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gentlemen, amongst whom was a priest, once travelled together shut up in a stage-coach. The reverend gentleman displayed, before his admiring auditors, the ladies, his various acquirements, and, as became his cloth, he thought, deduced every fact from, and confirmed every assertion by, some text of Scripture ; and so long as he kept himself to moral or religious opinions, no one thought it right to offer the least objection ; but, finding he had obtained an undisputed power over his auditors, he ventured into physics; for when one of the ladies expressed her thoughts that the earth was a perfect flat from east to west, and that the sun rose out of the sea in the morning, and set in it again in the evening, he smiled at her ignorance, and assured her that the earth was 'round, round as an orange, ma'am! Round, sir! said an old gentleman, who had never spoken before round, sir! why the earth is square. The better-informed priest now showed his teeth in a most 'contemptuous grin, and assured the ladies that the old gentleman knew nothing of philosophy. Philosophy, sir, said the old gentleman, I'll prove it from Scripture, from which you have proved every assertion you have made this day. Is it not written, that: “ the Lord called his people from the four corners of the earth.” Now, sir, if the earth have four corners, I take it it is square, not round. Such is the power of fanaticism over

! the hearts of bad men, that they will support their opinions, even on the sacred subject of religion, by the most horrible of means; and many a beretic bas experienced, and many a martyr to the true religion has been the subject of an tuoda-fe, for only asserting opinions on the conviction of reason; and I have no doubt, that there are this moment some who think they are doing God justice, and are promoting the good cause of religion, when they oppose Phrenology, and denounce it as tending to atheism. Such men would, were we inhabitants of Spain at this moment, condemn us all to the stake. Happy are we that we live in a country where

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our persons are safe. But we must be very careful bow we conduct ourselves, that we have not our reputations placed on gridiron for our philosophy of the brain as the organ of mind. With respect to Dr Spurzheim on the anatomy of the brain, he must be content to bear with the same treatment as the great Harvey experienced. The discoveries of Harvey by inference involved all the then teachers of anatomy throughout Europe, in the reproach that they were all ignorant of the true dissection and office of the heart. In the same manner, Spurzheim has proved that the anatomical teachers in every college were ignorant of the true struc ture of the brain; hence the virulence of your Barclays and Gordons. Harvey was not only ridiculed by the teachers, but he was so belied as to suffer in his reputation, and was called, as you have lately heard the truly respectable and legitimate professors of Phrenology called, Quack; he lost his practice for a time in consequence as a physician. We

Nay, Linnæus lost his employment as a practitioner of physic, because, proh pudor! he talked of the sexes and spermatic vessels of plants, and called the parts by names appropriated to men and women. For our consolation, however, and for your encouragement to prosecute your inquiries into the brain, as containing the organs of that. prin. ciple which governs our actions and thoughts in this sublunary world, we have lived to see even the most bigoted religionists allow that Galileo was justified in asserting that the earth turned round on her axis; that the discoveries of New ton have not injured true religion; and, I trust, you will yet live to see the world do that justice to Dr Spurzheim för his discoveries on the anatomy of the brain, which every anatomical chair throughout all Europe now does to Harvey for his discoveries of the circulation of the blood... weg

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The Society was formed March 27, and it held its first meeting at the house of Dr C. Alderson, when an address was delivered by the President, Dr Alderson, on the cause of our associating ourselves “ as a Society for Phrenological In

quiry."—(This address is published in our present Number. -Editor.)

The second meeting was held at Mr R. Casson's, surgeon, April 19, 1827, and, in the absence of the President, the chair was taken by Mr John Young, (the oldest surgeon in the town), who made some few observations on the superiority of the science of Phrenology.

Mr Casson read an excellent paper, and adverted to the fundamental truths of the science, as furnishing the best illustration of the poet's advice,

“ Man, know thyself ; all wisdom centres there." ; He adverted to some very absurd objections made in another society to the organ of Constructiveness, and exhibited the heads of a rabbit and a hare ; in the former he pointed out the great development of the organ of Constructiveness, and the want of it in the latter, which is in exact agreement with their natural history, &c.


The third meeting was held at Mr R. Craven’s, surgeon, May 3, 1827, Dr Alderson in the chair. Mr Craven read a paper on the dissection of the brain, and pointed out the manner or mode of doing this by the old anatomists, as being not only defective in a scientific point of view, but likely to 'mislead the judgment with a set of unmeaning phrases.

Two brains were procured for the occasion, the one an adults, and the other an infant's of twelve months old. The nervous structure, the decussation of the fibres, and the unfolding of the convolutions (as in the case of hydrocephalus internus) were shown. One fact transpired more immediately connected with the Society; a section was made through the thalamus of both brains; in the adult's the fibres radiated from a centre, distributing them superiorly, laterally, anteriorly, and posteriorly; but in the infant's, the radii were only apparent anteriorly, or in the direction of Individuality, Locality, and Language.

Also a letter was read by the secretary, (addressed to the learned president.) It contained a post-mortem examination of a gentleman who retained his mere animal senses, but who lost all power of ratiocination, and died insane. The affective organs were nearly disorganized in consequence of a spicula of bone acting as the irritating cause; and the membranes exhibited great fulness of the vessels, and were highly inflamed.

The fourth meeting was held at Mr Sleight's, surgeon, May 17, 1827, Dr Alderson in the chair, who made some remarks on two casts taken by Mr Levison (at his request) from two children. One was troubled with fits, and had a large portion of brain on one side, amounting to a deformity; and the other was a hydrocephalic patient. In the latter the enlargement was most remarkable in the region of Secretiveness and Cautiousness, but had evidently decreased since the doctor's professional attendance. The use, he said, of taking casts would be to enable us to observe the progress of development of the organs, and mark the degree of their functional activity, and how far they would be modified and inAuenced by education and other moral causes.

Mr G. Combe of Edinburgh was proposed as an honorary member by Mr Levison, “ in testimony of esteem for bis “ very splendid talents, avd the ardour he has evinced in pro

Vol. IV.-No XVI.

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"mulgating the science of Phrenology,“ &c. which was una nimously carried without going to ballot.

The Rev. John Blézard was proposed a member of the Society, and admitted unanimously.

An excellent paper was then read by Mr Sandwith, surgeon, of Beverley. He gave a comprehensive view of the nervous system of the whole animal kingdom, and pointed out the peculiarities of each, with the corresponding function. -(This able essay forms the first article in the present Number.-EDITOR.)

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The fifth meeting was held at Mr Edward Munton's, surgeon, and, in the absence of the president, the chair was taken by Dr Turnbull.

Mr Munton read å paper on the science of Phrenology, and cleared away the unphilosophical charges of materialism, &c. He adverted to Dr Ferriar's cases, which had been ated by a gentleman (a surgeon opposed to the science) in another society, who also made use of the following case, as be. ing one which would give a quietus to Phrenology, viz., “That a young woman received a blow at the back of the head, " when some of the brain was effused, so that the organs of

Amativeness were destroyed, but that she afterwards became a " fille de joie, and therefore the science must be very absurd.” Mr M. then adverted to the impossibility of the cerebellum being injured by external violence, (and this was the organ of physical love), as it is secured by the tentorium internally, and several powerful muscles externally, as the trapezeus, complexus, splenius, &c. which are inserted in the ridge of the os occipitis above, considerably superior to the situation of the cerebellum. He then adverted to the post-mortem examination of Lord Byron, which, he observed, was in itself a -tower of' strength in favour of our science, and concluded with some warm eulogiums on the founders, Drs Gall and Spurzheim.

Dr Allen of London was then proposed as an honorary member by Mr Casson, and unanimously admitted.

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