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reason. But when each exerts himself in his own department under the guidance of the three great functionaries already mentioned, matters go on very differently. Each then applies himself to the branch for which his genius, peculiarly fits him, and is satisfied that he best consults his own happiness by confining himself to his own department, instead of exerting a restless anxiety, to raise himself to one which he conceives to be of a more refined nature. There is thus union in its best sense, and each, by pursuing his own trade, gratifies himself and his neighbours at the same time. But you will understand this better when I give you the characters and habits of a few of the members a little more in detail.
Some of the inhabitants who reside in the lower floors, are, as I have already hinted, somewhat prone to violence and excess. The Butler, who has charge of the cellar, occasionally gets drunk, tipsifies the Butcher, who lives close by him, and who, even when sober, is somewhat of a passionate, mischief-loving disposition ; and then the two together make
; a tremendous uproar, and break, smash, and destroy the crockery, furniture, and every thing else that comes in their way; and it is reckoned fortunate if the Butcher does not, as already mentioned, commit a murder. Occasionally they are joined by the Soldier, a person naturally addicted to all sorts of fighting and contradiction; and then he goes about squaring his fists, and giving bruises and bloody noses to every one whom he meets; and the Butcher sometimes slips a knife into his hand, and then he becomes a perfect demon. When the Butler, Butcher, and Soldier of one community happen to meet the same members of another, both parties being drunk, at a late hour, when the Chief Justice and High Priest are gone to bed, they kick up a tremendous uproar, They curse, swear, and blaspheme, threaten, slash, bite, kick, and maul each other in the most flagrant and disgraceful manner, and never stop till some of the more moral and benevolent members come down and put them all in the stocks.
In some communities, however, from the lower floor being small, and the accommodation of these inferior functionaries being limited, and a strict discipline being kept up by the higher officers, such disturbances never happen, and each fulfils his duties, and is happy in his own sphere. Indeed it is only in those societies where the servants have unfortunately been provided with larger apartments than their business requires, and more leisure than is good for them, that they have become dangerous and ill-behaved.
The Butcher living at No 6 is, as I have said, accused of being naturally of a mischievous disposition, and fond of cruelty, and various methods have been tried by the Chief Justices of different communities to tame him. The favourite plan is to flog him; whenever he makes a row, he receives a dozen of lashes ; when he repeats his offence, he gets two dozen; but this is not found by experience to have any good reformatory effect. He seems either to like flogging, as I have heard reported, or he soon forgets it. The more successful way has been to find proper employment for him in his line, and to look narrowly after him. His proper occupation is killing animals for support of the community,-a species of work declined by all the other members, but of which he is rather fond. Those who succeed in keeping him out of mischief, give him, in addition, the duty of cutting down the wood, breaking stones for the roads, and blasting rocks with gunpowder. As a child, it was observed, that he would often, in his recklessness, have burned off his fingers, or blown himself up, had it not been for the attention of the cautious gentleman at No 12; and, improving on this bint, the whole community joins in soliciting this wary personage to take charge of him for the general safety of the whole establishment.
I had a great deal more to say, Mr Editor, but I have already consumed all the paper in the Glen, except a single sheet, which I must reserve for some great occasion, as my next supply may not reach me for three months to come;
and I must therefore conclude, and I only rejoice that this will reach you so very soon, as a long-legged young collegian, who is hastening to the south, promises to carry it in the briefest space of time that such a journey ever was accomplished in.--I have the honour to be, dear Mr Editor,
The Laird's third cousin,
MICHAEL THE STAMMERER.
THEORY OF THE TEMPERAMENTS.
WE stated in our last Number, that, by a new application of the universal principle, of size in an organ being a measure of its energy of function, Dr Thomas of Paris had succeeded in developing a rational, and, as to us it seemed, most important theory of the temperaments; thereby solving, in a clear and consistent manner, what had been so long felt as a hiatus in medicine and in philosophy, and what had been so long a stumbling-block to the most zealous cultivators of mental and moral as well of physiological as medical science.
Since that time we have very often tried Dr Thomas's views by the test of experience, and have not hitherto met with any exception, but, on the contrary, have found them singularly felicitous in throwing light upon some previously obscure cases, and of great value in estimating the relative activity of the nervous system in different constitutions; and it is the conviction of their great practical importance that leads us to press them again on the attention of the reader. That they have been partially appreciated is evident from some of our best newspapers,--such as the Scotsman, the Morning Chronicle, and the Englishman,-having copied them from our pages; but that they are not yet sufficiently known
is obvious, from their still remaining unnoticed in most of the medical and literary journals of the kingdom.
Dr Thomas's principle is simply, that as size is a measure of power, and as the whole system is made up of the nervous, the sanguineous, and the digestive apparatuses, contained respectively in the head, the thorax, and the abdomen, so will the natural constitution differ in proportion to the relative equality or predominance of all or any of these three great divisions. Thus, a great size of brain and head, with small thorax and abdomen, will give a constitution characterized by a necessary predominance of the cerebral over the thoracic and abdominal functions, viz. great nervous energy, activity, and force of mind, with little aptitude for muscular efforts, and rather weak digestion ; and a large and capacious thorax, with small head and small abdomen, will give a constitution characterized by abundant sanguification, powerful respiration, and vigorous propulsion of the blood to the extreme points, and, consequently, by an aptitude for muscular efforts and active exercise, much more than for mental activity or active digestion. And, again, a capacious abdomen, with small head and narrow thorax, will give a constitution cha. racterized by great powers of nutrition, plumpness, and sloth, much more than by mental or bodily energy, or vivacity of motion. And the other compound combinations of them will produce constitutions participating in the qualities of their constituent elements,--such as the cranio-thoracic, with large head and thorax and small abdomen ; the thoracico-abdominal, with large thorax and abdomen, and small head; and the cranio-abdominal, with large head and abdomen, and small thorax, &c., as already fully explained in our last Number.
Hitherto we have been greatly at a loss how to estimate the degree of activity of the brain, except by observing the manifestations; but we are inclined to think that Dr Thomas has provided us with the means of approximating, at least, if not of positively deciding Supposing the health to be good, if the head and brain be large and the thorax and abdomen relatively small, we shall find not only predominance of cerebral power, but also, so far as our observation goes, cerebral activity. Or, if the head and thorax are both large, with a small abdomen, we shall find mental power and muscular energy combined; but, as part of the nervous energy will
l necessarily be expended in supporting the greater demand of the muscular system, the mental power will be less purely, intellectual in its manifestations, and less capable of long.. continued efforts of thought, and, consequently, the indivi.. dual will make a less permanent impression of intellectuality;
a and, in our conceptions of his character, the thorax and locomotive manifestations will also be felt as constituting na small portion of the man. A big thorax cannot brook confinement and sedentary occupations, and is, consequently, not favourable to long-continued mental efforts.
A large brain, again, with a large abdomen, and strong powers of nutrition, will constitute another modification of temperament, in which the vivacity and permanence of the mental functions will be subdued still more than by a large thorax; and although the cerebral energy will still be felt, it will appear much more in fits of exertion than as a durable state, and, in our conceptions of the man, the abdomen will constitute a large proportion of the figure, and the animal appetites will be felt to consume, at least, as much of the ner. vous energy as the purely human or intellectual powers.
The practical uses of these views are numerous and inva luable. Let us suppose that we want a man fitted to make a good general. If we choose a decidedly encephalic candidate, with small thorax and abdomen, we may find in him every . intellectual and moral qualification that heart could desire; but how would he withstand the bodily fatigues of an active. campaign ? The feebleness of the thoracic functions, and the consequent inaptitude for active muscular exercise, would induce a drain upon his nervous energy to carry his body through space, that would deprive him, on emergencies, of half of his mental activity and superiority; whereas, if we