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sity, to fall back upon the empty topic of family dignity, solely in consequence of the Spaniards having left him nothing more substantial to occupy his thoughts; and, in like manner, he was indolent, for no other reason than because he was debarred from the privileges of competition. But let us go on with the picture before us.

'From the first dawning of reason in the children which sprung from these marriages, they were taught by their mothers and relations to abominate with all their little hearts and souls every Spaniard whatsoever, their fathers inclusive. As the children grew up, this vindictive feeling increased, so that it was no uncommon thing to hear young Creoles exclaim, " that, if it were possible, they would draw every drop of Spanish blood from their veins, that its current might not contaminate the pure stream they derived from their mother!"'

Our Peninsular authors see nothing but absurdity in this indignant mode of expressing their feelings, and ask whether anything can be more preposterous-since, if the wish expressed could be granted, and the Spanish blood extracted, none could remain but that of Negroes or of Indians. A Spanish comment indeed upon a Creole text!-We find it impossible to insert above a tenth part of the passages we had marked as extracts from this chapter, all tending to show how completely the framework of society was dislocated by these animosities-animosities which, in the opinion of our authors, were well nigh incurable. Here was extremely delicate ground, we admit, for loyal Spaniards to tread; but still we fancy that we can sometimes discover, even in their very guarded writing, a casual expression, implying a conviction that sooner or later some dreadful political catastrophe must occur,-in short that the gangrene which threatened the life of the whole body politic of the empire could be arrested only by an unsparing amputation of one of its most important limbs.

In a note to this chapter, (p. 448,) the editor discusses, with his usual good sense, and that local familiarity with his subject which gives truth and point to all he says, the real causes of this unremitting hatred between the colonies and the mother-country,causes to which, as he justly observes, Juan and Uiloa could scarcely advert, the essential evil being neither less nor more than the abuse of power by the very persons to whom their report was addressed.

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Every appointment,' he tells us, whether in the church, the judicial department, or that of the revenue, in short, every civil as well as military nomination, emanated from the court of Madrid. The ecclesiastical situations, which were immensely numerous and lucrative, were almost in every instance filled by Spaniards; indeed, it was no

unusual

unusual thing to see the whole chapter of a diocese, from the bishop to the lowest prebendary, all Europeans. Long before a vacancy occurred in South America, the successor used to be named at Madrid, where he remained ready to start at a moment's warning. In the judicial department, the exclusion of the Creoles was still more rigorous and galling to their feelings. The presidents of the courts, the judges, the fiscals, and other officers of the Audiencias, as well as the governors and magistrates, secretaries and treasurers, were all appointed from home. In the revenue department, the same partial system prevailed to such an extent, that one might fancy the ministry in Madrid believed no Creole could either read or write. Very few, if any natives, were permitted to serve in the regular forces of the country, their rank being limited to a colonelcy in the unembodied militia; which, in fact, was an empty title, as these troops were never called into active service, except in the very rare event of a foreign attack. Among the regular clergy, too, it may well be supposed these jealousies found abundant vent, and the convents became the scenes of furious battles between the friars, who opposed vehemently the election of any native to the situation of provincial or prior.

These evils, bad enough in themselves, were rendered still more irksome to the South Americans by the description of persons sent out. The valet of a secretary of state was pretty sure of being rewarded by an appointment as governor. The brother of any particularly pleasing young lady, who had the good fortune to enjoy the protection of a grandee about court, reckoned with certainty upon being made an intendant. Any shrewd or intriguing sycophant, who, by underhand offices, had contrived to bring about some favourite project, became a regent or a judge. The highly-honoured individual who had the happiness to shave his majesty's beard had always great influence, and was looked upon as a moderate man if he contented himself with naming his son collector of the South American customs. On the other hand, if it happened amongst the grandees that one of the family proved himself unworthy to serve in the army, by running away in battle, or by otherwise disgracing himself, he was forthwith shipped off to the colonies-to command a fort. If any province were afflicted with a stupid, thick-headed ecclesiastic, of whom nothing could be made at home, straightway he was got rid off, by transmuting him into a Peruvian bishop, or at least dean. Incompetency and profligacy, in short, of every description, were the surest roads to promotion in the Indies.

"

Taking all these things into consideration,' says the indignant editor, is it to be wondered that the Creoles should have been thoroughly disgusted with the Europeans set over them? Or is it not rather matter of astonishment that they should have submitted so long? But they had no one to whom they could complain, they had not energy enough to resist, and their only consolation seems to have consisted in execrating the usurpers of their birthrights.'-p. 448.

The picture drawn by Ulloa and Juan of the civil and eccle

VOL. XXXV. NO. LXX.

siastical

siastical administration of these colonies, and of the state of domestic society in them, is sufficiently discreditable to the Spanish character, and our readers will scarcely believe it possible that anything much worse remains behind; but this official report shows that the conduct of the Spaniards towards the Creoles might be considered praiseworthy and kind, compared to the treatment which their Indian subjects met with in those unhappy territories. This part of the document is one of great importance, not only in a historical point of view, like most of the passages above referred to, but as touching a great question still before us; for it may be remarked, that we really know as yet very little of the practical effect of the South American revolutions on the condition of the Aborigines, an extensive class of the inhabitants, and interesting to us in many points of view, especially as claiming our compassion for their helplessness and ignorance-They are, in truth, politically speaking, mere children; and it is earnestly to be hoped that this simplicity of character, which, in times past, seems to have made them the easy prey of their rapacious and heartless rulers, will henceforth meet with other treatment. No fewer than five chapters are devoted to this branch of the subject-one which, to ourselves, exceeds in interest any other introduced by the writers, although we are sorry to say that our limits put it quite out of our power to do it justice at present.

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Such is the afflicting nature of this subject,' say our amiable authors, that we cannot enter upon it without expressing the deepest compassion for the wretched fate of a people who had no crime but simplicity of heart. . . so long groaned, has been produced by the insatiable avarice of the This tyranny, under which the Indians have Spaniards, who were not restrained from extorting money by any consideration whatsoever. . . . There were various methods of accomplishing this purpose, the principal one being a capitation-tax of eight dollars per annum on every Indian from the age of eighteen to fiftyfive, often collected with great injustice, two or three times over.'pp. 230-232, 233.

This tribute, however, as it was called, has been already so often described by other authors, that we prefer giving an account of another method of obtaining money from these helpless beings, more cruel, in every respect, than anything we remember to have read of, even in the histories of Asiatic despotism. We allude to what are called, in Spanish, Repartimientos, which might be translated forced allotments:' but we shall use the original word in describing the thing itself, which, as far as we know, is of pure Spanish invention, and which, we hope, will never be translated to any other country.

The corregidors, or magistrates, appear to have had almost

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absolute power in their respective districts, and they exercised it without scruple or remorse. When first nominated to their situations, they were generally in indigent circumstances; but, as their future fortune was certain, they found no difficulty in procuring credit from the shopkeepers at Lima, who were, in fact, very glad of these opportunities to get rid of their damaged or unsaleable goods. In one way or another, then, the corregidor contrived to carry with him to the interior a large quantity of the worst description of merchandise. As soon as he reached his new station, he commenced his administration, by inspecting in person all the different villages under his orders; and, having called over the names of the Indians, placed against each a certain portion of the goods in question, not only without consulting the wants or wishes of the poor people themselves, but without even letting them know the quantity they were to have forced upon them, or the prices they were to pay. This done, the corregidor passed on to another village-having first handed the list to the cacique, or chief, who read to his fellow-villagers what had been set down against his own name and theirs. As soon as these poor wretches heard the quantity of goods they were to take, and the exorbitant charges, they were thrown into the greatest despair; but all the representations of the cacique, and the lamentations of the people, were of no avail-it signified nothing that the whole village did not contain money enough to make up such a sum, still less did it avail to represent that the things were not such as were wanted,-that they were absolutely useless,-that the cost was enormously greater than had ever been charged for similar articles before. The corregidor turned a deaf ear to all that was said, only insisting resolutely upon the payment being completed, and threatening defaulters with punishments as severe as if the royal tribute had been in arrears. Two years and a half were generally allowed the Indians to make up the whole amount of the exaction.

Besides these regular periodical Repartimientos, the corregidors took care never to visit any village for the purpose of collecting money (and they seldom went for any other purpose) without carrying along with them a stock of goods ready to thrust upon those who might happen to have been the most prompt in their payments. Recourse was not now had to precisely downright violence, as in the first or great Repartimiento, but the corregidors had then studiously contrived to dispose of all their useless articles, and kept back for the secondary occasions such things as were really serviceable to the Indians—and of these they were now allowed to make their own selection; until they had done so, however, not a word was said of the price; to name that, after the things were chosen, was a privilege which every corregidor reserved to himself. It is

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needless

needless to say, the Indians were strictly prevented from purchasing anything in other quarters, the only shop in the village being kept by the corregidor.-p. 242.

The absurdity of these Repartimientos equalled their injustice :—

Of what earthly use,' say the commissioners, could a yard or two of velvet or brocade be to a half-naked Indian, employed in digging in the fields or running barefoot by the side of a mule; and who, at the very moment he is driven to his wits' ends to procure the mere necessaries of life, finds himself loaded with a debt of forty or fifty dollars, for a bit of finery which he despises? A poor man, whose highest ambition was, at some future time, to be able to indulge in a pair of the coarsest worsted hose, was obliged to receive half a dozen pairs of silk stockings. Another had spectacles placed by compulsion before eyes, already sufficiently clear to see all the contents of his smoky mud-hut. Some were compelled to encumber themselves with great locks, though the slightest twist of a thong was more than sufficient to secure the access to a hovel, which no mortal would have taken the trouble to enter, had it been left wide open. Indians, who had no beards, and indeed never cut their hair at all, were nevertheless amply supplied with razors. On the same judicious principles, they were never left without stationery, though they could not write a word. Cards and dice, the use of which they could not even conjecture-snuff-boxes, combs-(a comb to an Indian!)-buttons, to those who had no clothes; books, and all sorts of things-the sweepings of the shops in Lima, were forced upon these poor people; articles in every respect unsuited to their tastes, and far beyond their means, but for all of which they were compelled to pay the corregidor.'-p. 248.

Such,' say our travellers after telling some frightful anecdotes of this system, such is a fair picture of the administration of the corregidors-fellows whose sole study was to amass wealth at all hazards; and who, at the expiration of their five years, though their salary was not above two or three thousand dollars, generally contrived to carry off two or three hundred times as much; indeed many have been known to clear not less than half a million of dollars!'-p. 254.

In a note by the Editor (p. 254) we have some curious additional remarks, and a notice of the revolt of the famous cacique, Tupac-Amaru, in 1780, in consequence of the tyranny of two corregidors, Aloz and Arriaga, who, by imposing three Repartimientos in one year, in place of one in two years and a half, (the usual infliction,) drove the Indians to despair. They took abundant revenge at the moment, by putting every Spaniard near them to death; but in the end, after a desolating war of three years, sunk, as usual, under European discipline; and the poor chief, TupacAmaru, was put to death by his conquerors, in a manner too horrible to describe, being first made to witness the slaughter of his wife and children. This formidable insurrection had the good effect of alarming the government; and from that time the Repar

timientos

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