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neatly carved and painted with a variety of pretty designs; and the benches for the people are arranged neatly round. Close to the church was the burying-place, and the whole had the air of modest simplicity, which delighted no less than it surprised the visitors.

The history of this little island may be found in the Evangelical Magazine. It belongs to the king of Wateeoo, (discovered by Cook, in the year 1777,) whose inhabitants, like the Taheitans, have been prevailed on by the missionaries to destroy their idols, and relinquish idolatrous worship. The king, accompanied by two English missionaries from Tahaité, proceeded shortly afterwards to Mauti, where also he prevailed on the people to destroy the morais, and burn the images, and left a native teacher to instruct them in the Christian religion. The whole population was supposed not to exceed three hundred; their food principally bread-fruit, and fish : but they had yams, cocoa-nuts, and plantains; a few tame goats, fowls, and abundance of pigs. Birds, of rich plumage, and various-tinted butterflies, were singing and futtering in the woods, consisting of magnificent forest-trees, and the climate was delicious. These,' says Mr. Bloxam, and, above all, the perfect union and harmony existing among the natives, presented a succession of agreeable pictures which could not fail to delight us.'

It is added, “ As Mauti has not been laid down in any chart, or described by any navigator, we used the privilege of discoverers, and named it Parry's Island. It lies in lat. 20° 8' S. and long. 157° 20' W.;' but though we are reluctant to deprive Captain Parry of any honour that his well-earned reputation merits, we

must use the privilege' of dissenting from the assertion of its not being laid down in any chart,' because in Arrowsmith's chart of America (1804) and Purdy's Chart of the World (1812), there is laid down a small island named Mahowarah, precisely on the spot assigned to Mauti. We cannot mistake, as Wateeoo lies in lat. 20° 1' S., long. 158° 15' W., and Mahowarah is about a degree to the S. E. of it, namely, lat. 157° 15', and long. 20° 30' W., which comes so very near, as to leave little doubt of their identity. In fact, it belongs to a group of seven or eight islands, from four to six hundred miles south-west of Taheité, called Harvey Islands, whose names, as given by the missionaries, are Mauti, Atooi, Metioro, Manain, Aitutaki, and Ruratonga, in all of which idolatry has been abolished, Christianity introduced, and the inhabitants very generally taught to read and write their own language, by native teachers sent out from Otaheité by the missionaries of the London Evangelical Society. On their authority, the population of this group is stated to exceed that of the Society Íslands, by two or three


thousand souls. On Ruratonga, a church has been built, of six hundred feet in length, by sixty in breadth, said to be capable of containing four thousand five hundred people, and to be frequently crammed quite full. The accounts sent to the Missionary Society of the comfortable situation of these islanders, their industrious habits, exhibited in their improved dwellings, cultivated lands, decent clothing, and the considerable advances made in the arts of civilized life, form a striking contrast with the details given by Captain Beechey concerning the present condition of Taheiti and the Sandwich Islands ; and they lead to a hope that, through the means of these native teachers, the time is not far distant when the benefits of Christianity and civilization will find their way to all the groups of islands scattered over the vast Pacific Ocean. In furtherance of this object, it might perhaps be advisable to place the patriarch Adams, and his little family, on some one of those neighbouring islands, in which the native teachers have so well prepared the population to receive this small society, to the mutual advantage of both parties.

The dissemination of Christianity throughout the islands of the Pacific will be the less difficult, as the whole of them, from the Friendly Islands eastward, make use of dialects of the same tongue; the numerals of which, with a great multitude of words, are similar to those of the Malays. Mr. Ellis says, a number of words appear true Hebrew roots, and that, in the conjugation of the verbs, there is a striking similarity to that language. We place more weight on the fact that, exactly as with the Hindoos, their place of happiness, after death, is Meru ; and think it is impossible, in the Pelé of the Sandwich Islands, not to recognise the deity, so universally worshipped in the eastern world, under the name of Pel, Bel, or Baal. In short, their customs, habits, games, and everything belonging to them are oriental, though in a state of great rudeness. Their dispersion over the Pacific is easily accounted for, by the constant easterly winds, which at various times, and in various directions, may have blown fishing canoes from the Asiatic islands to those scattered over the Pacific, and from one of these islands to another,—which last accident, indeed, is constantly happening at the present day.

ART. VI.-1. Missionary Registers. 1825, 1826. 2. Memoirs of the Life of Thomas Fanshaw Middleton, D.D.,

late_Lord Bishop of Calcutta. By Henry Kaye Bonney,

D.D., Archdeacon of Bedford. 3. A Farewell Sermon, preached in the Parish Church of Hodnet,


in the County of Salop, April 20, 1823. By the Rev. Reg.

Heber. Second Edition. 4. The Omnipresence of God; a Sermon preached August 5,

1825, on the Consecration of the Church of Secrole, near Benares. By Reginald Lord Bishop of Calcutta. Calcutta. 1826. IF F God has no need of human learning,' retorted South on the

Puritans of his day, still less has he need of human ignorance:' and too truly has this been seen in much of the history of the attempts to Christianise the East. A sanguine spirit has gone forth thither, expecting ends without means-hailing the most equivocal symptoms as infallible signs of conversion-prompting replies to the listless heathen, and then recording those parrotwords as spontaneous tokens of grace. To every sentence which one of the missionaries addressed to a man before him, covered with cow-dung, he received as an answer, Nisam! (most certain !) pronounced with great gravity, and accompanied by a sober nod of the head. "I was much cheered,' says the worthy teacher, ' by his approving so cordially the doctrines of salvation:'-and if here the questions had ended, this man would have had as good right to be enrolled amongst the lists of converted heathens as many more; but, unluckily, it was further asked, “How old are you?' How long have you been Sunyasee ??—to which he replied, with the same emphasis as before, Nisam! Nisam ! The missionary should ever be on his guard against exciting the suspicions of the people of England that his work is hollow and unsound,-he should be slow to claim conquests which cool-headed men at home may think his desultory mode of warfare not likely to achieve. The people of England are not ignorant of the boasts of the Roman Catholic teachers in the same field; as many as they could baptise (and in some countries they are said to have made short work of it, by swinging a besom) were registered as converts, and reported as living proofs of their amazing success. And we all know what has been the consequence. Of late years, however, and especially amongst the Protestant missions of our own church, far greater caution has been observed; and now (except, perhaps, in a few instances where the native catechists recommend to the missionaries candidates for baptism, for whose competency they are themselves the vouchers) a degree of hesitation is felt about admitting to this rite, that some may think, and perhaps justly think, more than even prudence demands. That error, however, if error it be, is on the right side.

Already, by all who do not wish to be blind, some symptoms of progress may be traced. Till within these few years the reluctance of the Brahmins to communicate the contents of their sacred


books was insuperable ; now, every European, who has the curiosity, is permitted to look into those mysteries, and acquaint himself with what a Hindoo professes, which will often furnish not the worst arguments against what he practises. Martyn durst not introduce into his schools his version of the parables, and acquiesced, of necessity, in the use of a Hindoo poem on an avatar of Vishnu, which had no other merit than that of being unintelligible to the children: but at this day the gospels are freely read, as far as the teachers think fit to impart them; boys of all ranks, from the Brahmin to the Soodra, are assembled together, under the same roof; and places are won and lost in the classes without any reference to caste or colour. When one of the church missionaries was first appointed to the school at Burdwan, not a boy would consent to abide on the same premises with him ; by degrees they were induced to become more familiar—at length to attend worship—and at last (except during the holidays) to remain with him altogether. At Badagamme, in Ceylon, we are told that the children of different castes may be seen seated on mats, eating and drinking together, with the utmost apparent good will;-a novel spectacle, even in that island of promise. It is not more than five or six years ago since the project for educating females in India was reckoned hopeless; now, upwards of thirty girls' schools are in activity at Calcutta alone. At Mirzapore, where a chapel has been established for Bengalee preaching, the congregation changes several times perhaps during a sermon, as the curiosity or patience of the hearers becomes exhausted; nor is it a symptom of small importance that, whilst few old people are observed there, the young are always to be found in considerable numbers. We are told by Colonel Phipps, (who resided several months near Juggernaut, and was present at the great annual festival,) that the practice which but recently prevailed of enticing pilgrims to cast themselves under the wheels of the car has now ceased; that the disgusting images with which it was decorated have been removed, and that the outer walls of the temple are purged of the like emblems of impurity.

• Where there is shame, (says Johnson,) there may in time be virtue.' Again, while Martyn found himself every where regarded with a degree of suspicion and reserve, that almost shook his better purpose, the late Bishop Heber, we understand, discovered his office to be magnified far beyond his hopes or expectations ; received a cordial welcome from those who, some few years earlier, would barely have endured his presence; and was solicited to despatch ordained ministers to several stations that had been hitherto

neglected, with an earnestness which could not be mistaken. We could adduce many other facts, relating indeed to individuals, but


still above all suspicion, to prove that the mind of the natives is becoming more busy about religious truth—but we abstain, from dislike to a species of argument which is justly listened to with extreme caution, and because we would not, in any degree, contribute to the growth of a spirit which, proclaiming A to be all that could be wished,'— B a pleasing lad, affectionate and serious,'— C (who, however, afterwards, poor fellow, trained off) very attentive, and of a dwarfish stature,'—announces, on the other hand, with detestable presumption, that G had been suddenly removed by cholera morbus, just when, in spite of all advice and admonition, he was determined to help a party of Roman Catholics to act a play!

Caste is undoubtedly the great obstacle to the conversion of the East, but it is not an insurmountable obstacle. It existed, with many other Indian peculiarities of the present day, before the of Arrian; yet Christianity made its way on the coast of Malabar in spite of it. Certain it is, also, that many natives in our own times have actually courted baptism, and thereby broken caste, even where the caste was honourable ; and that more have been prevented from taking the same step, by the importunate entreaties of parents and friends, seconded, in some cases, by the disinterested recommendation of the missionaries themselves. It is not, indeed, by any measure which cometh of observation' that a death-blow can be dealt to this deep-rooted institution ;-but time and Christianity will do the work in peace. Thus it is that slavery, in almost all Christian countries, has disappeared, no man knowing when or how—not by the triumphant issue of a servile war, not by any sudden measures of legislatorial emancipation, but through the operation of the eternal laws of social progress fixed by Providence, and especially, as we cannot but believe, by the slow yet sure operation of that very principle which is now beginning to work in India. Thus it is that witchcraft, which so few generations back held firm possession of the faith of our forefathers, and against which even the lofty mind of a Sir Matthew Hale was not proof, has been quietly laid to sleep. What perjance of caste could be stronger than the principle of religious intolerance in our own country three centuries ago, when even Cranmer could sully his fair fame by one miserable, though, no doubt, most conscientious compliance with it; and what is, perhaps, more remarkable, when, in a subsequent age, and after the tempest of the Reformation had well nigh subsided, even the amiable Bishop Jewell could breathe the temper which spake in James and John at the Samaritan village, in one solitary sentence of his immortal Apology? But years rolled on, and the better spirit was silently prevailing. Through Hooker, who now appeared, its advance may be traced; though his wri

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