Elements of Mental Philosophy: Abridged and Designed as a Text-book for Academies and High Schools

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Harper & brothers, 1842 - 480 страници
 

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The connexion between the mental and physical change not ca pable of explanation
26
Of the meaning and nature of perception
27
Of the primary and secondary qualities of matter
28
Of the secondary qualities of matter
29
THE SENSES OF SMELL AND TASTI 17 Nature and importance of the senses as a source of knowledge
30
Connexion of the brain with sensation and perception
31
Order in which the senses are to be considered
32
Of perceptions of smell in distinction from sensations
33
Of the sense and the sensations of taste
34
CHAPTER IV
35
Varieties of the sensation of sound
36
Manner in which we learn the place of sounds
37
Of the sense of touch in general and its sensations
38
Origin of the notion of extension and of form or figure
40
On the sensations of heat and cold
41
Of the sensations of hardness and softness
42
Of certain indefinite feelings sometimes ascribed to the touch
44
Relation between the sensation and what is outwardly signified
45
i
46
Statement of the mode or process in visual perception
47
Of the original and acquired perceptions of sight
48
The idea of extension not originally from sight
49
Of the knowledge of the figure of bodies by the sight
50
Illustration of the subject from the blind
51
Measurements of magnitude by the eye
52
Of objects seen in a mist
53
Of the estimation of distances by sight
54
Signs by means of which we estimate distance by sight
55
Estimation of distance when unaided by intermediate objects
56
Of objects seen on the ocean c
57
CHAPTER VII
58
The law of habit applicable to the mind as well as the body ib 48 Of habit in relation to the smell
59
Of habit in relation to the taste
60
Of habit in relation to the hearing
62
Application of habit to the touch
64
Other striking instances of habits of touch
65
Habits considered in relation to the sight
66
Sensations may possess a relative as well as positive increase of power
68
Of habits as modified by particular callings and arts
69
The law of habit considered in reference to the perception of the outlines and forms of objects
70
Notice of some facts which favour the above doctrine
71
Additional illustrations of Mr Stewarts doctrine
72
CHAPTER VIII
73
Of conceptions of objects of sight
74
Of the influence of habit on our conceptions
76
Influence of habit on conceptions of sight 63 Of the subserviency of our conceptions to description
77
Of conceptions attended with a momentary belief
78
Conceptions which are joined with perceptions
81
Conceptions as connected with fictitious representations
82
Origin of the distinction of simple and complex
83
Simple mental states not susceptible of definition
84
Simple mental states representative of a reality
85
Origin of complex notions and their relation to simple
86
Supposed complexness without the antecedence of simple feelings
87
73
88
74
89
Complex notions of external origin
90
76
91
77
92
ib 78
93
Mental process in separating and abstracting them
94
General abstract notions the same with genera and species
95
81
96
Early classifications sometimes incorrect
97
Of the nature of general abstract ideas
98
The power of general abstraction in connexion with numbers c
99
Of genera abstract truths or principles ib 87 Of the speculations of philosophers and others
100
CHAPTER XI
101
Of different degrees of attention
102
Dependence of memory on attention
103
Of exercising attention in reading
104
Alleged inability to command the attention
105
CHAPTER XII
107
Dreams are often caused by our sensations
108
Explanation of the incoherency of dreams 1st cause
110
Apparent reality of dreams 1st cause
111
Apparent reality of dreams 2d cause
112
Of our estimate of time in dreaming
113
Explanation of the preceding statements
114
PART II
117
CHAPTER I
119
Declaration of Locke that the soul has knowledge in itself
120
There may also be internal accessions to knowledge
121
Instances of notions which have an internal origin
122
ORIGINAL SUGGESTION 108 Import of suggestion and its application in Reid and Stewart
123
Ideas of existence mind selfexistence and personal identity
124
Of the nature of unity and the origin of that notion
126
Nature of succession and origin of the idea of succession
127
Origin of the notion of duration
128
Of time and its measurements and of eternity
129
The idea of space not of external origin
130
The idea of space has its origin in suggestion
131
Of the origin of the idea of power
132
Of the ideas of right and wrong
133
Origin of the ideas of moral merit and demerit
134
Of other elements of knowledge developed in suggestion
135
CHAPTER III
136
Further remarks on the proper objects of consciousness 125 Consciousnes a ground or law of belief 126 Instances of knowledge developed in consci...
138
V
140
Occasions on which feelings of relation may arise
141
Of the use of correlative terms 130 Of relations of identity and diversity
142
it Relations of degree and names expressive of them
143
in Of relations of proportion
144
iv Of relations of place or position
145
v Of relations of time
146
vi Of ideas of possession
147
ib 140 141 142 ib 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 136 vii Of relations of cause and effect
148
Of complex terms involving the relation of cause and effect
149
Connexion of relative suggestion with reasoning
150
CHAPTER V
151
Of the general laws of association
152
Resemblance the first general law of association
153
Of resemblance in the effects produced
154
Contrast the second general or primary law
155
Contiguity the third general or primary law
157
Cause and effect the fourth primary law
158
_?
159
Remarks on the general nature of memory
166
Of memory as a ground or law of belief
167
Of differences in the strength of memory
168
Of circumstantial memory or that species of memory which is based on the relations of contiguity in time and place
169
Illustrations of specific or circumstantial memory
170
Of philosophic memory or that species of memory which is based on other relations than those of contiguity
171
Illustrations of philosophic memory
172
Of that species of memory called intentional recollection
173
Nature of intentional recollection
174
Marks of a good memory
175
Directions or rules for the improvement of the memory
177
Further directions for the improvement of the memory
179
Of observance of the truth in connexion with memory
180
CHAPTER V1I1 DURATION OF MEMORY 167 Restoration of thoughts and feelings supposed to be forgotten
181
Mental action quickened by influence on the physical system
183
Other instances of quickened mental action and of a restoration of thoughts
184
Approval and illustrations of these views from Coleridge
185
Application of the principles of this chapter to education
187
Connexion of this doctrine with the final judgment and a future life
189
CHAPTER IX
190
Definition of reasoning and of propositions
191
Process of the mind in all cases of reasoning
192
Illustration of the preceding statement
193
Grounds of the selection of propositions
194
Reasoning implies the existence of antecedent or assumed propo sitions
195
Further considerations on this subject
196
Of differences in the power of reasoning
197
Of habits of reasoning
198
Of reasoning in connexion with language or expression
199
Illustration of the foregoing section
200
Section jNf 185 Of the subjects of demonstrative reasoning
201
Use of definitions and axioms in demonstrative reasoning
202
The opposites of demonstrative reasonings absurd
203
Demonstrations do not admit of different degrees of belief
204
Of the use of diagrams in demonstrations
205
2 C
206
Of the nature of moral certainty
207
Of reasoning from analogy
208
Of reasoning by induction
209
Of combined or accumulated arguments
210
2
211
Care to be used in correctly stating the subject of discussion
212
Consider the kind of evidence applicable to the subject
213
Fallacia equivocationis or the use of equivocal terms and phrases
215
Of the sophism of estimating actions and character from the cir cumstances of success merely
216
Of adherence to our opinions
217
Effects on the mind of debating for victory instead of truth
218
7
219
The imagination closely related to the reasoning power
220
Definition of the power of imagination
221
Process of the mind in the creations of the imagination
222
Further remarks on the same subject 209 Illustration from the writings of Dr Reid
223
First cause of permanently vivid conceptions or apparitions Morbid sensibility of the retina of the eye
235
Second cause of permanently excited conceptions or apparitions Neglect of periodical bloodletting
237
Methods of relief adopted in this case
239
Third cause of excited conceptions Attacks of fever
240
Fourth cause of apparitions and other excited conceptions In flammation of the brain
241
Facts having relation to the fourth cause of excited conceptions
242
Fifth cause of apparitions Hysteria
243
CHAPTER XV
244
ib 253 254 255 256 228 Of disordered or alienated sensations
245
Of disordered or alienated external perception
246
Disordered state or insanity of original suggestion
247
Unsoundness or insanity of consciousness
248
Insanity of the judgment or relative suggestion
249
Disordered or alienated association Lightheadedness
250
Illustrations of this mental disorder
251
Of partial insanity ot alienation of the memory 236 Of the power of reasoning in the partially insane
253
Instance of the above form of insanity of reasoning
254
Partial mental alienation by means of the imagination
255
Insanity or alienation of the power of belief
256
DIVISION II
259
SENTIENT OR SENSITIVE STATES OF THE HIND SENTIMENTS INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION OF THE SENSIBILITIES 240 Referen...
261
Division of the sensibilities into natural or pathematic and moral
262
The moral and natural sensibilities have different objects
263
The moral sensibilities higher in rank than the natural
264
Classification of the natural sensibilities
265
Classification of the moral sensibilities
266
PART I
267
NATURE OF THE EMOTIONS 248 We have a knowledge of emotions by consciousness
269
The place of emotions considered in reference to other mental acts
270
The character of emotions changes so as to comform to that of perceptions
271
Emotions characterized by rapidity and variety
272
EMOTIONS OF BEAUTY Section Pig 252 Characteristics of emotions of beauty
273
Of what is meant by beautiful objects
274
Of the distinction between beautiful and other objects
275
Grounds or occasions of emotions of beauty various
276
All objects not equally fitted to cause these emotions
277
A susceptibility of emotions of beauty an ultimate principle of our mental constitution
278
Remarks on the beauty of forms The circle
279
Original or intrinsic beauty The circle
280
Of square pyramidal and triangular forms
281
Of the original or intrinsic beauty of colours 283
283
Further illustrations of the original beauty of colours
284
Of sounds considered as a source of beauty
286
Illustrations of the original beauty of sounds
287
Further instances of the original beauty of sounds
290
The permanency of musical power dependent on its being intrinsic ib 268 Of motion as an element of beauty
291
Explanation of the beauty of motion from Kaimes
292
ASSOCIATED BEAUTY 270 Associated beauty implies an antecedent or intrinsic beauty
293
Objects may become beautiful by association merely
294
Further illustrations of associated feelings
295
Instances of national associations
297
The sources of associated beauty coincident with those of human happiness
298
Summary of views in regard to the beautiful
299
EMOTIONS OF SUBLIMITY 276 Connexion between beauty and sublimity
300
The occasions of the emotions of sublimity various
301
Great extent or expansion an occasion of sublimity
302
Of depth in connexion with the sublime
303
Of colours in connexion with the sublime
304
Of motion in connexion with the sublime
305
Indications of power accompanied by emotions of the sublime
306
Of the original or primary sublimity of objects
307
Influence of association on emotions of sublimity
308
CHAPTER V
309
Occasions of emotions of the ludicrous
310
Of what is understood by wit 291 Of wit as it consists in burlesque or in debasing objects
311
Of wit when employed in aggrandizing objects
312
Of the character and occasions of humour
313
Of the practical utility of feelings of the ludicrous
314
Emotions of melancholy sorrow and grief
315
Emotions of surprise astonishment and wonder
316
Emotions of diffidence modesty and shame
317
CLASS II
318
THE DESIRES
319
CHAPTER I
321
Of the place of desires in relation to other mental states
322
The desires characterized by comparative fixedness and perma nency
323
Desires always imply an object desired
324
Of variations or degrees in the strength of the desires
325
309
326
310
327
ib 312
328
313
330
314
331
Of the final cause or use of instincts
332
CHAPTER III
333
Of the prevalence and origin of appetites for intoxicating drugs
334
Of the twofold operation and the morality of the appetites
335
CHAPTER IV
336
Principle of selfpreservation or the desire of continued existence
337
Of the twofold action of the principle of selfpreservation
338
Further illustrations of the principle of curiosity
339
Of the twofold operation and the morality of the principle of curi osity 34
340
Imitativeness or the propensity to imitation
341
Practical results of the principle of imitation
342
Section ftga 328 Of the natural desire of esteem
344
Of the desire of esteem as a rule of conduct
345
Of the desire of possession
346
Of the moral character of the possessory principle
347
Of perversions of the possessory desire
348
Of the desire of power
349
Of the moral character of the desire of power
350
Propensity of selflove or the desire of happiness
351
33G Of selfishness as distinguished from selflove
352
Reference to the opinions of philosophical writers
353
The principle of sociality original in the human mind
354
Evidence of the existence of this principle of sociality
355
Other illustrations of the existence of this principle
356
Relation of the social principle to civil society
357
CHAPTER V
358
Of the complex nature of the affections
359
Of resentment or anger
360
Illustrations of instinctive resentment
361
Of voluntary in distinction from instinctive resentment
362
Tendency of anger to excess and the natural checks to it
363
Other reasons for checking and subduing the angry passions
365
Modifications of resentment Peevishness
366
Modifications of resentment Envy
367
Modifications of resentment Jealousy
368
Modifications of resentment Revenge
369
CHAPTER VI
371
Love in its various forms characterized by a twofold action
372
Illustrations of the strength of the parental affection
374
Of the filial affection
375
The filial affection original or implanted
376
Illustrations of the filial affection
377
Of the nature of the fraternal affection
379
On the utility of the domestic affections
380
Of the moral character of the domestic affections and of the be nevolent affections generally
381
Of the moral character of the voluntary exercises of the benevo lent affections
382
Of the connexion between benevolence and rectitude
383
Of humanity or the love of the human race
384
Further proofs in support of the doctrine of an innate humanity or love for the human race
386
Proofs of a humane or philanthropic principle from the existence of benevolent institutions
387
Other remarks in proof of the same doctrine
388
Of patriotism or love of country
389
Of the affection of friendship
390
Of the affection of pity or sympathy
391
Of the moral character of pity
392
Of the affection of gratitude
394
Section Par
395
CHAPTER VIII
404
PART II
413
CHAPTER II
419
Further proof from the conduct of men
425
CHAPTER IV
433
Further illustrations of the influence of wrong speculative opin
439
Of the discouragements attending a process of moral instruction
445
CHAPTER I
451
Section Itp 428 Disordered action of the principle of selfpreservation
454
Disordered and alienated action of the possessory principle
455
Disordered action of imitativeness or the principle of imitation
456
Disordered action of the principle of sociality
457
Further remarks on the disordered action of the social propensity
458
Of the disordered action of the desire of esteem
459
Disordered action of the desire of power
460
CHAPTER II
461
Familiar instances of sympathetic imitation
462
Instances of sympathetic imitation at the poorhouse of Harlem
463
Other instances of this species of imitation
464
CHAPTER III
465
Of sudden and strong impulses of the mind
467
Insanity of the affections or passions
468
Of the mental disease termed hypochondriasis
469
Of intermissions of hypochondriasis and of its remedies
471
Disordered action of the passion of fear
473
CHAPTER IV
475
Of accountability in connexion with this form of disordered con science
476
Of natural or congenital moral derangement
477
Of moral accountability in cases of natural or congenital moral derangement
479

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