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authorities did not interfere to put a stop to these scandalous abuses but, as our travellers observe, the evil had, from long use, become so rooted in the system, that it could hardly be weeded out; and, in the second place, the said dignitaries fully participated in the wickedness of the climate. This we learn from the most affecting story told of the treacherous methods used to ruin the daughter of a venerable cacique, or Indian chief, at a village in the interior of the country. We regret that the story is too long to translate entire; for it is well told, and, by some of its shocking details, proves even more than it is intended to illustrate; since such circumstances could not possibly have occurred in any society not totally demoralized. The Cura, or priest of the parish in question, had, it seems, in vain tried every art to subdue the native purity of this poor girl, who, though an Indian, and consequently despicable in the eyes of a Spaniard, was considered noble in her own nation. At length he devised a stratagem by which he not only overcame her scruples, but averted the indignation of the old cacique. It was pretended that in certain cases the church of Rome did grant permission for the clergy to marry; and the Cura, affecting to be extremely sorry for the wicked attempts he had heretofore made, declared his intention of now marrying the girl, provided he could procure from the bishop of the diocese the necessary dispensation. The poor Indian and his daughter were deceived by these assurances, and saw a courier set off and return with a forged despatch which they were told was the episcopal license. The marriage was accordingly solemnized by one of the assistants, without witnesses or any of the usual formalities, and after this the parties lived together as man and wife. The rest of the cacique's tribe, however, who had been often told that no clergyman could marry, and knew nothing of the mock ceremony, believed, in spite of what was said, that the daughter of their chief had at last fallen a victim to the arts of the priest, and bitterly deplored the degradation to which their race, and the family of their chief in particular, was reduced. In process of time the truth of the case became generally known; the priest, after being punished by a short suspension from his sacerdotal functions, was removed by his bishop to another living; the Indian girl and her children were turned adrift on the world; and the unfortunate old cacique died shortly afterwards of a broken heart. p. 347.
The whole country appears to have groaned under the exactions levied upon it by the innumerable monastic establishments; on these, we have not leisure to enter into details; but there occurs at page 525 a passing remark, which shows the state of public sen
timent more clearly, perhaps, than could be done by any express descriptions.
'Whenever such subjects came to be discussed, they were viewed by the inhabitants with great detestation; and at the period when the war broke out with England, people spoke their minds with much freedom. Even the most prudent and best-informed laymen, and sometimes even the secular clergy, declared in our presence, that, provided the free exercise of their religion were guaranteed to them, they would consider it the greatest happiness that the country should be invaded and taken possession of by the English-were it for no other reason but to escape the obligation of paying such inordinate taxes to the convents.'-p. 525.
Although every page of this chapter affords evidence of the infamous character of the friars who swarmed in those regions, no express mention is made of the manner in which the stock was supplied from Spain. This omission is, however, made up by Mr. Barry, who was educated, and has resided great part of his life, in Spain; and who, it is proper to observe, is of the Roman Catholic persuasion. Missionaries, he tells us, came annually from the different convents of South America to obtain reinforcements in the Peninsula. These recruits were generally the most perverse and stupid members of the Spanish religious houses, who had become a torment to the superior-refractory monks, who refused to conform to the rule of their order-often wretches, who had been expelled from convent after convent, and were now mere outcasts in their province. To such persons nothing could be more fascinating than the description of the licentious manners of their brethren in Peru, and accordingly the recruiting commissary easily filled his roll. When ready to start they were sent on board any ships which happened to be under sailing orders for the colonies; but so great was the repugnance of the captains to take in such a set of miscreants, that the governor was often obliged to force them on board at the point of the bayonet, and it sometimes happened that the departure of vessels was delayed for several months solely to get rid of these these passengers. (Note to page 509.)
The only exception to this picture of ecclesiastical depravity in South America occurs in the case of the Jesuits, who really seem to have laboured, with all sincerity, to improve the condition of the natives, and who maintained, if not a perfect purity of manners, certainly such a comparative degree of virtue as gave these able and extraordinary men a great and useful influence. Our personal experience, indeed, of the traces left in those countries of the industry of this singular order had led us to expect that such faithful travellers
travellers as Ulloa and Juan would not fail to do them justice. We have room for only one short extract.
The order of the Jesuits (they say) was of the highest utility in those countries-they established schools everywhere, and laboured incessantly to instruct the Indians, and improve their condition. They not only taught the doctrine of Christianity, but took care to inspire their pupils with just conceptions of its spirit. These good works were not confined to those parts of the country where they had established colleges; but extended to the most sequestered corners, farthest removed from adventitious assistance, and, under every circumstance, strenuously set their faces against the immoral practices so prevalent in those regions. The libraries of their colleges, the depositories of learning and piety, were open to every one, and in their own persons they were ready at all hours and seasons to perform the offices of charity and religion. In their churches, the service of God was performed in a reverent, decent, dignified manner; and, in short, the establishments of the Jesuits differed, in almost every respect, from those of all the other orders in South America.'
The editor has added, at the end of this chapter, an exceedingly valuable and interesting note about the Jesuits. He contends, with much ingenuity and force of argument, that the expulsion of this singular order of men contributed materially to accelerate the revolution in those countries, by removing the most powerful auxiliary to the blind and brutal despotism of Spain; for the Jesuits, with all their merits as teachers of the Indians, and practisers of external virtue in the midst of universal pollution, were still the most devoted slaves of their king, and might have been depended upon, to the last drop of their blood, in his worst services. We shall translate some passages of this note:
'The editor's experience of these countries has served to convince him, that the continuation of the Jesuits, in America, might have stopped the revolution, or, at least, have retarded it above a century; or until a more dense population, more extensive knowledge, and other intellectual resources, had enabled them to work out their emancipation with greater unanimity and credit, and at less cost. . . . The influence of the Jesuits, in those countries, may be classed under three heads-in the capitals, and other large cities; in the towns and villages of the interior; and amongst the Indians. In the great cities, they were the absolute rulers of the minds of all the rich and powerful families; for it was only the servants and poor people who went to other convents. The whole of the young men, whom they educated, continued attached to them in a wonderful manner. The decorum of their outward manners, the strict conformity of their maxims with their actual conduct, their knowledge of the world, and the superior intelligence which they possessed over every other class in the country, all taken together, contributed to give them an undisputed ascendancy everywhere; so that, if at any time a faction had arisen
against the king's authority, it would soon have disappeared at their command. In the towns of the interior, their influence was still more absolute. With respect to the sentiments and conduct of their missions, purely Indian, it is useless to say anything. What would have been the consequence of an attempt to stir up the people in any of those places ?-inevitable ruin to the person who dared to interfere. The Indians would have united at their instigation, under the royal standard, not only to resist such attempts, but to repress insurrection in any other quarter. . . . It is needless to show, that the Jesuits would have adhered steadily to the royal cause, for every one knows that the divine right of kings was proverbial amongst them. So that Charles III,, by expelling the order, certainly relinquished the securest hold he possessed over the allegiance of his transatlantic dominions.'-p. 542.
The chapter which treats of the jealousy existing between the Peninsular Spaniards and the Creoles, or Spaniards born in the Colonies, presents a strange picture of a country divided against itself. In fact, to this one root may be traced many of those mighty evils, which overshadowed that unhappy land for so long a period. We have already had occasion to remark, what every one, who has seen anything of Spaniards, knows well enough, that they cannot view with common patience any question which considers the South Americans as entitled to any rights of their own. Accordingly, we find that even these liberal-minded travellers, Ulloa and Juan, who show themselves singularly clear-sighted in everything else, totally mistake the real point of this part of the case. Although, however, they are quite wrong in their reasonings on the subject, nothing can be more faithful than their lively and graphic descriptions of the facts; and every page of this chapter will recal to every South American traveller many scenes, halfpleasant and half-painful at the moment, but pleasant enough to look back to now.
It is quite enough to be born a Spaniard, or what the natives call a chapeton," to secure the bitterest hatred of every Creole; and, in like manner, whoever has the fortune to be born in the Indies may reckon, with equal certainty, upon possessing the unremitting enmity of every old Spaniard. This ill-will is of so confirmed a nature, that it far exceeds that of nations actually at war with each other; in that case, occasional cessations of hostilities do occur-but between Peruvians and Spaniards there is no truce; and so far from intermarriages or other intimate connexions allaying these discords, an exactly opposite effect takes place; in proportion as these intimacies are multiplied, the flames of dissension increase; each fresh tie, instead of weakening, only gives new strength to the rancour. The whole land, indeed, is a field of domestic battle; not a spot but has its combat. In the interior, especially, where this intestine war
is carried on with most vigour, the mass of the inhabitants, who have little or no intercourse with foreigners, may be said to pass their lives in purgatory, many of them in hell, so entirely is everything like peace taken away, and every occurrence made to augment, in one shape or other, the eternal hatred.'-pp. 415, 416.
This is strong language--and we read on with great interest, in hopes of coming to some rational explanation of such a monstrous anomaly in manners; but here disappointment awaited us. It almost always happened, say our authors, that shortly after a Spanish adventurer landed in Peru, (which he commonly did in a very miserable plight,) he got into office, and by thus sharing in the almost entire monopoly of the good things which were going, speedily became rich, and thus made himself an eligible match for the daughters of the noblest families in the country. It appears, accordingly, that persons thus situated found no difficulty in obtaining such alliances, for the ladies of Peru, it is said, always smile most graciously upon those who have most dollars in their pockets, be their birth or other qualifications what they may; and this pecuniary preference, no doubt, was one of the most frequent sources of hostility between the Creoles and Spaniards. But however wealthy or powerful the chapetones might become, it was not possible for them, our authors say, to wash out the remembrance of their former beggarly condition; so that this reproach was sure to be flung in their teeth, by their wives, and even by their children, on the slightest provocation. These reproaches, the truth of which formed their sting, were shared by all, or nearly all the other Spaniards on the spot, who, of course, made common cause to resent a common affront, while the Creole friends of the lady ranged themselves on the other side; and thus began a disgraceful fight, never probably to be concluded in the lifetime of either party. We are next informed, that if there be any one point upon which a Creole prides himself beyond everything else, it is the imagined possession of advantages to which, according to the account of these Spaniards, he has not the smallest title; namely, antiquity, nobility, and purity of descent: this ridiculous family pride, it is asserted, encumbers the race at all times, and occupies all their thoughts and words. And lastly, to this inordinate vanity is superadded, we are told, an unconquerable indolence, which enables the Spaniards, by outstripping them in every branch of industry, to gain wealth by trade and agriculture, and thereby to rob them of the smiles of their mercenary country
Now this, we believe, is, in so far as it goes, a perfectly true statement; but it is one which treats more of the how, than the why. The poor Creole, in fact, was obliged, of absolute neces