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themselves, from the nature of their education, are unfit to handle, -draw from their simple hearers remarks and questions that puzzle their teachers not a little for an answer. They hold out to their disciples little or no encouragement, either by precept or example, to industrious habits. The shoemaker who may have left his stall, and the tailor who has escaped from the shopboard to commence evangelical preaching, would think it degradation to instruct those
islanders in the use of the awl or the needle. According to their rule, the more time that is spent in preaching, praying, and singing, the better. The least that is required from the naked, or half-naked, converts of Owhyhee, &c. is to attend at church' five times every day. On Sundays they are strictly prohibited from cooking any kind of victuals, or even making a fire. Boki was refractory on this point, and protested strongly against a taboo of this rigid nature, insisting on having his tea on Sunday mornings as he was accustomed in London; the English, he said, were as good and religious a people as they were, and yet he saw thousands walking and riding about in the parks on Sundays; and saw no sign of the Sunday dinner being worse than the Saturday.
Indeed, we cannot help thinking that the progressive spread of Christianity would be greatly promoted and hastened if the good people of England, who raise such vast sums annually for the maintenance of evangelical preachers, would send out, in lieu of them, an equal number of the brethren of the Moravian church, whose simplicity of manners, and readiness to instruct the people among whom they are placed in the various trades and occupations of civilized society, are admirably calculated to inspire confidence and give encouragement to barbarous nations to follow their example; by such means the progress of civilization and Christianity would go hand in hand.
The ill effects of a contrary system would appear to have but too clearly shown themselves in the Sandwich Islands. The continued malady and incapacity of Karaimoku had thrown the infant king wholly under the control of Mr. Bingham. We have seen some letters of Captain Beechey, who visited these islands in May last, on his way to Behring's Straits, in which he says, “The efforts of the few zealous missionaries are tending, as fast as possible, to lay waste the whole country, and plunge the inhabitants into civil war and bloodshed. Thousands of acres of land, that before produced the finest crops, are now sandy plains. Provisions are so extremely scarce, that not long since the king sent to beg a little bread of the American consul; the fishery is almost deserted, and nothing flourishes but the missionary school.' The reason is obvious enough. The poor simple natives are con
tinually threatened with eternal punishment if they neglect the one thing needful ;' they are told that the morrow will take care for itself; that lilies grow without toiling or spinning, &c. met two pious scholars,' says Captain Beechey, with a slate covered with writing, on their way to school, and asked them if they thought it right to pray all day instead of working ; to which they replied, that praying was much better than working. To be sure it is; and so would the West India negroes think, in spite of all that our free-labour philosophers and philanthropists can say to the contrary. So long as an uneducated man, in such a climate as that of the Sandwich Islands, where nature has provided him with simple food without the exertion of labour, can bask at his ease in the sun, loll in the shade, and loiter away the time in a parrot-like repetition of prayers and psalms, (which, of course, such an eternal repetition must soon come to be,) it would be strange indeed if he did not think that such an easy life much better than working. Mr. Ellis, after giving an account of their severe athletic exercises, at the exhibition of which several thousands attend, says, that the missionaries having expressed their surprise that they should labour so arduously at their sport, and so leisurely at their plantations and houses, were generally answered, that they built houses and cultivated their gardens from necessity, but followed their amusements because their hearts were fond of them.'
The apprehension of civil war, expressed by Captain Beechey, appears to be owing to the misapplication of another text of scripture, which says, that in the kingdom of heaven none is before or after another, -none is greater or less than another ;—which, as the American teachers apply and expound it, is exactly to tell these poor creatures, that all men are equal,-a doctrine which Mr. Bingham's countrymen are more ready to preach than to practise. The effect it had produced in lowering the authority of the chiefs was visible enough. Boki complained grievously that where two thousand of his tenants once willingly worked for him a certain number of days, at seed-time and harvest,—which is the condition (something like our soccage-tenure) on which they hold their lands, -he could scarcely now prevail on ten to comply with the old custom. No doubt, therefore, this idleness will increase, so long as the islands produce, with little or no cultivation, the bread-fruit, the banana or plantain, the cocoa-nut and the rose-apple, the sweet potato, the arum or mountain taro, and the sugar-cane. Something of the same sort, it appears, has taken place at Tahaité, even to a greater extent. This island, Captain Beechey says, is still the beautiful, fertile country it has ever been represented; but it is lamentable to observe the change that
has taken place among the natives, who appear to have lost what good qualities they once possessed, and are become so intolerably lazy, that should the bread-fruit, by any accident, fail them, a famine must ensue. Indeed, they have been very near it already; and nothing but the mountain-plantain and a species of fern saved them from the greatest distress. The cotton-grounds you mentioned to me are overrun with weeds; the looms that were sent out have been thrown aside, and weaving discontinued. The king is a child ; his mother a most dissolute woman; and the chiefs divided and jealous of each other. At Tobouai,' he continues, • the indolence of the natives since their conversion has been such, that, out of the whole population, but two hundred remain. It will scarcely be believed that this mortality has been occasioned by their being too lazy to cook their food oftener than once a week, in consequence of which it becomes sour and unwholesome, and produces complaints of the stomach, which carry them off.' Captain Beechey gives many other details of the same character ; but admits that the missionaries are, on the other hand, entitled to every credit for having succeeded in abolishing human sacrifices and the prevailing crime of infanticide, which had proceeded to such an extent, that the population of the island is not more than one-half of what it was when Cook first visited it.
What a pleasing contrast this officer experienced on calling at Pitcairn's Island! He there found the old patriarch Adams and his interesting family, now increased to sixty-five persons, all in vigorous health; their moral and religious sentiments, their modest and amiable manners, their industrious habits, still the same they were when visited by Sir Thomas Staines and Capain Foldger; neither of whom, Captain Beechey says, remained long enough with them fully to appreciate their excellent qualities. quite delighted,' he says, ' with their manners and conduct, and quitted them with feelings of deep regret; the more so as we were but too well satisfied that the cultivable ground in this little island, which is only two miles long by one wide, does not yield as it used to do. The wood is for the most part expended ; and Adams expressed a strong apprehension that famine must soon visit the rising generation, if they are not speedily removed to some other situation ; either to some larger uninhabited island in the neighbouring group, if such there be, or to New South Wales, or Van Diemen's Land. His most anxious wish was, that they might all settle together, to cultivate the ground, or labour, as might be required. Our readers will not fail to recollect the strong interest that was excited by our first account of this innocent and simplehearted little people; and we do hope, and indeed are confident, that England will not suffer them to perish by want. Their strong
attachment to each other, and their manners, so different from, and superior to those of almost any population among whom they could be conveyed, seem to render it desirable that they should be kept a separate people. They were much in want of clothing, which Captain Beechey supplied, as far as his means would allow. Their only covering consisted of the wrappers made from the clothplant, which are no better than thin paper, and fall in pieces under a shower of rain. Adams appeared anxious to have a clergyman among them from the Missionary Society, who, it seems, had promised
to send one a few years ago. We should deeply regret to hear of the arrival of any such person among them. The old patriarch, with his Bible, is the best possible teacher that they could possess. As to the removal of this innocent and interesting little colony to New South Wales or Van Diemen's Land, such a step would, we fear, prove fatal to their yet unsophisticated and unblemished character; unless, indeed, they could be established in some secluded spot, free from all contact with the convicts; and the Taheitan group of islands are still in so barbarous a state, that they would not be safe in any of them, whether inhabited or not.*
* The following extract from a letter of Captain Beechey shows the barbarous state of the inhabitants of Bow Island, so called, from its shape, by Cook, who had no intercourse with the natives. "The natives of the low coral islands are such a miserable, halfstarved set of cannibals that they furnished nothing worthy of record. You may form some idea of what they are, and of the country they inhabit, when I tell you that I consider that the miraculous manner in which they subsist is the greatest discovery we have made. When we first visited these narrow strips of coral, it was concluded that among the trees there was some cultivation, and it was not until we entered the lagoon at Bow Island that we found it otherwise, and that they derived their support almost entirely from the Pandanus, a tree very like the Doom Tree of Egypt, which bears its pithy fruit in clusters containing about twenty nuts each. This nut is, in size, nearly ihat of a hazel nut, but being inclosed in a thick fibrous husk, like the cocoa-nut, appears as large as an egg. But their shape is pentagonal ; they consequently have no interstices between them. The labour of cracking the nut is such that it requires several hours to prepare a meal. The cluster of nuts being first divided, they are handed to the men, who suck the inner part of the rind, which is somewhat soft, and almost as good as the root of a very old cabbage, and throw them down in heaps to be pounded by the women, who take them up severally, and carefully examine if any meat is left among the fibres, and if so, they have the privilege of a second suck-if not, the nut is placed under the beater, a stone about thirty pounds weight, and, after a few hard thumps, generally exhibits a fracture. The kernels are then picked out and put together for the men, who during this festival are occupied in the laborious exercise of keeping the flies off their filthy persons. These nuts constitute the whole of their food, except such limpits and land-crabs, vermes, or slimy Holothuriæ, as they can pick up on the rocks, and which they devour raw.
You may judge from this description how little would have been gained from such a race; a people destitute of clothing, of weapons excepting big sticks and clubs, and whose God is a bit of wood with a slit cut in it and a bit of hair thrust in, and then slung to a tree to point out which way the wind blows-or, more frequently, a bit of hair tied to the thigh bone of some human being.
* The natives of the islands immediately about Tahaité, being converted to Christianity, are some shades better than those of the islands lying more remote. I should, nevertheless, be sorry to be cast upon their islands, even in lent time.'
We have so many detailed descriptions of the Sandwich Islands, their productions, and their former state of society, that we deem it wholly unnecessary to return to the subject, which the reader will find amply treated of in the two volumes whose titles are placed at the head of this article, more especially in that of Mr. Ellis. Neither do we see anything in the return voyage of the Blonde that could have any claim to detain us, except the details of the shipwrecked crew whose few survivors they delivered, a story but too fresh, we imagine, in the recollection of our readers, and too dark and dismal for human nature to dwell on it willingly—and a notice of the supposed discovery of a new island named Mauti, whose little population seems to have highly interested the visitors. The appearance of a single person in a canoe, with a straw hat of the English fashion, and a Spanish cloak of tapa, satisfied them that they were not the first Europeans who had visited this place. Two others next came on board, who, to their surprise, produced a written document from that branch of the London Missionary Society settled at Taheité, qualifying them to act as teachers in the island of Mauti. These were fine-looking men, dressed in cotton shirts, cloth jackets, and matted petticoats in lieu of trousers. On some of the officers landing, the whole male population assembled to greet them; and seemed unhappy until all of them had shaken hands. Among them were only two women, the wives of the two missionaries, who were decently clothed from head to foot. Proceeding about two miles through a shady wood, which improved in beauty as they advanced, they found to their surprise and pleasure, that the path terminated in a beautiful green lawn, where there were two of the prettiest white-washed cottages imaginable; these were the dwellings of the missionaries, who appeared to be the chief personages on the island.
• The inside of their habitations corresponded with their exterior neatness. The floors were boarded : there were a sofa and some chairs of native workmanship: windows, with Venetian shutters, rendered the apartments cool and agreeable. The rooms were divided from each other by screens of tapa ; in one there was a bed of white tapa, and the floor was covered with coloured varnished tapa resembling oil-cloth. We were exceedingly struck with the appearance of elegance and cleanliness of all around us, as well as with the modest and decorous behaviour of the people, especially the women; all of which formed a strong contrast with the habits of the common people of the Sandwich Islands : but this is a small community, easily inspected by its teachers, and having, as yet, had no intercourse from without, to disturb the effects of their admonitions and example.'-Voyage, p. 210.
A church, capable of containing two hundred persons, stood on a hill near the cottages ; the pulpit and reading-desk were