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PREFACE.

The Philosophy of the Mind has grown up, like other sciences, from small beginnings. Many propositions, coming too, in many instances, from able writers, have been thrown aside ; truth has been sifted out from the mass of error, until at last a great number of important principles is ascertained. But while it is exceedingly necessary that our youth should be made acquainted with these principles, it is impossible that they should go through with all the complicated discussions which have been held in respect to them. Many of the books in which these discussions are contained have become exceedingly rare; and, if they were not so, no small number of students, who are now in the course of as thorough an education as our country affords, would not be able to purchase them. And besides, by placing before the student a mass of crude and conflicting statements, his mind becomes perplexed. To be able to resolve such a mass into its elements, and to separate truth from error, implies an acquaintance with the laws of the intellect, and a degree of mental discipline, which he is not yet supposed to have acquired; and hence, instead of obtaining much important knowledge, he becomes distrustful of everything.

Now these evils, saying nothing of the loss of time attendant on such a course, are to be remedied in the same way as in other sciences. In other departments of learning, ingenious men discuss points of difficulty; conflicting arguments are accumulated, until the preponderance on one side is such that the question in debate is considered

settled. Others employ themselves in collecting facts, in classifying them, and in deducing general principles; and when all this is done, the important truths of the science, collected from such a variety of sources, and suitably arranged and expressed, are laid before the student, in order that he may become acquainted with them. And this is what is attempted, to some extent, to be done in the present work, which is an abridgment of a larger work on the same subject. In the larger work, the principles of Eclecticism and Induction, which have just been referred to, are applied on a more extensive scale than in the present. I have been obliged necessarily to exclude from the abridgment many interesting and striking illustrations and facts, and some general philosophical views, which would have had a place if our limits had permitted. I indulge the hope, nevertheless, as the abridgment has been made with no small degree of care, that it will answer the purpose for which it is particularly designed ; viz., the assistance of those youth who need some knowledge of Mental Philosophy, but are not in a situation to prosecute the subject to any great extent.

THOMAS C. UPHAM.

Bowdoin College, May, 1840.

CON T E N T S.

19

DIVISION I.

THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING.

INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES OF THE MIND.

12. , Sdinstveno

interessieren . PART I.

INTELLECTUAL STATES OF EXTERNAL ORIGIN.

CHAPTER 1. med.

ORIGIN OF KNOWLEDGE IN GENERAL.

Section

1. The mind susceptible of a threefold division . . .

2. The Intellect susceptible of a subordinate division

3. Of the connexion of the mind with the material world ..

4. Our first knowledge in general of a material or external origin ,

6. Shown further from what we notice in children. .

6. Further proof of the beginnings of knowledge from external causes

7. The same subject further illustrated .

8. Illustration from the case of James Mitchell . .

CHAPTER II. .

SENSATION AND PERCEPTION.

9. Sensation a simple mental state originating in the senses.

10. All sensation is properly and truly in the mind

11. Sensations are not images or resemblances of objects. .

12. The connexion between the mental and physical change not ca.

pable of explanation . .

: : :

13. Of the meaning and nature of perception

14. Perception makes us acquainted with a material world

15. Of the primary and secondary qualities of matter . . .

16. Of the secondary qualities of matter . . . .

CHAPTER III. S.

THE SENSES OF SMELL AND TASTE.

17. Nature and importance of the senses as a source of knowledge.

18. Connexion of the brain with sensation and perception

19. Order in which the senses are to be considered . .

20. Of the sense and sensations of smell.

21. Of perceptions of smell in distinction from sensations . .

22. Of the sense and the sensations of taste . . .

CHAPTER IV.

THE SENSE OF HEARING.

23. Organ of the sense of hearing . . . . . . . .

24. Varieties of the sensation of sound

25. Manner in which we learn the place of sounds . . . .

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CHAPTER VI. 6.

THE SENSE OF SIGHT.

33. Of the organ of sight, and the uses or benefits of that sense

34. Statement of the mode or process in visual perception

35. Of the original and acquired perceptions of sight

36. The idea of extension not originally from sight.

37. Of the knowledge of the figure of bodies by the sight.

38. Illustration of the subject from the blind .

39. Measurements of magnitude by the eye . . . .

40. Of objects seen in a mist . .

41. Of the sun and moon when seen in the horizon.

42. Of the estimation of distances by sight

43. Signs by means of which we estimate distance by sight

44. Estimation of distance when unaided by intermediate objects

45. Of objects seen on the ocean, &c. . .

CHAPTER VII.

HABITS OF SENSATION AND PERCEPTION.

46. General view of the law of habit and of its applications .

47. The law of habit applicable to the mind as well as the body

48. Of habit in relation to the smell ..

49. Of habit in relation to the taste .

50. Of habit in relation to the hearing

51. Application of habit to the touch. .

52. Other striking instances of habits of touch . .

53. Habits considered in relation to the sight . .

54. Sensations may possess a relative, as well as positive increase of

power .

55. of habits as modified by particular callings and arts : :

56. The law of habit considered in reference to the perception of the

outlines and forms of objects . .

57. Notice of some facts which favour the above doctrine .

.

58. Additional illustrations of Mr. Stewart's doctrine . . .

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CHAPTER (X. X

SIMPLICITY AND COMPLEXNESS OF MENTAL STATES.

Section

67. Origin of the distinction of simple and complex ..

68. Nature and characteristics of simple mental states . .

69. Simple mental states not susceptible of definition

70. Simple mental states representative of a reality ,

71. Origin of complex notions, and their relation to simple .

72. Supposed complexness without the antecedence of simple feelings

The precise sense in which complexness is to be understood

74. Illustrations of analysis as applied to the mind .

75. Complex notions of external origin

76. Of objects contemplated as wholes

CHAPTER X. 12.

ABSTRACTION.

77. Abstraction implied in the analysis of complex ideas

78. Instances of particular abstract ideas.

79. Mental process in separating and abstracting them . .

80. General abstract notions the same with genera and species

81. Process in classification, or the forming of genera and species

82. Early classifications sometimes incorrect . . .

83. Illustrations of our earliest classifications . . .

84. Of the nature of general abstract ideas

85. The power of general abstraction in connexion with numbers, &c.

86. Of general abstract truths or principles

87. Of the speculations of philosophers and others . . . 100

CHAPTER XI. 10.

or ATTENTION.

88. Of the general nature of attention

89. Of different degrees of attention .

90. Dependence of memory on attention . . . . . .

91. Of exercising attention in reading

92. Alleged inability to command the attention . . . .

CHAPTER XII. X

DREAMING.

"793. Definition of dreams and the prevalence of them .

94. Connexion of dreams with our waking thoughts . . .

95. Dreams are often caused by our sensations . .

96. Explanation of the incoherency of dreams. (1st cause) .

97. Second cause of the incoherency of dreams.

98. Apparent reality of dreams. (1st cause)

. 111

99. Apparent reality of dreams. (2d cause)

· 112

100. of our estimate of time in dreaming :

. 113

101. Explanation of the preceding statements .

. 114

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110

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