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is the greatest of all undeceivers; and the day is fast approaching when the veil will be torn from their eyes, and the South Americans will curse, in the bitterness of their hearts, those strangers who have laboured to tyrannize over and impoverish them—especially by the establishment of commercial relations (trafico mercantil), and the introduction of machinery (ingeniosas invenciones); thus separating them from their mother-country, filling them with hatred and vengeance against their European brethren, corrupting their manners, concealing or falsifying the good actions of their ancestors, and all because they well know that a corrupt and effeminate population will be the more easily enslaved.'

This trash is sufficient to show the bitter mortification with which the Spaniards view the rising prosperity of South America, and the obstinacy which makes them still cling to the empty shadow of colonial power. We confess we are not charitable enough to feel any great compassion for their distress upon this occasion; if we regret anything, it is the long forbearance our government displayed in not sooner acknowledging the independence of the countries in question, merely because they conceived that the mother-country ought to lead the way. How different has been the conduct of England from that of Spain, in circumstances precisely similar! When our great American colonies revolted, we certainly endeavoured to subdue them by force of arms, and, fortunately for all parties, we failed; but as soon as the contest became hopeless, though our military hold of the country was still considerable, we at once sent out commissioners to acknowledge the independence of the States ;-we shook hands, like generous foes, mutually pleased to end hostilities; and from that hour (for one silly interruption may be easily forgotten) have been useful friends to each other. Spain, however, cannot be made to see the advantages of yielding to this spirit of mutual forgiveness and oblivion; but after being beat out of every corner of the country, and sulkily refusing to enter into any amicable relations, still ministers to her false pride by a pertinacious refusal to acknowledge the independence of immense territories, long since, to all intents and purposes, as free from her influence, as if they had never belonged to her.

We turn, however, from this pettish behaviour, to give it no worse name, to a much more important topic—the probable advancement of the New States in political importance. We have seen what the sons of Englishmen can do when left to themselves m a new country: the experiment remains to be tried with the descendants of Spaniards. Our expectations, we confess, have fluctuated greatly upon this subject. We have sometimes felt serious apprehensions, that their indolence, the spiritless moderation of their wants, and the consequent absence of those influences

which might have urged them to the acquisition of better habits; will for a long time retard their progress. On the other hand, the possession of political power, and the unrestricted enjoyment of the benefits of commerce, must introduce, we should hope, higher tastes and higher objects of industry and ambition; whilst a free intercourse with foreigners, and the consequent dissemination of the literature of other countries, will extend their knowledge, and improve their manners; and by teaching them that there is no road to national importance but that of public and private virtue, bring them to respect in themselves, and to encourage, for their own sake, those principles of honour, without which their mines of gold and silver, even were they a hundred times richer than they seem to be, would fail to give them the slightest weight in the scale of nations.

We cannot conclude without returning for a moment to the Noticias Secretas.'-We do so, for the purpose of expressing our regret that the able and judicious editor has been very sparing of his notes, and our hope that he may be less so when he gives us his English translation of the book. He has, we well know, much to say that would at the present time interest all, and that might perhaps benefit many. That, in his edition of the Spanish Report, he has abstained from any considerable discussions on the present state of the countries to which it refers, was, upon the whole, perhaps, wise; but surely such silence cannot be called for in a book expressly intended for the English public. It is no secret that Mr. Barry (who, being a Catholic, had been educated in Spain, and who had, at an earlier period of life, travelled extensively in the Spanish Colonies) was the person chosen to conduct one of the greatest of the recent schemes for applying English capital to the improvement of the new states ; and that in this capacity he made a tour which lasted nearly three years, and embraced almost every district of Spanish America, in which a traveller could consider himself as safe. It is also well known that he has returned home in the full belief, that every attempt on the part of Englishmen to conduct mining speculations, or agricultural speculations, or indeed any speculation whatever, (except a petty business of money dealing in sea-ports may be called one,) in those states, until the governments are more settled than they now are, and the people more unlike their fathers, must be attended with ruinous consequences. In a word, we know (we have, of course, proper authority to make such a statement) that Mr. Barry's opinion on this subject is quite as strong as that of Mr. Miers; and that of Peru, in particular, he speaks altogether as unfavourably as the other does of Chile. We would fain believe, that the view which Mr. Barry takes of these matters is too



dark; and can scarcely doubt that personal disappointments have had some influence in tinging it. But one thing is, we think, clear-Mr, Barry's evidence ought to be given at length: his character as a Catholic will lend it special value many points ; and it is obvious that his perfect previous familiarity with the language and manners, both of Spain and Spanish America, must have given him advantages for observing and understanding the effects of the recent convulsion, very superior to what could have been enjoyed by Mr. Miers, or indeed by any Englishman who has as yet published an account of these revolutionized Co. lonies.

ART. II.-Anne Boleyn. A Dramatic Poem.

A Dramatic Poem. By the Rev: H. H. Milman, Professor of Poetry in the University of

Oxford. London. 1826. IT T is a misfortune for a poet-above all for a tragic poet-to

be born after Shakspeare ; but it is one that he cannot avoid; nor is the evil entirely, or even chiefly, external. A modern poet is not only subject to comparison with the elder masters of his art, in the mind of his reader; but in the concoction of his plan, and during the composition of his work, he subjects himself to the same comparison, in his own mind. Because Nature has made him a poet, he is not, therefore, to despise the assistance of Art, He who willingly surrenders all acquaintance with the standard of art, must return back to the simplicity of nature; he must depend upon his own powers of production, to excel what powers similar in kind, and, perhaps, superior in degree, successively exerted by variously-gifted individuals, have successfully laboured to establish. Hence, the modern poet naturally refers to the models of which that standard is composed, and either selects from its combinations, or casts his creations in the moulds of theirs, and sometimes attempts both.

The author of Anne Boleyn' is an accomplished scholar, and a poet; but his poetry is more artificial than natural; and for his versification he is occasionally indebted both to Shakspeare and Milton. To a comparison with a production of the former, the subject of his present work renders it peculiarly liable; and we think we can perceive that the author of Anne Boleyn found it impossible to resist the force of association and the influence of authority. He has four personages, of which the mighty master' had already given portraits; and the character of Angelo Caraffa is evidently a substitute for that of Cardinal Wolsey. The difference is small between the two portraits of Henry VIII.; the later is the feebler resem,


blance-that is all. Of Gardiner and Cranmer an attempt is made at fuller developement. The remaining characters are constructed upon a principle of contrariety. Shakspeare's Ann Bullen is depicted in the heyday of youth, a triumphant wife, and a happy mother : the Anne Boleyn of our author is a woman of sorrow, and acquainted with grief,—she dies the death of an adulteress, yet innocent of transgression. Angelo Caraffa is differenced from Wolsey by a more marked contrast and opposition. He is the prime agent and motive power of Mr. Milman's poem, and our judgment of its merits must depend upon the way in which this character is delineated and developed. But there is an original sin in the conception : it is entirely imaginary. Shakspeare never makes fictitious characters the prime movers of his historical scenes :-he was content with the truth of history equally as of nature; and more art is shown in bending the stubborn material of history to the poet's purpose, than by eking it out with fanciful succedanea. We might prefer a play founded altogether on fiction ;-the impression, that the pains,' however · majestic,' were once real, affects some too palpably, and they feel them too grossly, to enjoy the representation with that quiet and purifying consciousness, which attends the perusal of a work of unalloyed imagination, the forms whereof are manifested in the purity of the idea. But, in a series of scenes--whether constituting a dramatic poem,'or a 'play' --that distinctly profess to develope a well-known historical event, the prominent introduction of a purely ideal character disturbs our belief, and breaks in upon the unity of the design. Even in epic composition this principle prevails. We look upon all the characters of the Iliad as real; and, in every poetic narrative of an historical event, expect that the author should display some research :-indeed, in numerous instances, poets have been so sensible of what the reader expects in this kind, that they have appended voluminous notes, formally setting forth the authorities for their relations, as if given in evidence before a judge. This, perhaps, is an error on the other side ;—but it proves how necessary they found it to create a belief in the facts of their stories, and the vraisemblance of their persons; which last is a matter of much greater importance than any question of mere anachronism.

Angelo Caraffa is a Jesuit. The disciples of Ignatius Loyola were not incorporated till about five years after the death of Anne Boleyn: but that is, perhaps, a trifle. The character is an endeavour, says our author, to embody that awful spirit of fanaticism—the more awful because strictly conscientious—which was arrayed against our early reformers.' We may readily believe, that the misfortunes of Anne Boleyn were partly occasioned by the secret machinations of the see of Rome; and, with sorrow,


accept the character of Angelo Caraffa, as the embodied conscience of that church. He is one who willingly coinmits the most heinous crimes for conscience' sake-he does evil that good may come. But what is the good proposed? Why, that his church may be catholical in unity—the universal--the only one. Such is his conscience; and such is, or was, the conscience of the church to which he belonged. Such, in truth, is the constitution of the human mind itself: the reason of man almost invariably aspires to the universal and absolute in its ideas of religion, science, morals, legislation. Cardinal Wolsey, on the other hand, may be considered as a symbol of the ambition of his church. Of humble stock

being not propped by ancestry, (whose grace
Chalks successors their way,) nor called upon
For high feats done to the crown ; neither allied
To eminent assistants, but spider-like,
Out of his self-drawing web,

The force of his own merit made his way'he drew together a world of wealth for his own ends indeed, to gain the popedom,—and fee his friends in Rome. He was intent on personal aggrandizement. Angelo Caraffa, on the con

trary, is

a noble born
Of Rome's patrician blood; rich, lettered, versed
In the affairs of men; no monkish dreamer,

Hearing heaven's summons in ecstatic vision.' But he is content that " on him his father's palace-gates no more shall open—to own no more his proud ancestral name,'to forego all property even in the coarse and simple weeds he wears, -to annihilate will, passion, affection, love of kindred, nay, his very self, his personal being,—and boasts that on the altar of his God he has laid a noble sacrifice

a soul

Conscious it might have compassed empire.'
His utmost ambition is to be, merely

• A limb, a nameless limb, of that vast body
That should o'erspread the world, uncheck'd, untrac'd,
Like God's own presence, everywhere, yet nowhere-
The invisible controul, by which Rome rules

The universal mind of man.'
He explains the principle of action in his following passage :

• God spoke within this heart, but with the voice
Of stern, deliberate duty, and I rose
Resolv'd to sail the flood, to tread the fire-

That's nought—to quench all natural compunction,


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