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Paper: "Breeding of Horses "-Milo Hollowell, of Flushing.
Lecture: "Drainage"-Prof. R. C. Carpenter.
Paper: "Country Roads"-A. L. Aldrich, of Flint.





Lecture: "Rotation of Crops "-Prof. R. C. Kedzie.

Paper: "The Farmer's Son-His Relation to the Farm, the Home, Society and the Nation"-H. R. Dewey, of Grand Blanc.


This Institute was opened with a good attendance in the Flushing opera house on the afternoon of January 15th. After music, instrumental and vocal, and a prayer, Mr. Brunson Turner delivered the President's address, of which the following is an abstract:

After describing the foundation and objects of the Institutes the speaker referred to the early history of Flushing, which, forty-eight years ago was organized as a township by the first State Legislature of Michigan. This was followed by a steady development of the different thoroughfares and a slow growth of population until the passage of the Graduation Act by Congress thirty years ago, opening government lands to purchase at prices ranging from one to ten shillings per acre. This caused a strong influx of population and development was rapid and general, until checked by the war.

The labor and hardship incident to converting a timber country into such beautiful farms as we now behold left small time or energy for the study of the more scientific methods of agriculture, and short purses have hitherto made underdraining and improved stock unattainable luxuries. But frequent losses by wet or drouth are opening many eyes to the needs of better methods, and the natural conformation of our lands, affording ample facilities for outlets, invites thorough underdraining.

The subject of improved stock is in its infancy with us. Within the last few years some very fine cattle, sheep, and horses have been brought into the vicinity, and I hope that the interest will rapidly increase in the future. These and other developments in the art of agriculture-the substitution of the steam thresher for the flail, the self-binder for the sickle, the mowing machine for the scythe, are making the study of the science of agriculture an absolute necessity. We must keep abreast of this fast age or these beautiful farms that have cost so much of effort will pass into more skillful hands.

It will not do to plod along in old grooves. The same keen foresight and business tact must be carried into farming that is so necessary in commercial life.

To farm without well laid plans and a careful study of agricultural and market reports, which are prepared expressly for our benefit, is only to invite failure. No farmer can afford to be without an agricultural paper. cheapest means of learning from the experience of others, and the good sense of the reader will enable him to make use of the practical and reject the humbug that creeps into even the best conducted journals.

The address closed with some further words of welcome, and the suggestion

that each one should jot down for himself such minutes of the proceedings as would be of value to him in the future.

The programme was carried through as printed, and after a most enjoyable meeting the Institute adopted a vote of thanks to those who had contributedto its success, and adjourned.


Following is the programme of this Institute:

JANUARY 19, 1:30 P. M.


Address of Welcome-A. M. Fitch.

Response-Sec'y R. G. Baird, of the State Agricultural College.


Paper: Prof. S. Johnson: "Practical Agriculture at Agricultural College."
Questions and answers and discussions.

Paper-C. I. Anthony: “ Farm Implements."



7:30 P. M.


Paper-Prof. W. J. Beal: "Blight in Crops and Diseases of Plants, and how they affect Domestic Animals."

Questions and answers.


Paper-E. Billinghurst: "Horticulture."
Discussion and general talk.


JANUARY 20, 9:30 A. M.

Paper-J. Wartman: "Breeding and Management of Graded Stock."


Paper-Prof. R. C. Carpenter: "Railroad Rings vs. the Farmers."


Paper-Hon. H. C. Hodge: " Large and Small Farms."

Questions and general talk.


1 P. M.

Paper-Sec'y R. G. Baird: "Education in relation to Agriculture and other Indus



Essay Mrs. J. Wartman: "Home and Surroundings."

General talk.


GEO. ROBERTSON, Secretary.

Considering the severity of the weather, the temperature being below zero most of the time, the attendance was large throughout the day sessions of this Institute.

The address of welcome, by Rev. A. M. Fitch, was responded to by Secretary R. G. Baird, of the Agricultural College.

Several ladies and gentlemen, most of them from the choir of the Presbyterian church, enlivened the sessions with excellent singing.

H. H. GARFIELD, President.
A. M. FITCH, Vice-President.

At the conclusion, Prof. Beal complimented the Institute as one of the best he ever attended. There had been no failures, no prosy papers, no dull speakers. It had been a pleasant and profitable meeting.

President Garfield is entitled to much credit for the able and efficient manner in which he discharged the duties of president of the Institute.

Before breaking up, appropriate resolutions were offered by Hon. W. H, Brockway and Secretary Baird, which were passed unanimously.


The "True Northerner" said of the opening of this Institute:


'Despite the inclemency of the weather last week, quite a goodly number of farmers and their wives, and others interested in agriculture and its kindred pursuits, were on hand promptly at the designated hour for opening. Owing, however, to the severe storm and the consequent delay of trains, the professors from the Agricultural College, who were to take prominent parts in the meetings, did not arrive on time, and the first session was delayed for their accommodation. On their arrival, which was awaited with patience and hailed with cordial greetings, Hon. J. J. Woodman, the chairman of the Institute, called the meeting to order, and after an earnest prayer by the Rev. M. Harvey, proceeded to deliver his opening address. This address, it is needless to say, was full of profound thought, good advice, and lofty sentiment, and closed with a cordial greeting to all participators and visitors, and a hearty welcome to them on behalf of the citizens of our pleasant little village."


And of its close: ** "Thus closed the programme of one of the most enjoyable and beneficial Institutes ever held in Van Buren.

"Much of its success was due to Professors Abbot, MacEwan, Johnson, and Grange, from the Agricultural College faculty, although aside from their help it was so well constructed as to call from President Abbot the remark: 'I don't see what you want of us down here, you seem to have plenty of talent and ability to carry on an Institute without any of our assistance.'


Especial thanks are due to Messrs. Koons, Cumings, Hilton, Free, and Mosier, and to Misses Hodges, Rowland, Butler, and Mrs. Matthews, for the excellent music furnished by them throughout the Institute, and to the citizens of Paw Paw for their ready proffers of necessary entertainment and material assistance."

The programme embraced the following scheme of topics and speakers:


Farm Law-Geo. E. Breck.

Potato Culture-C. H. Butler.

Practical Agriculture at the Agricultural College-Professor S. Johnson.


Small Fruit Culture for Women-Mrs. J. Averill.

Talent on the Farm-Jason Woodman.
How to make a Specch -Prof. E. J, MacEwan.


External Conformation of Horse, and Examination for Soundness-Dr. E. A. A. Grange,

Sheep Husbandry-Arthur W. Haydon.
Feeding Stock for Market-Ed. A. Wildey.


Reclaiming Swamp Land-C. B. Charles.
Mixed Husbandry and Crop Rotation-A. C. Glidden.


Prose and Poetry of Life-Mrs. Henry Randolph.

The Agricultural College under the State Board of Agriculture-President T. C. Abbot.


This Institute was held in Goodyear Hall, Manchester, in accordance with the following programme:


Called to Order by President Green, of the Southern Washtenaw Club.

Prayer by Rev. G. H. Wallace.

Welcoming Address by President Halladay, of the Norvell Club.

Substitutes for Butter-Prof. F. S. Kedzie.

The Country Schools of To-Day-Miss E. J. Green.

Orchards and their Management-B. G. English.
Education and Selection-L. D. Watkins.




Prayer by Rev. D. B. Munger.

The External Conformation of the Horse; Examination for Soundness-Dr. E. A. A. Grange.

Rural Researches-Miss Nettie English.

Sheep Husbandry-C. M. Fellows.


Stock Feeding-H. Ladd.

Cultivation of Flowers-Mrs. R. D. Palmer.




Practical Agriculture at the Agricultural College-Prof. S. Johnson.
Reading for Farmers-A. R. Palmer.


Paper: "The Farmer's Table "-Rev. G. H. Wallace.
"The Horticultural Wife"-R. Green.

Bees and their Management-C. D. Cutting.



Physiological Effects of Alcohol-Prof. Cook.
Paper-Miss Hitchcock.

The Outlook for Wheat Growing-C. L. Hall.

Around the House-Prof. J. Satterlee.

Land Drainage-G. W. Rawson.


The Michigan Farmer reported of this Institute that it was one of the best ever held in the State. It was under the charge of two wide-awake farmers' clubs, and the excellent papers and discussions showed clearly the value of such organizations. Messrs. Holladay and Green are the Presidents of the two clubs, which meet monthly at the houses of the members. Each club is limited to twenty members, and the interest of the meetings seldom flags. One valuable feature is a committee to criticise the farm, etc., where the meetings are held. A member remarked to the reporter that each place had at least one or two thorough clear ups each year."

President Halladay welcomed those attending the Institute in the following address:

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN,-It becomes my pleasant duty, in behalf of the Norvell Farmers' Club, and in behalf of the Southern Washtenaw Farmers' Club, to bid you, the professors of the State Agricultural College, these farmers and others who, by their presence, contribute to the interest of this Institute, a most cordial welcome.

We are grateful that the State Board of Agriculture has thus favorably answered our petition for help in this great cause, and that the professors will be with us during this Institute to aid us by giving the results of their scientific research, that we may compare them with the practical experience of the wide awake farmers of Washtenaw and Jackson counties. Thus blending theory with practice, we hope to reap a rich harvest.

More than two and a half centuries ago, the great French statesman, Sully, said: "All flourishes in a realm where agriculture flourishes." And the history of the success of trades, commerce and manufactories during all these intervening years has proved the correctness of the proposition. We need not go beyond the limits of this village to prove that all kinds of business are successful in the same ratio as agriculture. The merchant, the produce and stock dealer, the mechanic, and in fact all classes are interested in the success of the farmer. Let me, then, in behalf of these farmers, and in consideration of your own success as business men, ask you to counsel with us; give us your opinions and advice on those subjects that so mutually interest us, that we may in common profit by the lessous each has learned.

Michigan stands in the front rank in regard to educational institutions, and occupies no mean position as an agricultural State. She ranks first in the quality of wheat, and gives more bushels per acre than any other State, while as a wool-growing State her superiority is acknowledged.

Washtenaw county stands second in acres of wheat sown, first in number of bushels harvested, and first in bushels per acre; while Jackson follows closely behind with fourth in acreage, third in number of bushels harvested, and third in number of bushels per acre. To maintain this high standard of production will require the very best efforts of thinking farmers. We are not to work along in the old ruts of past decades, content with the success attained when great

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