried, but life was gone, and, on opening the head, it was discovered that a vessel had burst on the brain, in consequence, as the medical men agreed, of the sudden plunge into the water whilst he was warm and exhausted. His remains were deposited, with every mark of respect and unfeigned sorrow, on the north side of the altar of St. John's church at Trichinopoly.
The disastrous intelligence of his decease was communicated with every caution to his unfortunate widow (who had been left at Calcutta with her two children) by her relation, Lord Comber
She is left to mourn an irreparable loss, but not without that resignation and acquiescence in the will of Providence, which the precepts and example of her husband were so calculated to inspire and confirm in her mind.
True it is that an apparent accident was the immediate cause of the abrupt termination of the Bishop's life, but it may well be thought that his constitution was becoming more frail and susceptible of injury through his unremitted exertions—exertions which he was led to make by habits formed in a more temperate climate -by a fear which beset him of sinking into that supineness which a residence in India is so apt to engender—and by a spirit thoroughly interested in the pursuit of the great object before him. So long as this immense portion of the globe, extending from St. Helena to New Holland, is consigned to the ecclesiastical superintendence of one man, and that one man is not deterred from doing his best by the impossibility of doing much, it is to be feared there must be a certain waste of valuable life; for what European, arriving in India at the age which a bishop has usually reached before he obtains his appointment, is likely to preserve his health long, in the midst of the disquietudes attending a new establishment-remote from the mother-country--incomplete in its su
bordinate parts--in its fruits perpetually disappointing the hopes and efforts of the labourer—whilst to all this must be added, the extreme difficulty (to say the least of it) of timing all the journies right, where so many, and of such length, must be made, and of always selecting for them those seasons of the year, and those hours of the day, which are least deadly.*
Thus died this faithful servant of God, in the 43d year of his age, and the third of his episcopacy, labouring to the last in the cause that was nearest his heart, and, like Fletcher of Madely, almost expiring in the very act of duty. The world may honour his memory as it will, though such as were best acquainted with him can scarcely hope that it should do him justice; for he had attached himself to no party, either in church or state, and therefore had secured no party-advocates; and of forms, by which mankind at large (for the want of less fallacious means of estimating character) are almost compelled to abide, he was not, perhaps, a very diligent observer: but in India a strong sense of his worth has manifested itself, as it were, by acclamation. At Madras, a meeting was held, a few days after his death, in the Government Gardens, the excellent Sir Thomas Munro in the chair, where to say that lamentation was made over him would be a weak wordthere was a burst of affectionate feeling, which proves, were proof wanting, how grievous a loss the cause of Christianity has sustained in the removal of an advocate whose heart and head were equally fitted to recommend it. A subscription was forthwith commenced on a scale of Indian munificence, for a monument, to be erected to him in St. George's church ; and this was taken up with the warmest zeal everywhere, and among all ranks and conditions of men throughout the presidency.At Bombay it was determined to found a scholarship for that presidency, at the college at Calcutta, to be called Bishop Heber's Scholarship—a testimony of respect the most appropriate that could have been devised; and examples so generous have not been lost upon the capital of Bengal.
It is very pleasing to hear all this. Still, none could know him truly as he was, without visiting (as we have often done) the parish where he had chiefly resided from his childhood upwards—where he had been seen as the son, the husband, the father, the brother, the master, above all, as the shepherd of the flock. There, we are told, the tidings of his death were received by all as if each had lost a personal friend; and though a considerable interval
We are happy to learn, as this is going through the press, that India is about to be divided into several separate dioceses.
+ The native subscriptions in the lists are numerous, beyond what we could have believed,
had elapsed since he bade them farewell, their sorrow was as fresh as if he had just breathed his last under that roof which, in doubt, in difficulty, and in distress, had so frequently been their refuge. These are arguments of his worth the most genuine that can be offered, and which it would now be injurious to suppress; others may speak of the richness of his conversation, the play fulness of his fancy, the delicacy of his taste, of the almost unequalled vigour and retentiveness of his memory, which, had it not been overshadowed by higher intellectual qualities, would alone have constituted him an extraordinary man—of that memory which always supplied him with the apposite quotation, the suitable illustration, the decisive authority—but it has been the main object of these pages (however imperfectly attained) to discover something of the hidden man of the heart,' and to hold out to those who cannot hope to rival the high endowments of Bishop Heber, or to follow him in the public and splendid parts of his career, the imitation of those virtues which the under-current, as well as the palpable course, of his life presented—of his charity, his humility, his abandonment of every selfish feeling, his piety, at once enthusiastic and practical, exhibited in the unobtrusive and heartfelt purity of his own life, and in the tempered fervour and happy fruits of his labours as a minister of the gospel.
Art. VII.—Narrative of the Burmese War, detailing the Opera
tions of Major-General Sir Archibald Campbell's Army, from its landing at Rangoon in May, 1824, to the conclusion of a Treaty of Peace at Yandaboo, in February, 1826. By Major Snodgrass, Military Secretary to the Conımander of the Expedition, and Assistant Political Agent in Ava. London. 1827. IT T requires time to get at the real state of what is going on at
the distance of twelve thousand miles; but the truth will come out at last. When the Burmese war was first announced in England, we, in common with the general opinion then prevailing, in which the Directors of the East India Company were supposed to participate, were inclined to consider the Bengal government as having acted with too great precipitancy, and as appearing too anxious to strike a blow before they had tried the milder course of negotiation. We are now satistied that a rupture had for some time been unavoidable; that sound policy, we may
the salvation of India, demanded the utmost promptitude of action; and that any attempt at negotiation would not only have failed, but tended to hasten and enforce the blow that was meditated against our power. Beset, as we were,
VOL. XXXV. NO, LXX.
with Runjeet Singh on the north-west, the Burmans on the east, the usurper of Burtpore in the centre, all ready to join in a confederacy against our dominion, had we quietly waited for that invasion of the capital by the Burmese, which was on the eve of being undertaken, or had we made the attempt on Burtpore in the spring of 1824, and failed, as we probably should, and as we once before had done, for want of adequate preparation and the necessary means,-a flame might have burst forth over all India, which it would have been no easy matter to extinguish. Thanks to the decision of Lord Amherst and his council, we are now in a state of safety and tranquillity for many years to come.
Of the intrigues of the Burmese with the princes of India, Lord Hastings, Lord Minto, and even Sir John Shore, had ample proofs, and the two former were decidedly of opinion that a war would in the end be inevitable; both, however, deemed it expedient to temporise, and such forbearance produced no other effect than an aggravated degree of insolence, and an extension of encroachment. Their restless character, their arrogant conduct and unfounded pretensions had, on various occasions, endangered the relations of peace subsisting between the two countries, and had, in fact, long kept the frontier provinces of Bengal in constant dread of invasion. That the court of Ava,' says Major Snodgrass, had been for many months preparing for a rupture with the government of India, the tone and conduct of the governors of Arracan and the provinces lying contiguous to our frontier, and the assemblage of troops in that quarter, afford the strongest evidence; offensive warfare was obviously intended. In fact, considerable bodies of troops crossed the Arracan mountains ; and made no scruple of boasting that an army of thirty thousand men was about to invade Bengal. Major Snodgrass
• Ample evidence was also furnished, that so far from being ignorant of the conduct and aggressions of the Arracan chiefs, which had caused the war, they were fully sanctioned by his Burmhan Majesty, who, twelve months before hostilities commenced, was devising plans and making arrangements for the conquest of Bengal. Maha Bandoola, then high in favour, was the grand projector of the scheme, and, with a hundred thousand men, which he said his majesty could with ease assemble, pledged himself for its execution. The king went even the length of consulting a foreign residenter at Ava; and who will longer doubt, that war had been resolved on, and success anticipated, when it is stated, on the authority of those who were present on the spot, that Maha Bandoola marched into Arracan, provided with golden fetters, in which the Governor-General of India was to be led captive to Ava ?'—p. 277. See the extract from one of Bishop Heber's letters in the preceding article, p. 474.
This Bandoola had, in fact, some time before the expedition reached Rangoon, proceeded to take command of the Arracan army destined for the invasion of Bengal; and lost no time in commencing offensive operations : with a superior force he surrounded a small British post, who made an honourable but useless resistance. Some of the officers and sepoys effected their escape, but great numbers fell into the hands of the enemy, by whom the European officers and many of the native soldiers were most barbarously put to death. Exaggerated reports of the strength and ferocity of the Burmese troops,' says Major Snodgrass, 'were soon in circulation, carrying alarm even to Calcutta, the very name of Burman spreading dread and terror among the native population. The peasants on the frontier fled in dismay from their villages; and every idle rumour was magnified so industriously, by timid or designing people, that the native merchants of Calcutta were with difficulty persuaded to refrain from removing their families and property from under the very guns of Fort William. In the mean time, the British lion was rousing from his repose, and his voice was heard at Rangoon almost before he of the 'golden foot' had uttered the boast, that he would prevent the English from disturbing even the women of Rangoon in cooking their rice.' We should almost, indeed, have said, that the rapidity with which the armament destined for this service was sent forth to its destination was unexampled, had not a recent occasion nearer home shown, even more strongly, what the energies of Englishmen, in cases of necessity, are capable of accomplishing.–We allude, of course, to the bringing forward of those ships of the line which transported our little army to Portugal, the other day, with a rapidity that was felt and spoken of in every court of Europe, from Petersburg to Madrid more particularly in Germany, where the tone of conversation had for some time past been, -the depressed, enfeebled, humiliated England. We may guess their surprise when informed, almost as soon as the several ambassadors could announce to their respective courts the king's message to the two houses of parliament, that a British army of five thousand men, fully equipped in all its departments, had landed in Portugal, and that eight sail of the line were floating on the waters of the Tagus.*
The rapidity with which this armament was sent forth, without any previous preparation, is worthy of being recorded. On Friday evening, the 8th December, England was first called upon for assistance; on Saturday the cabinet decided to give it; on Sunday, the king gave his assent; on Monday, the message was carried down to parliament; on the 16th, the first detachment, consisting of the 4th regiment, sailed; on Wednesday the 20th, the remainder of the troops were all embarked on board the guard-ships and sailed; and before the end of the month the whole were in the Tagus.
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