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apostle. And no doubt such as Longinus descende

St. Paul, such he appeared to the inhabitants

such objects will give our discourse a noble vigour tho

an invincible force, beyond the power of any betha N° 633. WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1714. man consideration. Tully requires in his perfet pre

orator some skill in the nature of heavenly bodies


of L Omnia profecto cum se a cielestibus rebus referet ad humanas because, says he, his mind will become more s excelsius magnificentiusque et dicet et sentiei.

tensive and unconfined; and when he descends to the CICERO.

creat of human affairs, he will both think sad vor The contemplation of celestial things will make a man both write in a more exalted and magnificent manne. pres

speak and think more sublimely and magnificently when he For the same reason that excellent master rol spos descends to human affairs.

have recommended the study of those greatest The following discourse is printed as it came to my cous; to which the noblest parts of this system demo

(glorious mysteries which revelation has discorendid hands, without variation.

the world are as much inferior as the creature i ede bir Cambridge, Dec. 11.

less excellent than its Creator. The wisest est 'It was a very common inquiry among the an. most knowing among the heathens had very per thoug cients, why the number of excellent orators, under and imperfect notions of a future state. They but what all the encouragements the most flourishing states indeed some uncertain hopes, either received a Green could give them, fell so far short of the number of tradition, or gathered by reason, that the existente celler those who excelled in all other sciences. A friend of virtuous men would not be determined by the of mine used merrily to apply to this case an ob- separation of soul and body: but they either dis servation of Herodotus, who says, that the most believed a future state of punishment and mixer; useful animals are the most fruitful in their gene. or, upon the same account that Apelles paiste sreak ration; whereas the species of those beasts that Antigonus with one side only towards the spectar, som are fierce and mischievous to mankind are but that the loss of his eye might not cast a blenia scarcely continued. The historian instances in a upon the whole piece: so these represented at betall hare, which always either breeds or brings forth condition of man in its fairest view, and ends us t and a lioness, which brings forth but once, and voured to conceal what they thought was a deis judgm then loses all power of conception. But leaving mity to human nature. I have often observed water my friend to his mirth, I am of opinion that in these that whenever the above-mentioned orator in de kis latter ages we have greater cause of complaint philosophical discourses is led by his than the ancients had. And since that solemn fes. the mention of immortality, he seems like tival is approaching, which calls for all the power awaked out of sleep; roused and alarmed with the mished

, of oratory, and which afords as noble a subject for dignity of the subject, he stretches his imagination ber my the pulpit as any revelation has taught us, the de. to conceive something uncommon, and, with the of the sign of this paper shall be to show that our mo- greatness of his thoughts, casts, as it were

, a ghirupen t derns have greater advantages towards true and round the sentence. Uncertain and unsettled alle solid eloquence than any which the celebrated was, he seems fixed with the contemplation de cateres speakers of antiquity enjoyed.

And nothing but such a glorious prospect could be therefc "The first great and substantial difference is, that forced so great a lover of truth as he was to do their common places, in which almost the whole clare his resolution never to part with his peram force of amplification consists, were drawn from sion of immortality, though it should be proredo sa upo the profit or honesty of the action, as they regard. be an erroneous one. But had he lived to set ed only this present state of duration. But Christi. that Christianity has brought to light, how we anity, as it exalts morality to a greater perfection, he have lavished out all the force of eloquent : as it brings the consideration of another life into those noblest contemplations which human natin the question, as it proposes rewards and punish- is capable of, the resurrection and the judga ments of a higher nature and a longer continuance, that follows it? How had his breast glowed wat is more adapted to affect the minds of the audience, pleasure, when the whole compass of futurit u bez naturally inclined to pursue what it imagines its open and exposed to his view! How would his greatest interest and concern. If Pericles, as his. gination have burried him on in the pursuit de torians report, could shake the firmest resolutions mysteries of the incarnation ! How would be bent best of his hearers, and set the passions of all Greece entered, with the force of lightning, into the fee in a ferment, when the present welfare of his tions of his hearers, and fixed their attentiva their country, or the fear of hostile invasions, was the spite of all the opposition of corrupt nature, subject'; what may be expected from that orator those glorious themes which his eloquence ! who warns his audience against those evils which painted in such lively and lasting colours! have no remedy, whenonce undergone, either from * This advantage Christians have ; and in prudence or time? As much greater as the evils in with no small pleasure I lately met with a fire a future state are than these at present, so much ment of Longinus, which is preserved, are the motives to persuasion under Christianity mony of that critic's judgment, at the beginning greater than those which mere moral considerations a manuscript of the New Testament in the his could supply us with. But what I now mention can library. After that author has numbered relates

only to the power of moving the affections. the most celebrated orators among the Grecians * There is another part of eloquence which is indeed says, “add to these Paul of Tarsus, the patro its masterpiece ; I mean the marvellous, or sub- an opinion not yet fully proved." As a heater lime. In this the Christian orator has the advan- lie condemns the Christian religion; and, a da tage beyond contradiction. Our ideas are so infi- impartial critic, he judges in favour of the y nitely enlarged by revelation, the eye of reason moter and preacher of it. To me it seems has so wide a prospect into eternity, the notions the latter part of his judgment adds great regler of a Deity are so worthy and refined, and the ac- to his opinion of St. Paul's abilities, since, eter counts we have of a state of happiness or misery all the prejudice of opinions directly opposition so clear and

evident, that the contemplation of is constrained to acknowledge the merit of the

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ilgu zis those countries which he visited and blessed with rious. The finest works of invention and imaginaer those doctrines he was divinely commissioned to tion are of very little weight when put in the ba. Go to preach. Sacred story gives us, in one circumstance, lance with what refines and exalts the rational As a convincing proof of his eloquence, when the men mind. Longinus excuses Homer very handsomely, und of Lystra called him Mercury, " because he was when he says the poet made his gods like men,

at the chief speaker," and would have paid divine that he might make his men appear like the gods. men bi worship to him, as to the God who invented and But it must be allowed that several of the ancient It rapresided over eloquence. This one account of our philosophers acted as Cicero wishes Homer had to the apostle sets bis character, considered as an ora-done : they endeavoured rather to make men like dator only, above all the celebrated relations of the gods than gods like men. ramuskill and influence of Demosthenes and his con. According to this general maxim in philosophy, Besartemporaries. 'Their power in speaking was admir- some of them have endeavoured to place men in need, but still it was thought human : their eloquence such a state of pleasure, or indolence at least, as

olen warmed and ravished the hearers, but still it was they vainly imagined the happiness of the Supreme poses:hought the voice of man, not the voice of God. Being to consist in. On the other hand, the most obat What advantage then had St. Paul above those of virtuous sect of philosophers have created a chi.

Greece or Rome? I confess I can ascribe this ex. merical wise man, whom they made exempt from dowellence to nothing but the power of the doctrines passions and pain, and thought it enough to pro

he delivered, which may bave still the same influ. nounce him all-sufficient. bence on his hearers; which have still the power, This last character, when divested of the glare dd nwhen preached by a skilful orator, to make us of human philosophy that surrounds it, signifies no

Oreak out in the same expressions as the disciples more than that a good and wise man should so arm a who met our Saviour in their way to Emmaus made himself with patience, as not to yield tamely to use of: “Did not our hearts burn within us when the violence of passion and pain; that he should je talked to us by the way, and while he opened learn so to suppress and contract his desires as to o us the scriptures?" I may be thought bold in my have few wants; and that he should cherish so judgment by some, but I must affirm that no one many virtues in his soul as to have a perpetual brator has left us so visible marks and footsteps source of pleasure in himself. of his eloquence as our apostle. It may perhaps The Christian religion requires that, after hav. be wondered at that, in his reasonings upon idola-ing framed the best idea we are able of the divine Getry at Athens, where eloquence was born and flou- nature, it should be our next care to conform ourished, he confines himself to strict argument only; selves to it as far as our imperfections will permit. but my reader may remember what many authors I might mention several passages in the sacred of the best credit have assured us, that all attempts writings on this head, to which I might add many upon the affections and strokes of oratory were maxims and wise sayings of moral authors among expressly forbidden by the laws of that country in the Greeks and Romans. courts of judicature. His want of eloquence, I shall only instance a remarkable passage, to Therefore here was the effect of his exact confor. this purpose, out of Julian's Cæsars.*' That em. nity to the laws; but his discourse on the resurrec- peror having represented all the Roman emperors, tion to the Corinthians, his harangue before Agrip with Alexander the Great, as passing in review be. pa upon his own conversion, and the necessity of fore the gods, and striving for the superiority, lets hat of others, are truly great, and may serve as full them all drop, excepting Alexander, Julius Cæsar, examples to those excellent rules for the sublime, Augustus Cæsar, Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, and which the best of critics has left us. The sum of Constantine. Each of these great heroes of antiill this discourse is, that our clergy have no further quity lays in his claim for the upper place; and in to look for an example of the perfection they may order to it, sets forth his actions after the most adarrive at than to St. Paul's harangues; that when vantageous manner. But the gods, instead of be. the, under the want of several advantages of na. ing dazzled with the lustre of their actions, inquire ture as he himself tells us, was heard, admired, by Mercury into the proper motive and governing and made a standard to succeeding ages by the principle that influenced them throughout the best judges of a different persuasion in religion ; 1 whole series of their lives and exploits. Alexander zay our clergy may learn that, however instructive tells them that bis aim was to conquer; Julius their sermons are, they are capable of receiving a Cæsar, that his was to gain the highest post in his great addition; which St. Paul has given them a country : Augustus, to govern well; Trajan, that noble example of, and the Christian religion has his was the same as that of Alexander, namely, to furnished them with certain means of attaining to.' conquer. The question, at length, was put to (DR. PEARCE, afterwards Bp. of Rochester.] Marcus Aurelius, who replied, with great modesty,

that it had always been his care to imitate the gods. This conduct seems to have gained him the most votes and best place in the whole assembly.

Marcus Aurelius, being afterwards asked to exNo 634. FRIDAY, DECEMBER 17, 1714. plain himself, declares, that, by imitating the gods,

he endeavoured to imitate them in the use of his

understanding and of all other faculties; and, in “Ο ελαχισων δεομενα εγισα Θεων.


particular, that it was always his study to have as

few wants as possible in himself, and to do all the The fewer our wants, the nearer we resemble the gods. good he could to others.

Among the many methods by which revealed rer was the common boast of the heathen philoso-ligion has advanced morality, this is one, that it hers, that by the efficacy of their several doc. has given us a more just and perfect idea of that ines, they made human nature resemble the di- Being whom every reasonable creature ought to imi:

How much mistaken soever they might be tate. The young man in a beathen comedy, might the several means they proposed for this end, it 41st be owned that the design was great and glo Spanheim, Les Cesars de L'Empereur Julien, 45


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justify his lewdness by the example of Jupiter ; as, any created world can do: and that therefore

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pe indeed, there was scarce any crime that might not it is not to be supposed that God should make a be countenanced by those notions of the deity world merely of inanimate matter, however diver. which prevailed among the common people in the sified or inhabited only by creatures of no higha heathen world. Revealed religion sets forth a pro- an order than brutes, so the end for wbich he de per object for imitation in that Being who is the signed his reasonable offspring is the contemplatise pattern, as well as the source, of all spiritual per- of his works, the enjoyment of himself, and in both fection.

to be happy; having to this purpose, endowed then iter While we remain in this life we are subject to with correspondent faculties and desires

. He can innumerable templations, which, if listened to, have no greater pleasure from the bare reries de will make us deviate from reason and goodness, his works than from the survey of his own ike the the only things wherein we can imitate the Su- but we may be assured that he is well pleased it all preme Being. In the next life we meet with no- the satisfaction derived to beings capable of it, and thing to excite our inclinations that doth not de. for whose entertainment he hath erected this is

enjo! serve them. I shall therefore dismiss my reader mense theatre. Is not this more than an intimana wish with this maxim, viz. Our happiness in this of our immortality ? Man, who, when considerata of the world proceeds from the suppression of our de- as on his probation for a happy existence hereafter sires, but in the next world from the gratification is the most remarkable instance of Divine risto, of them.'

if we cut bim off from all relation to etemti, i band [The author uncertain.}

the most remarkable and unaccountable corapa
sition in the whole creation. He hath capacities
to lodge a much greater variety of knowledge shay Mike
he will be ever master of, and an unsatished ca

osity to tread the secret paths of nature and promo come No 635. MONDAY, DECEMBER 20, 1714. dence: but with this, bis organs, in their prestaben

structure, are rather fitted to serve the necesso trutlis Sentio te sedem hominum ac domum contemplari; quæ si tibi ing; and, from the little spot to which he is cbea


of a vile body, than to minister to his understand parva (ut est) ita videtur, hæc coelestia semper spectaco; illa

ed, he can frame but wandering guesses conce" and,

CICERO Somn. Seip. ing the innumerable worlds of light that encompase these I perceive you contemplate the seat and habitation of men : bigness, do but just glimmer in the remotespacese

him, which, though in themselves of a prodigunlestial po , por appears as little to you as it really is, fi mur eyes the heavens; and when, with a great deal of is perpetuaily upon heavenly objects, and despise earthly.

and pains, he hath laboured a little way up the step and he The following essay comes from the ingenious ascent of truth, and beholds with pity the game when author of the letter upon Novelty, printed in a ling multitude beneath, in a moment his fooi als fastest late Spectator :* the notions are drawn from the and he tumbles down headlong into the grave. Platonic way of thinking; but, as they contribute Thinking on this, I am obliged to believe

, 9 to raise the mind, and may inspire noble senti- justice to the Creator of the world, that there is ments of our own future grandeur and happiness, another state when man shall be better situated is I think it well deserves to be presented to the contemplation, or rather have it in his power * public.

remove from object to object, and from world's

world; and be accommodated with senses, 24 If the universe be the creature of an intelligent other helps, for making the quickest and Ex mind, this mind could have no immediate regard to amazing discoveries. How doth such a genius B himself in producing it. He needed not to make Sir Isaac Newton, from amidst the darkness fitx trial of his omnipotence to be informed what ef. involves human understanding, break forth

, est fects were within its reach; the world, as existing appear like one of another species' The vast tar in his eternal idea, was then as beautiful as now ii chine we inhabit lies open to him ; he seems to is drawn forth into being; and in the immense unacquainted with the general laws that gores abyss of his essence are contained far brighter it; and while with the transport of a philosopher scenes than will be ever set forth to view ; it being he beholds and admires the glorious work, kes impossible that the great Author of nature shouli capable of paying at once a more devour and bound his own power by giving existence to a more rational homage to his Maker. Bucke system of creatures so perfect that he cannot im. how narrow is the prospect even of such a mix,

prove upon it by any other exertions of his al. And how obscure, to the compass that is taken: mighty will. Between finite and infinite there is by the ken of an angel, or of a soul but seteng an unmeasured interval not to be filled up in end- escaped from its imprisonment in the body

! ** less ages; for which reason the most excellent of my part, I freely indulge my soul in the contiene all God's works must be equally short of what his of its future grandeur, it pleases me to think i power is able to produce as the most imperfect, 1, who knowoso small a portion of the works and may be exceeded with the same ease, the Creator, and with slow and painful steps crear

This thought hath made some imagine (what it up and down on the surface of this globe, shallen must be confessed is not impossible) that the un- long shoot away with the swiftness of imaginaca fathomed space, is ever teeming with new births, trace out the hidden springs of nature's operation than the elder. But, as this does not fall within the rapidity of their career, be a spectator of its my present view, I shall content myself with long chain of events in the natural and more taking notice, that the consideration now men- worlds, visit the several apartments of the art tioneå proves undeniably, that the ideal worlds in tion, know how they are furnished and how the Divine understanding yield a prospect incom. habited, comprehend the order, and measure to parably more ample, various, and delightful, than magnitudes and distances of those orbi

, to iis seem disposed without any regular der No. 626.

and set all in the same circle; observe the C


pendance of the darts of each system, and (if our versing with heavenly beings. Are not spirits caminds are big enough to grasp the theory) of the pable of mutual intelligence, unless immersed in several systems upon one another, from whence bodies, or by their intervention ? Must superior

results the harmony of the universe. In eternity a natures depend on inferior for the main privilege Ben

great deal may be done of this kind. I find it of of sociable beings, that of conversing with, and use to cherish this generous ambition; for, besides knowing each other? What would they have done the secret refreshment it diffuses through my soul, had maiter never been created? I suppose, not it engages me in an endeavour to improve my fa- bave lived in eternal solitude. As incorporeal culties as well as to exercise them conformably to substances are of a nobler order, be sure their the rank I now hold among reasonable beings, and manner of intercourse is answerably more expethe hope I hare of being once advanced to a more dite and intimate. This method of communication exalted station.

we call intellectual vision, as somewhat analagous The other, and the ultimate end of man, is the to the sense of seeing, which is the medium of our I enjoyment of God, beyond which he cannot form a acquaintance with this visible world. And in some

wish. Dim at the best are the conceptions we have such way can God make himself the object of imkits of the Supreme Being, who, as it were, keeps his mediate intuition to the blessed; and as he can, it

e creatures in suspense, neither discovering nor hid. is not improbable that he will, always condescendkasing himself; by which means, the libertine hath aing, in the circumstances of doing it, to the weak5d handle to dispute his existence, while the most areness and proportion of finite minds. His works 14. content to speak him fair, but in their hearts prefer but faintly reflect the image of his perfections; it

every trilling satisfaction to the favour of their is a second-hand knowledge: to have a just idea 2 Maker, and ridicule the good man for the sin- of him it may be necessary to see him as he is. 3.2 gularity of his choice. Will there not a time But what is that? It is something that never entered one come when the free-thinker shall see his impious into the heart of man to conceive; yet what we

i schemes overturned, and be made a convert to the can easily conceive, will be a fountain of unspeak** truths he hates? When deluded mortals shall be able and everlasting rapture. All created glories

convinced of the folly of their pursuits; and the will fade and die away in his presence. Perhaps few wise, who followed the guidance of Heaven, it will be my happiness to compare the world with and, scorning the blandishments of sense, and the fair exemplar of it in the Divine Mind; perthe sordid bribery of the world, aspired to a ce- haps, to view the original plan of those wise de. lestial abode, shall stand possessed of their ut. signs that have been executing in a long succesmost wish in the vision of the Creator? Here the sion of ages. Thus employed in finding out his mind heaves a thought now and then towards him, works, and contemplating their Author, how shall and hath some transient glances of his presence: I fall prostrate and adoring, my body swallowed when in the instant it thinks itself to have the up the immensity of matter, my mind in the infifastest hold, the object eludes its expectations, and nitude of his perfections ! it falls back tired and baffled to the ground. {GROVE.} Doubtless there is some more perfect way of con.

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55 Amazons, their commonwealth,

Absence in conversation, a remarkable instance of it in Will How they educated their children,

The occasion of his absence,

77 They marry their male allies,
And means to conquer it,

177 Ambition never satisfied,
The character of an absent man out of Bruyere,

The occasion of factions,

The absence of lovers, death in love,

241 By what to be measured,

& Aman
How to be made easy,

241 Many times as hurtful to the princes who are led by
Abstinence, the benefits of it,

195 as the people,

Academy for politics,

305 Most men subject to it,
The regulations of it,


of use when rightly directech
Acasto, his agrecable character,


The end of it,
Accompts, their great usefulness,

174 The effects of it in the mind,
Acetus, his character


Subjects us to many troubles,
Acosta, his answer to Limborch, touching the multiplicity The true object

of a laudable ambition,
of ceremonies in the Jewish religion,

Various kinds of it,

Acrostic, piece of false wit, divided into simple and com Laudable,

60 Americans, their opinions of souls

Act of deformity, for the use of the Ugly club,

Exemplified in a vision of one of their countnam,
Action, the felicity of the soul

116 Used painting instead of writing,
A threefold division of our actions,

213 Amity between agreeable persons of different seter dengan
No right judgment to be made of them,


A necessary qualification in an orator,

541 Amoret the jilt reclaimed by Philander,
Tully's observations on action adapted to the British Ample (Lady) her uneasiness, and the reasons of it,,

541 Amusements of life, when innocent, necessary and alloy
Actions, principles of, two in man,


Actor, absent, who so called by Theophrastus,

541 Anacharsis, the Corinthian drunkard, a saying of this,
Admiration, one of the most pleasing passions,

237 Anagram, what, and when first produced,
When turned into contempt,

340 Anatomy, the Spectator's speculations on it,

256 Ancestry, how far honours is to be paid to,
A pleasing motion of the mind

413 Ancients in the east, their way of living,
Adversity, no evil in itself,

237 Andromache, a great fox hunter,
Advertiseinent of an Italian chirurgeon,

22) Animals, the different make of every species,
From St. James's coffee-house,

24 The instinct of brutes,
From a gentleman that teaches birds to speak,

36 Exemplified in several instances,
From another that is a fine flesh-painter,

God himself the soul of brutes,
From Mr. Sly, the haberdasher,

187 The variety of arms with which they are provided by
About the lottery ticket,


Adrice: no order of persons too considerable to be ad Anne Boleyne's last letter to King Henry VIII.

34 Annihilation, by whom desired,
In what manner to be given to a faulty friend,

385 The most abject of wishes,
Usually received with reluctance,

512 Answers to several letters at once,
Adulterers, how punished by the primitive Christians 579 Anthony (Mark,) his witty mirth commended by Tals,
Affectation, a greater enemy to a fine face than the small Antipathies, a letter about them,

33 Anxieties, onnecessary, the evil of them and the vanity &
It deforms beauty, and turns wit into absurdity,

38 them,
The original of it,

38 Apes, what women so called, and described
Found in the wise man as well as the coscomb, 38 Apollo's temple on the top of Leucate, by wbom frequested
The way to get clear of it,

38 and for what purpose,
The misfortune of it,

404 Apothecary, his employment,

460 Apparitions, the creation of weak minde,
Affliction and sorrow not always expressed by tears, 95 Appearances, the veneration of respect paid to them is 8
True affliction labours to be invisible,


Afflictions, how to be alleviated,

501 Things not to be trusted for them,
Age rendered ridiculous,

Appetites, sooner moved than the passions,

How contemned by the Athenians and respected by the The incumbrances of old age,

Applause (public,) its pleasure,
The unnatural misunderstanding between age and Censure and applause should not mislead us,

153 April, (the first of,) the merriest day in the year,
The authority of an aged virtuous person preferable to Month of described,
the pleasures of youth,

153 Arabella (Mrs.,) the great heiress, the Spectator's felis
A comfortable old age the reward of a well-spent


260 Verses on Arabella's singing,
The authority assumed by some people on the account Araspas and Panthen, their story out of Xenophon
of it,

336 Architecture, the ancients' perfection in it,
Aglais, his story told by Cowley,

The greatness of the menner how it strikes the fases,
Agreeable man, who,

The art of being agreeable in company,

Of the manner of both ancients and moderns,

The concave and conves figures have the greatest as
Albacinda, her character,

Alexander the Great, wry necked,

Every thing that pleases the imagination in it, is eithet

great, beautiful, or new,
His artifice in his Indian expedition,

127 Aretine made all the princes of Europe his tributaries,
His answer to those who asked him if he would not
be a competitor for the prize in the Olympic

Argument, rules for the management of one,

Argumentum Basilinum, what,

Whereid he imitated Achilles in a piece of cruelty, and

Socrates's way of arguing,
the occasion of it,

In what manner managed by states and contrunities

His complaint to Aristotle,

337 | Argus; his qualifications and employments under Juge

379 Arietta, her character,
• Allegories, like light to a discourse,

Eminent writers faulty in them,

Her fable of the hon and the man, in answer to the story

The reception the Spectator's allegorical writings meet

of the Ephesian matron,

Her story of Inkle and Yarico,
with from the public,

501 Aristinætus, bis lecters, some account of thes,
Allusions, the great art of a writer,

21 Aristippus, his saying of content.
Almighty, his power over the imagination,

121 Aristotle, his observation upon the lambic Ferse,
Aristotle's saying of his being,

465 Upon tragedies,
Amanda, her adventures,

375 His account of <he world,
Amaryllis, her character,

The inventor of vyllogism,

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