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enemy with fire-arms. We should have been sadly thrown out, if, when forced to allot this specimen a different origin, we should find it at variance with the history of the race to which it is proved to belong. Had that race, instead of a timid submission to a small band of Spaniards, made head, like the Araucanians, described in the same paper, against the Spanish veterans, mounted a formidable cavalry 40 years after they had seen a horse, and defeated armies of their enemies in pitched battles. But there could be no such danger to our credit. We had the skull in our hands, and if it was the type of the race, the history of that race must correspond. Unwarlike submission in Peru differs not from unwarlike submission in Chiloe. Turning then with confidence to the Peruvian history, we find that the submission of 70,000 Chilotes--probably unarmed and unprepared, -to sixty Spaniards, was victory compared to that of the Peruvian empire, 1900 by 500 miles in extent, with a large army actually in the field, to one hundred and eighty Spaniards under Pizarro. So much for the unwarlike character of the Peruvians. But we have said, that we noticed in the skull we had a good intellectual and moral development, of the manifestation of which in Chiloe we could give no account; but we are quite at home with such a development in Peru. While it would not take the direction of war, it would cultivate the arts of peace, and establish a regular government, remarkable for its mild character. Such was the empire founded by Mango Capac, the first of the Incas.
If Mr Malden's correction of our mistake bad not been perfectly sufficient to satisfy us that we had got a Peruvian skull, Mr Watson's donation would have set the matter at rest. The moment the six skulls were unpacked, their perfect fellowship with our supposed Inca, and their dissimilarity. to all other skulls of all other races in our possession were obvious to the most careless observer. As remarked in the letter which accompanied them, they all measure more than their forerunner. This circumstance struck us before we read the letter. The whole six are larger, and the eight retained by the Glasgow Phrenological Society appear, by the measurement sent of them, also to exceed the size of the
sup. posed Inca. Fifteen skulls from one quarter and of one race, not only agreeing in the general type, but very little differing in the details, afford proof enough at once of what the subjects of the Incas were, and of that uniformity of nature which, by the laws of propagation, stamps an impress of brotherhood upon each particular race, and gives a corresponding resemblance in character among all the individuals distinguished from the character of all other races, and therefore essentially national. If the friends of Phrenology abroad shall often bestow so liberally as Mr Watson's Lima correspondent, -every skull being of tenfold value from forming one of a number,-national Phrenology will soon be rich in its stores, and powerful in the aids which these stores afford of one of the most interesting and instructive branches of the science.
INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION ON THE DIRECTION OF
To the Editor of the Phrenological Journal. Sir, I was requested to examine a head a few days ago, an account of which may interest your readers; and particularly as showing how completely blind both the sentiments and propensities are in themselves, and how essential intellect is to their proper direction and application, and, consequently, how necessary and important education, in its most extended sense, is to the happiness and welfare of the individual.
The subject of this examination was a young girl of twelve, of rather precocious development, and great activity, and in the rank of a domestic servant. The head was large in all its dimensions, and the three regions of propensities, sentiments, and intellect, were very fairly balanced. The relative proportions of the organs were as follows:
1. Amativeness, moderate,
full on the other.
19. Upper Individuality, rather large. 19. Lower do.
or rather full.
Upon being asked if there was any thing remarkable in the dispositions of this girl? I answered, that the large Selfesteem and full Acquisitiveness, and large Love of Approbation, gave a strong degree of selfishness to the character ; but as the Benevolence and Conscientiousness were also large, and tended to regulate the former, it would depend very much upon the direction given to them by those among whom she lived, which would predominate in her conduct. In making this statement, I was guided a good deal by an observation that I had often found verified in practice, that where an active Secretiveness and Imitation were combined in children, with a ready and reflecting intellect, no amount of Conscientiousness was sufficient to withstand the temptation to lying and deceit, so often presented by the joint activity of four or five faculties, each equally powerful as itself; and that it was not till later in life, when the intellect had acquired knowledge of the relations of man to his Crea
Vol. IV.No XV.
tor, to his fellow-men, and to external nature, that the moral sentiments, thus enlightened, were able to maintain their supremacy and regulate the conduct. .
I was then informed that the girl's moral sentiments, if she had any, must have been very ill directed; for that, on the very day she had entered the house, she had proposed to her companion to commit a theft, and that when taxed with it, she seemed not at all annoyed, but forthwith explained, very fully and distinctly, how she had been led to think of such a thing. It was added, that she was the daughter of a blind itinerant musician,-that her associates had been of the lowest and most worthless kind, that her propensities had been much more diligently cultivated than either her moral sentiments or intellect,--and that, notwithstanding, she evinced so many good qualities, and such a maturity of understanding, that much hesitation was felt in adopting the expedient of turning her away; while Cautiousness was naturally enough roused in regard to the probable consequences of her stay.
Brought up in such society, this girl was evidently much in the same situation that a favourable development would be among a semi-barbarous people, who practised thieving as a duty. Surrounded by associates who were unconscious of scruples, and, very probably, ignorant of the existence of any beings more honest than themselves, it is not wonderful that an isolated individual, with even a strong Conscientiousness, should not have manifested, up to the age of twelve, any repugnance to the same practices to which she had been strained, gratifying, as these were, to the no less strong feelings of cunning and selfishness, and affording scope, as they did, for the power of acting, which she was conscious of possessing, and for the power of invention bestowed by a ready and acute understanding. Considering, indeed, the deep -root, which early impressions often repeated take on the mind, and the late period at which reason, when unassisted, begins -to question their propriety, it would have been a subject for
greater surprise, had this girl, in such circumstances, from the pure force of a single sentiment, discovered the immor. ality of her previous conduct, and succeeded in reforming herself on a new and untried model, than that she should have erred in her moral perceptions.
Connected with and illustrative of what I have now stated, is an observation which must have occurred to many practical Phrenologists, that, instead of an active intellect correcting the abuse of Secretiveness in children, that combination more than any other tempts to deceit and lying. Numerous examples have fallen under my own notice, but one will suffice. A boy of six was brought to me a few weeks ago with a very remarkable development, which presented many points of resemblance with that we have just been discussing. The head was large, (being 7 inches long and 55 inches across at Destructiveness, and also at Cautiousness), and the forehead remarkably developed in the region of Comparison, Causality, Wit, Imitation, and Ideality ; and the two Individualities were full. Among the propensities, Secretiveness, Selfesteem, Cautiousness, Love of Approbation, and among the sentiments, Benevolence, were very predominant, while Cons scientiousness was only full. The temperament was evidently one of intense activity.
My inferences were, that the boy would be possessed of a very acute and penetrating understanding--that nothing would escape his notice that he would show a maturity of reflection, and quickness of apprehension, seldom to be found at his years,--that, from the combination of large Secretiveness and Imitation, with the great knowing powers which he also possessed, he would have both a facility and a pleasure in imitating and in acting; and that these, added to the ready invention given by a very active and consistent intellect, would afford such a temptation to acting in real life, or, in other words, to lying and deceit, as his only full Conscientiousness would have great difficulty in withstanding; that his Cautiousness and Destructiveness being also very large,