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14 countries accountability Accounting Reforms advanced reforms allocation areas arrangements audit Australia available to reformers basic reforms Brazil budget Canada central agency Chile civil servants civil service civilian central government contracts decentralization discipline employment category ernment Finland fiscal focus functions Germany gminas GPRA Hungary implementation incentives increased Institutional Malleability International large number level of reform levels of government leverage low-traction countries low-traction reformers major management reforms ment ministers ministries monetary Netherlands OECD percent performance personnel management Poland policy load carried private sector public administration reform public expenditure public management Public Sector Reform public servants public service reduced Reform Activities reform concerns reform programs Republic of Korea result role and policy Russian Federation salaries Seizing Opportunities senior civil senior executive service service delivery significant staff subnational government tion traction tradition United Kingdom wage bill World Bank Zealand
Страница 97 - Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs". It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources.
Страница 103 - Russian energy sector, involves "the actions of individuals, groups, or firms both in the public or private sectors to influence the formation of laws, regulations, decrees and other government policies to their own advantage as a result of the illicit and non-transparent provision of private benefits to public officials".
Страница 97 - GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2000 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a US dollar has in the United States.
Страница 82 - Corruption sometimes is disaggregated into two basic forms — state capture and administrative corruption. State capture refers to the actions of individuals, groups, or firms in either the public or private sectors to influence the formulation of laws, regulations, decrees, and other government policies to their own advantage as a result of the illicit and nontransparent provision of benefits to public officials. State capture is commonly found in states that control important...
Страница 96 - Devolution usually transfers responsibilities for services to municipalities that elect their own mayors and councils, raise their own revenues, and have independent authority to make investment decisions. In a devolved system, local governments have clear and legally recognized geographical boundaries over which they exercise authority and within which they perform public functions.
Страница 10 - ... intentional imposition of distortions in the prescribed implementation of existing laws, rules and regulations to provide advantages to either state or non-state actors as a result of the illicit and nontransparent provision of private gains to public officials'.
Страница 99 - ... services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers...
Страница 95 - The transfer of authority and responsibility for public functions from the central government to subordinate or quasi-independent government organizations or the private sector. This covers a broad range of concepts relating to the type of decentralization — political, administrative, fiscal, or market.
Страница 18 - GPRA requires each agency to develop strategic plans covering a period of ^ at least 5 years. Agencies' strategic plans must include the agency's mission statement; identify long-term general goals, including outcome-related goals and objectives; and describe how the agency intends to achieve these goals through its activities and through its human, capital, information, and other resources. Under GPRA...
Страница 94 - civil servants" is used in a much more limited sense than "public servants" and is limited to core central public employment, ie employees in the central executive and legislative administration, in departments directly dependent on the Head of State or the Parliament, together with all other ministries and administrative departments of central government, including autonomous agencies paid by central government. Instead of "civil service...