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“ material anatomical differences between the brain of the common tailless
and that of man." Among the various orders of mammiferous animals there is the greatest diversity in docility and intelligence, and, as far as has been observed, corresponding differences in cerebral development. Sæmmering, who divides the brain into two parts, one connected with the senses, the other with the intellectual powers, observes, “ Animals of various kinds “ seem to possess a smaller or larger quantity of the latter portion “ of brain according to the degree of their sagacity and docility." Mr Lawrence
“ The number and kind of intellectual pheno“mena in different animals correspond closely to the degree of the “development of the brain." The large cranium and high forehead of the ourang-outang lift him above his brother monkeys; and he is said, by Dr Elliotson, to be “ curious, “ imitative, covetous, social,” and to perform many actions usually considered human. “ The gradation of organization and of mind passes through the monkey, dog, elephant, horse, to other quadrupeds.” Notwithstanding the exaggerated reports of travellers, the superiority of intelligence and adaptation to circumstances in the beaver is, says Blumenbach, beyond dispute ; and, according to the tables of Cuvier, there is a marked superiority in the size of his brain. Dogs differ as much from each other in instinct and docility as they do in cerebral development. Compare, for example, the bull-dog and the hound, the hound and the greyhound, the mastiff and the poodle. The crafty fox and the ermine, like the dog, lay up stores for the future ; on the contrary, in some of the inferior quadrupeds the instincts are not under the dominion of reason. Thus the hamster breaks the wings of dead birds as well as live ones to prevent their escape. All which is agreeable to the observation of Cuvier, “that " the convolutions become fewer and shallower as the brain “ diminishes in size; there are none in the rodentia, none in
very small brains.” As might be expected, the cetacea, having no sense or organ of smelling, have neither olfactory nerves nor processus mamillaris.
We are indebted to Tiedemann for the attempt to demonstrate the gradual evolution of the nervous system. He has traced its progress from its embryo condition to its maturity, and his observations prove that the developments are commensurate with the manifestations of its functions. Monsieur Serres, also treading in the same path, has ascertained that the several portions are formed in succession. The outline of the spinal chord, he says, is soonest completed, then the crura and corpora quadrigemina, and last of all the cerebellum. * Blumenbach observes, “ The human encephalon “ undergoes considerable changes after birth, in its entire “ mass, in the proportions of its parts, and in the texture
, “ and consistency of its substance ;" attaining, according to the Wenzels, its full weight before the fifth, and size before the seventh year.
“ The gradual evolutions of the mental “ faculties correspond to these alterations, which indeed ac“ cord with the slow development of the human frame in “ other respects.” In infancy the brain is pulpy, and the proportion of the cortical exceeds that of the medullary matter; and both before and after birth the nerves, which, according to M. Serres, are first perfected, are larger than in the adult. In the latter “ the cerebellum is equal in weight “ to about the eighth or ninth part of the brain ; whereas in “ the new-born infant it is not a sixteenth or eighteenth part “ of it, with a corresponding difference in the manifestations “ of its functions.” Dr Spurzheim bas ascertained that the spinal marrow has obtained solidity and firmness while the brain is pulpy and devoid of fibres; and thus accounts for the muscular activity of children, and their comparative feebleness of intellect. Again, in old age the brain is actually diminished in size, with a suitable degree of apathy and mental decadency
Between eminently intellectual individuals and idiots the
Spurzheim's Anat. of Brain.
difference is similar to that which obtains between man and the mammalia. Men of large heads, according to Magendie, have capacious minds; whereas in idiots, as in the quadrumana, the brain is small, the convolutions few and shallow, and the anterior lobes but little developed. If, indeed, we extend the comparison through all the intermediate gradations of intellect, we shall be astonished to find a corresponding agreement. “ The mind of the negro and the Hotten“ tot, of the Calmuck and Carib, is inferior to that of the “ European, and their organization is less perfect,**_" the “ intellectual characters are reduced, the animal features en
larged and exaggerated.” Even hatters have ascertained that servants and negroes have smaller heads than others. Women are as unlike men in the form of their heads as in the qualities of their minds. In men of commanding talents the greater quantity of cerebral matter is anterior to the ear; but in heads which are truncated before, and largely developed in the opposite direction, the passions will be found to be stronger than the understanding. The higher sentiments elevate the calvaria or top of the head ; it is accordingly ob
; served, that from men whose heads are fattened, as in quadrupeds,
“ Conscience, virtue, honour, are exiled." Pope Alexander the Second is an illustrious example, , Other differences might be enumerated; but to extend our observations further would be to trench upon the discoveries of Messrs Gall and Spurzheim, whose conclusions, indeed, are but an extension of this comparison founded on observation, and confirmed by experiment.
BEVERLEY, April 30, 1827. -, b*.*".
Lawrence, p. 108. Magendie, by Milligan, p. 420.
CASE OF TD
T-D- was intended for the medical profession ; but, when about 18 or 19 years of age, showed obvious aberrations of mind that unfitted him for any employment. His father having died, and left him a sum of money, the interest of which, under economical management, might suffice for his support, application was made by his relations to the Court of Session, who appointed Mr G. Combe curator of his effects, it not being necessary to confine his person. This power was conferred in 1819; and from that time up to July 1827, when T-D— died, he continued under Mr Combe's superintendence. In 1819,
TD__'s head was fully of an average size; the knowing organs were largely developed, the fore. head rose high and rather perpendicularly, but was not broad. The organ of Comparison was considerably larger than Causality and Wit. The organs of the propensities were developed in about an average degree; Acquisitiveness and Secretiveness having rather the predominance. The organs of Self-esteem and Love of Approbation were decidedly large, the former much above an average. Imitation was large; and the moral organs were well developed, particularly Firmness. There was no circumstance in the size or shape of the brain that indicated insanity ; so that the disease was obviously one affecting its internal constitution.
His alienation presented the following features. He was easily provoked, and fierce when irritated; but otherwise free from all malevolence. He entertained an exalted opinion of his own greatness, and conceived himself to be a genius of the highest order, particularly in the drama, and on this account adopted the name of Shakspeare. For many years he subscribed his name “T-Shakspeare D."
He was Vol: IV.-No XVI.
fond of money, extremely alive to order, and a great admirer of the fair sex. In other respects his mind presented no particular appearances.
The notion of his own greatness was obviously referable to his ample development of Self-esteem; and its direction towards the drama is accounted for by the combination of large Secretiveness, with Imitation and Comparison. He was fond of frequenting the theatre, and imitated with considerable success Kean and other striking actors.
To establish his title to the name which he had adopted, he wrote a farce, presented it to Mr Murray of the Theatre-Royal to be acted, and, in astonishment at his rejection, printed it to convict the manager of deficiency of discrimination and taste. It was destitute of all coherence, aim, or object; but replete with the most stupendous conceptions and terrific comparisons. One of his personages says, “ I'll tell you what, when
“ “ the universe assumes the form of a handkerchief near falling “out of a gentleman's pocket, that union which you contemplate upon will happen." Another is described as “looking
just like stupidity benumbed by Covent-Garden tailors, and, " when you talk, your teeth present the appearance of rumps
of hedges.”—“O loggerhead, have I lost my wits, that you are
arraying your force with all the gravity of a lawyer taking a “ guinea-note when he was entitled to a pound.” A young fop is characterized thus: “ When he plays upon the piano, it's just “ discordance drunk, -impudence dressed like a puppy, ex"travagance and nonsense sitting at the fire, having been ban
quetting and lounging there, being full gorged with the fat “ luxuriance." His remarks on female beauty are frequent. One of his characters addresses a lady who is in love with him : “ Go to-go to,-take your plain feet hence ; moreover, I hate
plain feet. I have truly uttered my voice." To another, whom he admires, he is more complimentary: "Be thou great “cozening Venus, madam, or the resemblance of the dawning "day, ushering thy form and potent quibbling lips before our
eyes, just as the light descending down the skies.” A lady who repeats a commendation on herself as likely to make " a
goodly wife," is told that it is “as huge a lie as a man endur“ing the massy weight of a tan-yard on his back.” He old his farce among his friends, enjoyed their praises of its merits, and ever after conceived his equality with Shakspeare indisputable. In this production bis large Comparison is