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= huis happiness.

cuted, upon better information appears so altered in its circumstances, that the fame of it is divided

among many, instead of being attributed to one. 18 19. THURSDAY, MARCH 22, 1710-11. This is a secret satisfaction to these malignants; for

the person whom they before could not but admire,

they fancy is nearer their own condition as soon as Di bene fecerunt, inopis me quodque pusilli

his merit is shared among others. I remember Fingerunt animi, raro et perpauca loquentis.

HOR. 1 Sat. iv, 17.

some years ago there came out an excellent poem

without the name of the author. The little wits, Thank heav'n that made me of a humble mind; To acuon little, lex to words inclin'd!

who were incapable of writing it, began to pull in

pieces the supposed writer. When that would not DESERVING one person behold another, who was do, they took great pains to suppress the opinion El utter stranger to him, with a cast of his eye, that it was his. That again failed. The next rerich, methought, expressed an emotion of heart fuge was, to say it was overlooked by one man, ery different from what could be raised by an ob- and many pages wholly written by another. An ect so agreeable as the gentleman he looked at, 1 honest fellow who sat among a cluster of them in egun to consider, not without some secret sorrow, debate on this subject, cried out, 'Gentlemen, if he condition of an envious man. Some have fan- you are sure none of you yourselves had a band in ed that envy has a certain magical force in it, it, you are but where you were, whoever writ it.' ał that the eyes of the envious have by their But the most usual succour to the envious, in cases Cination blasted the enjoyments of the happy. of nameless merit in this kind, is to keep the proi Francis Bacon says, sone have been so curious perty, if possible, unfixed, and by that means to to remark the times and seasons when the stroke hinder the reputation of it from falling upon any an envious eye is most effectually pernicious, particular person. You see an envious man clear td have observed that it has been when the per- up his countenance, if in the relation of any man's menvied has been in any circumstance of glory great happiness in one point, you mention his unod triumph. At such a time the mind of the pros- easiness in another. When he hears such a one erous man goes, as it were, abroad, among things is very rich be turns pale, but recovers when you it out him, and is more exposed to the malig. add that he has many children. In a word, the only ty. But I shall not dwell upon speculations so sure way to an envious man's favour, is not to dearacted as this, or repeat the many excellent serve it. Lings which one might collect out of authors upon

But if we consider the envious man in delight, it us miserable affection : but, keeping in the road is like reading of the seat of a giant in a romance ; common life, consider the envious man with re. the magnificence of his house consists in the many on to these three heads, his pains, his reliefs, limbs at men whom he has slain. If any who pro

mised themselves success in any uncommon underThe envious man is in pain upon all occasions taking miscarry in the attempt, or he that aimed ich ought to give him pleasure. The relish of at what would have been useful and laudable, life is inverted; and the objects which adminis- meets with contempt and derision, the envious the highest satisfaction to tisose who are exempt man, under the colour of hating vain-glory, can n this passion, give the quickest pangs to per- smile, with an .nward wantonness of heart, at the s who are subject to it. All the perfections of ill effect it may have upon an honest ambition for ir fellow.creatures are odious. Youth, beauty, the future. par, and wisdom are provocations of their dis Having thoroughly considered the nature of this sure. What a wretched and apostate state is passion, I have made it my study how to avoid the ! to be offended with excellence, and to hate envy that may accrue to me from these my specu. an because we approve him! The condition of lations; and if I am not mistaken in myself, I enrious man is the most emphatically misera. think I have a genius to escape it. Upon hearing he is not only incapable of rejoicing in ano- in a coffee-house one of my papers commended, i is merit of success, but lives in a world wherein immediately apprehended the envy that would nankind are in a plot against his quiet, by spring from that applause ; and therefore gave a ving their own happiness and advantage. Will description of my face the next day; being reper* is an honest tale-bearer. He makes it solved, as I grew in reputation for wit, to resign usiness to join in conversation with envious my pretensions to beauty. This, I hope, may give

He points to such an handsome young fel- some ease to those unhappy gentlemen who do me and whispers that he is secretly married to a the honour to torment themselves upon the account fortune. When they doubt, he adds cir- of this my paper. As their case is very deplorable, tances to prove it; and never fails to aggra- and deserves compassion, I shall sometimes be their distress, by assuring them, that, to his dull, in pity to them, and will from time to time ledge, he has an uncle will leave him some administer consolations to them by further discoands. Will has many arts of this kind to veries of my person. In the meanwhile, if any one ce this sort of temper , and delights in it

. says the Spectator has wit, it may be some relief i he finds them change colour, and say faintly to them to think that he does not show it in com

ista such a piece of news is true, he has the pany. And if any one praises his morality, the e to speak some good or other of every man may comfort themselves by considering tliath. ir acquaintance.

facé is none of the longest. =reliefs of the envious man are those little shes and imperfections that discover themin an illustrious character. It is a matter of consolation to an envious person, when a of known honour does a thing unworthy !f; or when any action which was well exe

STEELE,

• See No. 20.

POPE.

sin,

directions, according to the most exact rules of

optics, to place himself in such a manner, that he No 20. FRIDAY, MARCH 23, 1710-11. shall meet his eyes wherever he throws them. I

have hopes, that when Will confronts him, and all Κυνος ομματεχαν.

the ladies, in whose behalf he engages him, cast .

kind looks and wishes of success at their champion,

HOM. II. i. 225.
Thou dog in forehead-

he will have some shame, and feel a little of the
pain he has so often put others to, of being out of

countenance. Among the other hardy undertakings which I have It has indeed been, time out of mind, generally proposed to myself, that of the correction of im- remarked, and as often lamented, that this family pudence is what I have very much at heart. This of starers have infested public assemblies: and's in a particular manner is my province as Spec. know no other way to obviate so great an evil, tator; for it is generally an offence committed by except, in the case of fixing their eyes upon wothe eyes, and that against such as the offenders men, some male friend will take the part of such would perhaps never have an opportunity of in- as are under the oppression of impudence, and juring any other way. The following leiter is a encounter the eyes of the starers wherever they complaint of a young lady, who sets forth a tres. meet them. While we suffer our women to be thus pass of this kind, with that command of herself as impudently attacked, they have no defence, but befits beauty and innocence, and yet with so much in the end to cast yielding glances at the starers. spirit as sufficiently expresses her indignation. In this case, a man who has no sense of shame, The whole transaction is performed with the eyes ; has the same advantage over his mistress, as he and the crime is no less than employing them in who has no regard for his own life bas over his such a manner, as to divert the eyes of others from adversary. While the generality of the world are the best use they can make of them, even looking fettered by rules, and move by proper and just up to Heaven:

methods; he who has no respect to any of them, carries away the reward due to that propriety of

behaviour, with no other merit but that of having “There never was (I believe) an acceptable man neglected'it. but had some awkward imitators. Ever since the

I lake an impudent fellow to be a sort of out. Spectator appeared, have I remarked a kind of law in good-breeding, and therefore what is said men, whom I choose to call Starers; that without of him ono nation or person can be concerned for. any regard to time, place, or modesty, disturb a For this reason one may be free upon him. I have large company with their impertinent eyes. Spec. put myself to great pains in considering this pretators make up a proper assembly for a puppet, vailing quality which we call impudence, and have show or a bear-garden; but devo'it supplicants and taken notice that it exerts itself in a different attentive hearers, are the audience one ought to manner, according to the different soils wherein expect in churches. I am, sir, member of a small such subjects of these dominions, as are masters of pious congregation near one of the north gates of it, were born. Impudence in an Englishman is this city; much the greater part of us indeed are sullen and insolent; in a Scotchman it is untracta, females, and used to behave ourselves in a regular, ble and rapacious; in an Irishman, absurd and attentive manner, till very lately one whole aisle fawning: as the course of the world now runs, the has been disturbed by one of these monstrous impudent Englishman behaves like a surly land. starers : he is the head taller than any one in the lord, the Scot like an ill-received guest, and the church; but for the greater advantage of exposing Irishman like a stranger who knows he is not himself, stands upon a hassock, and commands the welcome. There is seldom any thing entertaining whole congregation, to the great annoyance of either in the impudence of a South or North Brithe devoutest part of the auditory; for wniat with ton; but that of an Irishman is always comic. A blushing, confusion, and vexation, we can neither true and genuine impudence is ever the effect of li mind the prayers nor sermon. Your animadversion ignorance without the least sense of it. The best sering upon this insolence would be a great favour to, and most successful starers now in this town are of SIR,

that nation; they have usually the advantage of "Your most humble servant,

the stature mentioned in the above letter of my

correspondent, and generally take their stands in I have frequently seen of this sort of feliows, the eye of women of fortune; insomuch that I and do think there cannot be a greater aggrava- bave known one of them, three months after he tion of an offence, than that it is committed where came from plough, with a tolerable good air, lead the criminal is protected by the sacredness of the out a woman from a play, which one of our own place which he violates. Many reflections of this breed, after four years at Oxford and two at the sort might be very justly made upon this sort of Temple, would have been afraid to look at. behaviour, but a starer is not usually a person to

I cannot tell how to account for it, but these
be convinced by the reason of the thing; and a people have usually the preference to our own
fellow that is capable of showing an impudent fools, in the opinion of the sillier part of woman.
front before a whole congregation, and can bear kind. Perhaps it is that an English coxcomb is
being a public spectacle, is not so easily rebuked seldom so obsequious as an Irish one; and when
as to amend by admonitions. If, therefore, my the design of pleasing is visible, an absurdity in
correspondent does not inform me, that within the way toward it is easily forgiven.
seven days after this date the barbarian does not But those who are downright impudent, and go
at least stand upon his own legs only, without an on without reflection that they are such, are more
eminenee, my friend Will Prosper* has promised to be tolerated, than a set of fellows among us
to take an hassock opposite to him, and stare against who profess impudence with an air of humour, and
him in defence of the ladies. I have given him think to carry off the most inexcusable of all faults

in the world, with no other apology than saying
in a gay tone, “I put an impudent face upon the

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See No. 19.

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CREECH.

eaceable lawyers are, in the first place, venture to feel his pulse. Vagellius is cahi

matter.' No; no man shall be allowed the ad- | Another numberless branch of peaceable lawyers vantages of impudence, who is conscious that he is are those young men who, being placed at the inns such. If he knows he is impudent, he may as well of court in order to study the laws of their country, be odlierwise ; and it shall be expected that he frequent the playhouse more than Westminsterblush, when he sees he makes another do it. For Hall, and are seen in all public assemblies, except nothing can atone for the want of modesty; within a court of justice. I shall say nothing of those out which beauty is ungraceful, and wit detestable. silent and busy multitudes that are employed

R. within doors in the drawing up of writings and

conveyances ; nor of those greater numbers that

palliate their want of business with a pretence to V* 21. SATURDAY, MARCH 24, 1710-11. such chamber practice.

If, in the third place, we look into the pro- Locus est et pluribus umbris.

fession of physic, we shall find a most formidable

HOR. 1 Ep. v. 28. body of men. The sight of them is enough to There's room enough, and each may bring his friend. make a man serious; for we may lay it down as

a maxim, that when a nation abounds in physicians, ay sometimes very much troubled, when I reflect it grows thin of people. Sir William Temple is pon the three great professions of divinity, law, very much puzzled to find out a reason why the physic; how they are each of them overbur: Northern Hive, as he calls it, does not send out ned with practitioners, and filled with multitudes such prodigious swarms, and overrun the world ingenious gentlemen that starve one another.

with Goths and Vandals, as it did-formerly; but We may divide the clergy into generals, field. had that excellent author observed that there were cers, and subalterns. Among the first we may no students in physic among the subjects of Thor kon bishops, deans, and arch-deacons. Among and Woden, and that this science very much flousecond are doctors of divinity, prebendaries, rishes in the north at present, he might have found all that wear scarfs. The rest are compre a better solution for this difficulty than any of those ded under the subalterns. As for the first class, he has made use of. This body of men in our own constitution preserves it from any redundancy country may be described like the British army in incumbents, notwithstanding competitors are Cæsar's time. Some of them slay in chariots, and Eberless

. Upon a strict calculation, it is found some on foot. If the infantry do less execution there has been a great exceeding of late years than the charioteers

, it is because they cannot be he second division, several brevets having been carried so soon into all quarters of the town, and Eted for the converting of subalterns into scarf: dispatch so much business in so short a time. Be. es; insomuch, that within my memory the sides this body of regular troops, there are strage of lustring is raised above two-pence in a glers, who, without being duly listed and enrolled, · As for the subalterns, they are not to be do infinite mischief to those who are so unlucky bered. Should our clergy once enter into the as to fall into their hands. pt practice of the laity, by the splitting of

There are, besides the above-mentioned, innutreeholds, they would be able to carry most merable retainers to physic, who, for want of other elections in England.

patients, amuse themselves with the stilling of cats * body of the law is no less encumbered with in an air-pump, cutting up dogs alive, or impaling Huous members, that are like Virgil's army, of insects upon the point of a needle for microshe tells us was so crowded, many of them copical observation : besides those that are emst room to use their weapons. This prodigious ployed in the gathering of weeds, and the chase of of men may be divided into the litigious butterflies: not to mention the cockleshell-meraceable. Under the first are comprehended chants and spider-catchers. use who are carried down in coach-fulls to

When I consider how each of these professions inster-Hall, every morning in term time. are crowded with multitudes that seek their livelis description of this species of lawyers is hood in them, and how many men of merit there

are in each of them, who may be rather said to be Iras et verba locant.'

of the science than the profession; I very much hat hire out their words in anger ;' that wonder at the bumour of parents, wha will not te or less passionate according as they are rather choose to place their sons in a way of life rit, and allow their client a quantity of where an honest industry cannot but thrive, than roportionable to the fee which they receive in stations where the greatest probity, learning, T. I must, however, observe to the reader and good sense may miscarry. How many men ve three parts of those whom I reckon are country curates, that might have made themhe litigious are such as are only quarrel. selves aldermen of London by a right improvement their hearts, and have no opportunity of of a smaller sum of money than what is usuall their passion at the bar. Nevertheless, laid out upon a learned education? A sober frug o not know what strifes may arise, they person, of slender parts and a slow apprehensi { the hall every day, that they may show might have thrived, in trade, though he star es in a readiness to enter the lists, when upon physic: as a man would be well eno Te shall be occasion for them.

pleased to buy silks of one, whom he would the benchers of the several inns of court, studious, and obliging, but withal a little n to be the dignitaries of the law, and are skulled; he has not a single client, but migh" esith those qualifications of mind that ac- had abundance of customers. The misforteret a man rather for a ruler than a pleader. that parents take a liking to a particular in live peaceably in their habitations, eat: sion, and therefore desire their sons may Y

2h 3. clay, and dancing once a year," for the whereas

, in so great an affair of life, the their respective societies.

consider the genius and abilities of their

more than their own inclinations. Dugdale's Origines Jaridicales, folio, 166,

It is the great advantage of a Musli

E

humour :

fea .

in

HOR, Ars Poet. ver. 188.

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that there are very few in it so dull and heavy, MR. SPECTATOR, who may not be placed in stations of life, which : This is to let you understand, that the playhouse may give them an opportunity of making their is a representation of the world in nothing so much fortunes. A well-regulated commerce is not, like as in this particular, that no one rises in it accord. law, physic, or divinity, to be overstocked with ing to his merit. I have acted several parts of hands; but, on the contrary, flourishes by multi household-stuff with great applause for many years: tudes, and gives employment to all its professors. I am one of the men in the hangings in The Em. Fleets of merchantmen are so many squadrons of peror of the Moon; I have twice performed the floating shops, that vend our wares and manufac. third chair in an English opera; and have re. tures in all the markets of the world, and find out hearsed the pump in The Fortune-Hunters. I am cbapmen under both the tropics.

now grown old, and hope you will recommend ADDISON.*

C. me so effectually, as that I may say something be.

fore I go off the stage : in which you will do a N22. MONDAY, MARCH 26, 1711.

great act of charity to
Your most humble servant,

WILLIAM SCRENE." Quodcunque ostendis mihi sic, incredulus odi.

MR. SPECTATOR,
-Whatever contradicts my sense

\UNDERSTANDING that Mr. Screne has writ to you, I hate to see, but never can believe.

and desired to be raised from dumb and still parts; ROSCOMMON.

I desire, if you give him motion or speech, that The word Spectator being most usually understood you would advance me in my way, and let me as one of the audience at public representations in keep on in what I humbly presume I am a master, our theatres, I seldom fail of many letters relating to wit, in representing human and still life toge. to plays and operas. But indeed there are such ther. I have several times acted one of the finest monstrous things done in both, that if one had not flower-pots in the same opera wherein Mr. Screne been an eye-witness of them, one could not believe is a chair; therefore, upon his promotion, request to that such matters had really been exhibited. There that I may succeed him in the hangings, with my is very little which concerns human life, or is a hand in the orange-trees. picture of nature, that is regarded by the greater

• Your humble servant, part of the company. The understanding is dis

RALPH SIMPLE.' missed from our entertainments. Our mirth is the Laughter of fools, and our admiration the wonder

Drurf-Lane, March 24, 1710-11. of idiots; else such improbable, monstrous, and incoherent dreams could not go off as they do, not

I saw your friend the Templar this evening in only without the utmost scorn and contempt, but the pit, and thought he looked very little pleased even with the loudest applause and approbation.

with the representation of the mad scene of The But the letters of my correspondents will represent Pilgrim. I wish, sir, you would do us the favour this affair in a more lively manner than any dis- to animadvert frequently upon the false taste the course of my own; I shall therefore give them to town is in, with relation to plays as well as operas. my reader with only this preparation, that they all It certainly requires a degree of understanding to come from players, and that the business of play-play justly; but such is our condition, that we are ing is now so managed that you are not to be sur. to suspend our reason to perform our parts. As prised when I say one or two of them are rational, to scenes of madness, you know, sir, 'there are my others sensitive and vegetative actors, and others noble instances of this kind in Shakspeare ; but wholly inanimate. I shall not place these as 1 then it is the disturbance of a noble mind, from have named them, but as they have precedence in generous and humane resentments. It is like that the opinion of their audiences.

grief which we have for the decease of our friends.

It is no diminution, but a recommendation of huMR. SPECTATOR,

man nature, that in such incidents passion gets the Youn having been so humble as to take notice better of reason; and all we can think to comfort of the epistles of other animals, emboldens me ourselves, is impotent against half what we feel. who am the wild boar that was killed by Mrs. I will not mention that we had an idiot in the Tofts, to represent to you that I think I was scene, and all the sense it is represented to have, hardly used in not having the part of the lion in is that of lust. As for myself, who have long taken Hydaspes given to me. It would have been but pains in personating the passions, I have to-night a natural step for me to have personated that acted only an appetite. The part I played ist noble creature, after having behaved myself to Thirst, but it is represented as written rather by a satisfaction in the part above-mentioned. That of drayman than a poet. I come in with a tub about a lion is too great a character for one that never me, that tub hung with quart pots, with a ful trod the stage before but upon two legs. As for gallon at my mouth. I am ashamed to tell yo' the little resistance which I made, I hope it may that I pleased very much, and this was introduce bbe excused, when it is considered that the dart was as a madness; but sure it was not human madne: fy hrown at me by so fair a band. I must confess I for a mule or an ass may have been as dry as evt i id but just put on my brutality; and Camilla's I was in my life. beilarins were such, that beholding her erect mien,

I am, sir, 29 tring her charming voice, and astonished with •Your must obedient and humble servant."

graceful motion, I could not keep up to my seven ned fierceness, but died like a man.

• From the Savoy in the Strand. at leas

"MR, SPECTATOR, "I am, sir, eminen “Your most bumble admirer,

'If you can read it with dry eyes, I give you this to take a

trouble to acquaint you, that I am the unfortunate

* TIOMAS PROXE.' him in d

king Latinus, and I believe I am the first prince close of No. 108, he desires bis readers to compare Such is the uncertainty of all human greatness, tliat

that dated from this palace since John of Gaunt. it is said there:

corte

ADVERTISEMENT.

I who lately never moved without a guard, am satire will then chiefly fall upon those who ought now pressed as a common soldier, and am to sail to be the most exempt from it. Virtue, merit, and with the first fair wind against my brother Lewis every thing that is praiseworthy, will be made the of France. It is a very hard thing to put off a subject of ridicule and buffoonery. It is impossible character which one has appeared in with applause. Ito enumerate the evils which arise from these This I experienced since the loss of my diadem ; arrows that fly in the dark, and I know no other for, upon quarrelling with another recruit, I spoke excuse that is or can be made for them, than that my indignation out of my part in recitativo: the wounds they give are only imaginary, and pro.

duce nothing more than a secret shame or sorrow "Most audacious slave, Darst thou an angry monarch's fury brave !"

in the mind of the suffering person. It must in.

deed be confessed, that a lampoon or a satire do The words were no sooner out of my mouth, when not carry in them robbery or murder; but at the serjeant knocked me down, and asked me if I same time how few are there that would not ranad a mind to mutiny, in talking things nobody ther lose a considerable sum of money, or even life understood. You see, sir, my unhappy circum- itself, than be set up as a mark of infamy and deri. Hances; and if by your mediation you can pro-sion and in this case a man should consider, that

ure a subsidy for a prince (who never failed to an injury is not to be measured by the notions of zake all that bebeld him merry at his appearance) him that gives, but of him tbat receives it. cu will merit the thanks of

Those who can put the best countenance upon • Your friend,

the outrages of this nature which are offered them (THE KING OF LATIUM."* are not without their secret anguish. I have often

observed a passage in Socrates's behaviour at his death, in a light wherein none of the critics have

considered it. That excellent man entertaining For the good of the public.

his friends, a little before he drank the bowl of Titlin two doors of the masquerade lives an eminent poison, with a discourse on the immortality of the iam chirurgeon, arrived from the carnival at Ve- soul, at his entering upon it says, that he does not =, of great esperience in private cures. Accommo- believe any the most comic genius can eensure him Esas are provided, and persons admitted in their for talking upon such a subject at such a time. quing habite.

This passage, I think, evidently glances upon Aris. La has cured since his coming hither, in less than tophanes, who writ a comedy on purpose to riditright , four scaramouches, a mountebank doctor, cule the discourses of that divine philosopher

. 18 Turkish bassas, three nuns, and a morris-dancer.' has been observed by many writers, that Socrates

was so little moved at this piece of buffoonery, that "Venienti occurrite morbo.'

he was several times present at its being acted

upon the stage, and never expressed the least reB. Any person may agree by the great, and be sentment of it. But, with submission, I think the in repair by the year. The doctor draws teeth remark I have here made shows us, that this unby pulling off your mask.

worthy treatment made an impression upon his R.

mind, though he had been too wise to discover it.

When Julius Cæsar was lampooned by Catullus, 3. TUESDAY, MARCH 27, 1711.

he invited him to supper, and treated him with such a generous civility, that he made the poet his

friend ever after. Cardinal Mazarine gave the - Atrar Volscens, nec teli conspicit usquam

same kind of treatment to the learned Quillet, who ="1, nec quo se ardens immittere possit.

had reflected upon his eminence in a famous Latin

VIRG. Æn. ix. 420. poem. The cardinal sent for him, and, after some z Polscens foams with rage, and, gazing round,

kind expostulations upon what he had written, I'd not him who gave the fatal wound; Siew to fix revenge

assured him of his esteem, and dismissed him with DRYDEN.

a promise of the next good abbey that should fall,

which he accordingly conferred upon him in a few f is nothing that more betrays a base unge months after. This had so good an effect upon the spirit, than the giving of secret stabs to a author, that he dedicated the second edition of his reputation ; lampoons and satires, that are book to the cardinal, after having expunged the with wit and spirit, are like poisoned passages which had given him offence. yhich not only inflict a wound, but make it

Sextus Quintus was not of so generous and for. le. For this reason I am very much trou- giving a temper. Upon his being made pope, the hen I see the talents of humour and ridicule statue of Pasquin was one night dressed in a very possession of an ill-natured man.

There dirty shirt, with an excuse written under it, that he be a greater gratification to a barbarous was forced to wear foul linen, because his laun. toman wit, than to stir up sorrow in the dress was made a princess. This was a reflectior a private person, to raise uneasiness among upon the pope's sister, who, before the promotio lations, and to expose whole families to of her brother, was in those mean circumstanc at the same time that he remains unseen that Pasquin represented her. As this pasquin iscovered. If, besides the accomplishments made a great noise in Rome, the pope oltere witty and ill-natured, a man is vicious considerable sum of money to any person bargain, he is one of the most mischievous should discover the author of it. The author, s that can enter into a civil society. His ing upon his holiness's generosity, as also on

private overtures which he had received frocor opera, eatitled Camilla,' written by Owen Mac made the discovery himself; upon which the erile has been said to have been levelled al Swift. gave him the reward he had promised, hy. asboere was a coolness between him and Addison, my same time, to disable the satirist for the fute, in 11 Swift's Works, rol. sir, 240, and xv, 75, edit. 1801.' dered his iongue to be cut out, and both

CILE.

which

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