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« Phan, a negress from the central part of Madagascar, of about "twenty-four years of age (the Orah district, the capital of which *is Tananarivo) is possessed of most of the peculiar characteristics * of natives of that part of the world, with the exception of a greater “ degree of honesty, less of taste for finery, and of taste for music, " which in her seems altogether wanting, whilst it is rather a pecu“ liaz characteristic in the race.”

Dr Sibbald added, as the young woman's history, that when she was a child, her whole nation was subdued by another tribe, and carried down to the coast for sale as slaves; and that it was her lot to be brought to the Isle of France, where she acquired the French language,-the only tongue in which she answered our questions ;- and her good fortune to come, finally, into the hands of the kind and considerate master and mistress she now serves, and to whom she is an attached, careful, and trusty nursery-maid.

Dr Sibbald himself saw the necessity, without our suggesting it to him, of procuring a good many Madagascar skulls of undoubted nativity and locality, before coming to the conclusion to which this single and most favourable specimen would point, viz. that the natives of that island are a race so very superior to all the sable population of the tropics of which we have yet the means of judging. We hold Dr Sibbald pledged, and willingly pledged, to complete for us the Phrenology of Mozambique and Madagascar, with philosophical accuracy, and to send many an unequivocal proof for the museum; and farther,-for we are insatiable,--to do for us all he can in collecting national skulls in every quartet of the globe where he may set his foot, or where he has the means of corresponding with an intelligent friend.

As we expect to hear from many such benefactors in different regions, it occurs to us that a few simple instructions as to how they can most beneficially direct their exertions in the cause may not be here out of place,-much after the fashion of some charitable institutions, who furnish an excellent and strictly legal form of a will or bequest in their own favour, to guide the beneficence of all who may be in the vein. Be it known then to all to whose knowledge these

presents may come, that when they, either by themselves, or their correspondents, set about obtaining the skulls of the natives of any region or place, for the Museum of the Phrenological Society, their process should be, as nearly as possible, the following :-). Inquire, very indirectly and cautiously, how the natives dispose of their dead; and especially whether they preserve the bones, and store them up as in the Sandwich islands. If the skulls are preserved, and, still more, if they are stored, any number may, it is thought, with a little address, be quietly procured without giving of fence. 2. If they inter their dead, look for cemeteries, and, above all, for fields of battle; and whenever a native resur. rection-man brings a skull, take it from him, and, if practicable, go with him to the spot where he found it, of which take a note. 3. Before laying aside, or sending off the skull, mark neatly with pen and ink on the top of it, turning the face towards you the race-the variety of the race- the place where found, if in a cemetery or collection of unmixed native remains, or of natives with strangers, and whom, intermixed. If there are a variety of skulls, put a legible number, or Roman letter, on the forehead, for reference in any accompanying written sketch. 4. Write down, as minutely and comprehensively as possible, all you know, can learn, and observe, of the character of the race or variety, as to love of sex-care of children-love of kindred and countrycourage, with or without cruelty-temperance, or gluttony and drunkenness-workmanship-love of property-cunning or opennesspride or humility, and shamelessness or vanity-timidity-kindness or indifference to others superstition--cheerfulness poetry and finery

honesty firmness and obstinacy ;-with intellectual character, as consisting in quickness to learn to copy and imitate to draw --to sing and dance to wonder--to laugh, and to reflect, or manifest sagacity and intelligence. It will subserve a useful purpose, too, although the skull will not indicate it, to add some observations on the degree in which the race manifest the five external senses of seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling. Of the safest and speediest channel for sending home such valuable contributions, the donors will, of course, be much better judges than ourselves.




We had scarcely sent the preceding article to press, when a package arrived from Glasgow, accompanied by the following letter from Mr Leadbetter, Secretary to the Phrenological Society of Glasgow, to Mr George Combe:

Glasgow, 17th March, 1827. DEAR SIR, -Our friend, Mr Watson, ever anxious to promote the interests of Phrenology, had, some time ago, requested one of his mercantile correspondents in Lima to send him a few skulls of the aborigines of that country ; accord, ingly a package arrived containing 14, accompanied with a letter, stating, “ I send you a dozen from one of the Hua

cus in the neighbourhood, and I trust that they will ena “ ble you and your phrenological friends to ascertain what " was the general temperament of the sons of the Incas.”

Dr M‘Kenzie and I have measured the whole of them, and, at the request of Mr Watson, I send you a halfdozen, No 1 and 6, which you will please present to the Phrenological Society ;-I also give you the measurement, not only of these six, but of the other eight, and if you find that we are correct with the former, the annexed table will give additional weight to whatever evidence these skulls may afford of the truth of Phrenology. It requires merely a glance of the eye to be satisfied that they are of one race or nation ;-the peculiarity of their shape is striking, and an extreme flatness of the back part pervades the whole. This circumstance is noticed as being very marked in the skull of the Chiloan chief, the measurement and development of which has been given in an article in the eleventh Number of the Phrenological Journal; but unless that skull be regarded as below the average of the Chiloan race, the native Peruvians must be considered as superior to them in energy of .character, as the measurements of those 14 evidently indicate a greater mass of brain. I hope the writer of the article al. luded to will furnish the Journal with his observations on these skulls. There is yet much to explore in this branch of phrenological inquiry; it is full of interest, as its object is to trace the causes of national character, which, though built upon a structure of various parts, has its main foundation in the primary varieties of the cerebral mass.

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Our Society here has been in a dormant state for these two winters; the winter avocations of our medical members interfere with their attendance, and the other members, amid much mercantile distress, have had their attention diverted from a subject which, though treating a good deal of matter, must, notwithstanding, be considered of a very intellectual nature, and, perhaps, partaking too much of this character for our money-making, and of late money-losing citizens. The seed, however, is sown, but the soil not being very genial, I do not expect that its growth will ever manifest the distinctive marks of rapidity or vigour.-I am, dear Sir, your's truly,


This welcome accession could not have come more seasonably; for it gives us the opportunity of correcting a mistake into which we were led in regard to a Peruvian skull, already in the museum of the Phrenological Society, while, at the same time, it fixes the Peruvian type às distinct from the other races of South America. In an article on the Sand. wich islanders and South Americans, in vol. iii. page 430—31, we described a skull which we then believed to be, and called that of a Chiloan chief, and stated, that the development was in all respects that of a race which would yield, however numerous, to a handful of Europeans, without attempting resistance. We also noticed, that there is considerable intellect and moral sentiment indicated by the development; with which part of the organization we had no means of comparing the character of the Chilotes. After we had published, under mistake, that the head was Chiloan, we were set right by Mr Malden, the donor himself, who informed us, that what, by mistaking his c for an o, we had read Chiloa, was Chilca, near Lima in Peru; at which last place the skull was found, being that of a native Peruvian. This information was to us a great increase of its value, in as far as the empire of Peru was more interesting than the island of Chiloa, or more properly Chiloe ; and still a greater that, the skull having been found in the centre of a circle of skulls in Peru, a mode of sepulture there peculiar to the Incas, it is exceedingly probable that it is actually the head of one of that dynasty of royal priests of the sun.

We have said that the small head, defective Firmness, and very large Cautiousness, Veneration, and Wonder, would lead the race to unwarlike submission, especially to a strange

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