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of Man and External Objects. Henry Wight, Esq. advocate, was admitted an ordinary member.
January 11.—Mr Combe read the remainder of his Essay on the Relations between the Physical and Intellectual Constitution of Man and External Objects.
January 18.-Mr William Scott read an Essay on Comparison. The following donations were presented : Skull of James Stark, executed at Sydney in September, 1824, for murder. Skull of John Hand, executed at Sydney for murder, September, 1824. Skull of a native female of New South Wales, presented by Sir Thomas Brisbane. Skull of a native of the interior of Java. Two Chinese skulls, presented by Dr Strange. Mr Combe read an Answer by him to Mr Jeffrey's new Statement in the 89th Number of the Edinburgh Review. Dr Charles Collier was admitted a corresponding member of the Society.
February 1.-An Essay on Combativeness, and on the Functions of the Faculty manifested by the Organ No 22 (Weight), by Sir G. S. Mackenzie, Bart., was read. An Inquiry concerning an Organ for the Feeling of the Ludicrous, distinct from that of Wit, by X. T. P. H. sent anonymously to the Editor of the Phrenological Journal, was read. Mr Lawrence Macdonald, sculptor, Pitt Street, was admitted an ordinary member.
February 15.- A letter was read from the Hon. Douglas G. Hallyburton, accompanying donation of busts of Julius Cæsar, Cicero, Ariosto, Michael Angelo, and Galileo. Mr Lyon read an Essay, being a Comparison between Monarchical and Republican Forms of Government, illustrated from the History and Institutions of the States of New England, North America.
March 1.-Mr Simpson read an Essay, being additional Evidence of the Existence of a Sense of Equilibrium as a primitive Mental Power, derived from the Consistency which obtains between its supposed Functious and the recent Physiological Discoveries of Mr Charles Bell.
March 15.-Mr Scott read an Essay on Wit and the Lúdicrous. Mr Charles Lees, painter, No 17, North Union Street, was admitted an ordinary member. · March 29.-A Letter from Mr Leadbetter was read, also Remarks on M. Audubon, M. Weiss, Carl. Maria Von Weber, by Mr William Scott. An Account of Ane Nielsdatter, , an Infanticide, by Dr Otto of Copenhagen, was read, and a Correspondence between Dr Elliotson and Rochester Literary Society, about the Skull and Character of J. L. Six Peruvian skulls, from Thomas Watson, Esq., Glasgow, were presented.
NOTE ON ARTICLE VII., ON EQUILIBRIUM.
From some obscurity in Mr Bell's account of his discovery, we were led to give him credit for a little more than he him. self claims as the extent of that discovery. We have stated (page 272, middle paragraph,) that he has demonstrated that the nerve of the new sense which goes to the muscle is distinct from the nerve of feeling which goes to the skin, but with which it is associated. Now, on carefully reperusing his paper, we find that, while in his principal statement he claims to bave demonstrated the new muscular function, (see our quotations from him, top of page 269, and last paragraph of page 271), he adds a sort of postscript, in which he claims no more than to have rendered it probable that the new and demonstrated function is performed by a nerve distinct from the nerve of feeling Mr Bell's words are, “ The returning " muscular nerves are associated with the nerves of sensibility to the "skin, but they are probably very distinct in their endowments, “ since there is a great difference between conveying the sense “ of external impressions and that of muscular action."-(Phil. Trans. p. 171.) The respective functions are demonstrated to be different; but that they are performed by distinct nerves, and not by the same nerve modified, as it respectively supplies the muscle or the skin, is only inferred. But the ine ference is supported both on fact and analogy, and, if not al
together, is almost demonstration. Our readers, however, are requested to observe, that the new function of a nerve which is demonstrated is enough for the existence of a sense of Equilibrium. That the same nerve when sent to the skin shall have a different function, than that which belongs to it when sent to the muscle, even if true, (which there is almost demonstration that it is not,) is of no consequence to us, the different function being all that concerns our theory.
We beg our readers to hold deleted—as an oversight of our own-the last sentence of the first foot-note on page 269. Two nerves, not three, are supplied to each muscle. The third nerve, if distinct, as inferred by Mr Bell, goes to the skin.
We have received the following communication from a medical gentleman of this city, illustrative of this subject :
“ I was consulted by the son of a gentleman in the country who “ has had a singular paralytic affection. He lost the power of mo« tion in his arms, but retained sensation acutely, and felt another
person's hand cold or warm, as the case might be. Now, at the “ distance of three weeks, he has regained the,
of motion, but • has lost the sense of the state of the muscles so completely that he “ cannot adapt his muscular contractions to the purpose he has in “ view. In seizing a small object, he bears down upon it with his “ extended hand, gathers it in,
and grasps it like a vice, not aware « of the disproportion of his effort. He has, at the same time, the « complete command of his muscles as to contraction and relaxation, “ but wants only the sense of their state. I have not seen him, as “ he is in a fair way of recovery, and lives a good way out of town."
DR SPURZHEIM has lectured in Bath and Bristol since our last publication, and with complete success. The managers of the Literary Institution at each place, acknowledged that no lecturer had filled them to such a degree. In Bath, additional benches were required to accommodate the audience. The interest increased with each lecture, and the last was the most numerously attended at both places. In spring and summer, Dr Spurzheim intends to remain in London. On the 4th of April he will commence a course of lectures in the London Institution. He will lecture also in his own house, 8, Gower Street; and, in particular, on Mondays and Thursdays, in the evening, he will have practical conversations on Phrenology,
with examination of his auditors. We anticipate the greatest benefits to the science from Dr Spurzheim's exertions.
A portrait of Dr Spurzheim, engraved by Hodgets, from a picture by Mr Stewart Watson, has been published in Edinburgh, dedicated to the Phrenological Society. The head and face are good likenesses, and the portrait must be acceptable to those who have admired Dr Spurzheim's talents and virtues in his works. It would be highly desirable to have a good portrait of Dr Gall.
EDINBURGH.-The report of the proceedings of the Phrenological Society will show that the science advances with spirit and success in this city. Several very valuable donations of national skulls have been obtained during the present season. The most beneficial consequences have attended the attack of the Edinburgh Review ; many persons have read the answer, and been thereby induced to attend to the science, whose prejudices were previously insuperable. Frequent reports have been circulated of another intended attack, by Sir William Hamilton, within the arena of the Royal Society. We have already mentioned, that by the rules of this body, which prohibit visitors from speaking, and its own members from debating, Sir William Hamilton is as secure from refutation, whatever he ad. vances, as a toad is from its enemies in the heart of a block of marble. Until, therefore, the learned Baronet shall be pleased to publish his objections, which we solicit him to do, we shall hold ourselves ab solved from the duty of noticing them. Professor Leslie lately commenced a course of popular lectures on Natural Philosophy, to which ladies were admitted. We offer him the tribute of our highest approbation for so useful and becoming a step; and are happy to announce, that, from every thing we hear, his lectures have excited much in terest, and been duly prized by his auditors. We cannot avoid regretting, however, that his prejudices should have led him to introduce a very ill-founded and uncalled-for attack upon Phrenology into his introductory lecture. Iu pointing out the evils of ignorance of patural phenomena, le stated, that this was the real cause of the long prevalence, in former ages, of judicial astrology, and of the existence, in the present day, of the dreamy reveries of craniology. In opposition to Mr Leslic's assertion, that ignorance is the cause of the prevalence of Phrenology, we observe that in
Dublin, Richard Carmichael, Esq. in an introductory lecture to a course of surgery, delivered at the Richmond School of Medicine, Dublin, on the 8th day of January, 1827, makes the following observations:
“The nerves of the other senses, as well as of that of touch,-those “ of sight, hearing, taste, and smell, -all have separate origins from * different portions of the brain. Since then we find each portion te of the nervous system has a distinct and appropriate function to “ perform, we are in some degree prepared for the proposition of « Gall and Spurzheim, that the entire mass of the brain is not en“gaged in every mental operation, but that different portions of this e viscus have their allotted functions.
“To such of you as have a wish to be acquainted with the phre“nological doctrines, I would strongly recommend you to read, at
your leisure hours, the admirable work of Mr George. Combe, “ which bas already gone through several editions. You will, after
perusing this work, feel the littleness of those who scoff at a sub“ject of which they are ignorant. An article, supposed to come “ from the pen of Mr Jeffrey, appeared in the Edinburgh Review " of October last, in which he attacks the system with all the wea
pons of an experienced controvertist. This drew forth from Mr “ Combe an immediate, spirited, and most triumphant reply, in “which he not only answered all his adversary's objections, but " convicted him of unfair dealing as a critic,-ignorance of the sub“ject he undertook to criticise, - little depth as a metaphysician, " and but slight acquaintance with the opinions even of the school “ he supports.
This testimony we would recommend to the notice of Professor Leslie, and other individuals who ascribe the prevalence of Phrenology to ignorance. Mr Carmichael is a medical practitioner of great emipence, a public teacher of surgery, and in the lecture in question, which is printed at the request of his pupils, he displays a mind profound and comprehensive in its views, intrepid and independent, and deeply imbued with the spirit of the age.
BELFAST.-A Phrenological Society has been instituted here. On 17th February, it contained forty members, and the numbers were likely to increase. They possessed, at that time, all the works of Dr Spurzheim, those of Mr Combe, Sir George Mackenzie's Illustrations, a small work of Dr Gall's, the Transactions of the Phrenological Society, and the Phrenological Journal; and they have since obtained an extensive collection of casts from Messrs O'Neil and Son of Edinburgh. Mr G. Combe has been elected an honorary member.
KILMARNOCK.-The Phrenological Society here has held regular meetings this winter ; several interesting communications have been read,
and an accession of members is expected. DUNDEE.-The Mechanics' Phrenological Society continues to be conducted with great judgment. From the commencement, the attention of the members has been all along drawn to the utility of the science, and with some success. They seem imbued with its spirit, and are eager to obtain a perfect knowledge of its principles. They have elected the Rev. Thomas Irvine, assistant minister of Lundie, Mr G. Combe, and Dr A. Combe, as honorary members.
COPENHAGEN.-Mr Jeffrey's article in the Edinburgh Review has excited a considerable sensation in Copenhagen. It was known by the London journals that Mr Combe had published an answer to it, and the answer was anxiously looked for. Dr Otto has published an essay, “ Phrenology applied to Crimes and Criminals." This gentleman lectured this winter, and had again a crowd of the most respectable auditors, who continued to show the greatest attention to the subject. Next winter he will deliver a course, at which ladies will be invited to attend. In a few weeks, the first number of a