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others are not in repose; the activity of the encephalon, for instance, deranges very speedily and powerfully the digestive organs, when both are exercised at the same time, and, if persevered in, soon induces disease.

5. The more numerous and powerful the causes which favour or determine the exercise or repose of an organ, the more will that organ be disposed to exertion or repose, and consequently to develope itself or to diminish.

Dr Thomas's theory, it will be observed, explains very easily the changes that take place in the temperaments at different periods of life. Thus the infant is said to be lymphatic. This arises from the predominance of the abdominal organs, and the consequent activity of nutrition producing a deposition of fat and cellular membrane. The temperament of the same individual may at 18 be no longer lymphatic, but what is called sanguine. This would arise from the thoracic organs having become relatively more developed than the abdominal, and in the same way all the other changes may be perfectly accounted for, and connected with their physical causes; whereas, on the old system, we often have a person lymphatic in infancy, sanguine in youth, and melancholic in mature'age, and yet no one could tell how or why all these metamorphoses have happened.

ARTICLE IX.

AFFECTION OF LOWER INDIVIDUALITY.

To the Editor. SIR,-When upon a visit to a clerical friend, in November last, my attention was attracted to one of his sons, a fine boy about eight years old, who seemed more than usually restless and unsettled in his manners. As there was nothing peculiar in the development, I drew the conclusion that the manifesta

tion did not probably proceed from any peculiarity in the organization, but from a diseased state of the system. In the course of the evening I learned, from a conversation between his mother and tutor, that the symptoms were increasing to a distressing degree, and that all the means which had been employed to correct them had been unavailing. Among other things it happened to be mentioned, that “ he still complained of the pain in his head.” This immediately excited my curiosity, and, upon inquiry, I learned that the pain was local, and was supposed to be in consequence of a blow which he had received on the forehead. Upon this I begged that I might be allowed to examine the case ; and when the boy was brought into the room, and questioned in regard to the pain he experienced, he laid his finger exactly upon the region of Lower Individuality. As it appeared to me that a physical remedy was more likely to prove effectual than the moral means which had hitherto been resorted to, I made out a statement of the case, and sent it to Dr from whom I received an answer, from which the following is an extract : “ There are two kinds of restlessness, one from an exuberance of “ muscular power arising from a kind of besoin, which, in early life, the muscles experience of being called into action, and the other from a prying restless curiosity, wishing to know all that is going The latter I conceive to apply to Dr

's son.

If I am right, then whatever diminishes nervous irritability would be pro“per. If there is any thing like permanent pain, whether funny

or tickling, I would be strongly inclined to apply one or two « leeches on Lower Individuality, or one each side of the nose, per

haps once in 14 or 20 days, unless there is any contra indica“ tion, of which I am ignorant, and to pour cold water on the head “and forehead regularly night and morning, keeping the hair short, “ and he should be prohibited from reading or examining minute ob“jects long at a time, or studying by a bright light, or reading late. “ An occasional tepid bath (at 960) in a forenoon, for 15 or 20 “minutes, is well adapted for equalizing excitement. Only he “ must rub himself pretty sharply after it with a coarse dry cloth. Lastly, he should attend strictly to the intestinal functions, which

are almost always imperfectly performed in such a subject ; and, “ in addition, if my notion is erroneous, so will the inferences and " practice here recommended be also erroneous.”

This extract I forwarded to my excellent friends, the father

on.

and mother of the little invalid, and, though not Phrenologists, they readily acknowledged the good sense that was displayed in Dr—'s remarks, and, at the risk of being ridiculed as converts, they availed themselves of part of his suggestions with greater success than they themselves perhaps had anticipated. That there might be no mistake as to the facts, I applied to Dr — for a statement of the particulars, in so far as he recollected them, and the following is a copy of the answer with which he favoured me :

8th June, 1827. MY DEAR SIR,—As I am not yet initiated into the mysteries of your science, I probably do not attach so much importance to my son's case as you do; I have no objections, however, to state what I recollect of it.

My son was, in infancy, a very puny child, and suffered from convulsions so severely that we almost despaired of seeing him survive his first year. He was, however, mercifully preserved, and grew up to be a tolerably healthy, though not a robust boy, being always what is called rather nervous. At a very early age, perhaps when he was three years old, he received a contusion on his forehead, the scar of which is still visible above the root of his nose ; but this was not considered to have produced any effect on his health or habits. About two years ago, I think, when he was about eight years old, he began to complain of an unpleasant internal sensation in his forehead, which he called “ a funny tickling pain,” the seat of which he considered to be somewhere under the scar, between the eyebrows; and, at the same time, he was annoyed with perpetual coryza, or with stuffing of the nose, indicating a morbid activity of the mucous membrane. This was accompanied with a certain increased mobility of the whole system, amounting to a fidgety restlessness both of mind and body, with an irresistible propensity to touch and handle every thing within his reach, not, as it seemed, with the view of ascertaining its nature and properties, but just to gratify

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the desire he felt to throw his muscles into action. When called up in school to say his lesson with the other boys of his class, he could not stand still in his place for half a minute, but was continually shifting his weight from one foot to the other, and shuffling backwards and forwards. His power of confining his attention too seemed at times almost gone, sợ that he fell behind his companions in learning, although the year before he had given promise of rapid advancement by his acuteness. In this state you saw him, and, imputing the symptoms to some organic affection of the local cerebral organ, described his case to Dr by whose advice two leeches were applied, about five months ago, over the part affected, and he certainly has experienced a marked abatement of all the disagreeable symptoms since that operation was had recourse to. This is all that I recollect of T-'s case which

appears to me worth noticing; but, as I may be incorrect in some of my recollections, I send this letter to Mr to revise, particularly with regard to the dates, there being, I am sensible, some very great depression in my cranium where the organ for chronology is usually situated ; at least there must be if your science is good for any thing.--Your's, &c.

To this interesting letter from Dr no farther explanation seems necessary. I shall merely add, that the names of all the parties are well known to you, and, though it may be as well that they should not appear in print, you are perfectly at liberty to make them known to any individual who makes inquiries from scientific motives. I am, &c.

OBSERVATOR.

Nore.-We lay the preceding letter before our readers, not from attaching any great importance to the individual case, but because we are anxious to direct the attention of medical Phrenologists to the closer observation of local symptoms, and to the rational trial of local remedies. External remedies are applied with much benefit in diseases of the thoracic and abdominal organs, and also in acute diseases affecting the whole brain; and as we can see no good reason why they should not act as beneficially when applied to the head as to any other part, we are anxious to have a fair trial made. We suspect indeed that this obvious means of cure has been neglected much more from mankind regarding the mind as altogether independent of organization, and from their not being aware of any morbid action going on in the head, than from any well-founded contempt of the efficacy of physical remedies locally applied.-EDITOR. ,

ARTICLE X.

Du Begalement, ses CAUSES, &c., et Moyens THERAPEU

TIQUES POUR PREVENIR, MODIFIER, OU GUERIR CETTE IN. FIRMITÉ ; par M. Felix Voisin, D. M. P.-Paris, pp. 47.

STAMMERING has generally been ascribed to some physical impediment in the tongue, the palate, or some other of the organs of speech ; but it is easy to show that its cause is of a very different origin, and that it rarely, if ever, arises from simple malformation of the vocal organs.

It is justly observed by the author before us, who is (or was) himself afflicted to a great degree with this defect of speech, and who is therefore no very incompetent judge, that the anatomical inspection of the vocal organs does not demonstrate any vice of conformation.

« The persons," says he, “ that I have seen, and who, like myself, spoke with difficulty, “ had not, as is alleged, the tongue larger than other people, nor its " ligaments laxer, nor its frenum excessively long, nor the teeth so “placed as to present any obstacle. It is incontestable, indeed,

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