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some of them, more closely, I think by no means that all their operations can be regarded as intellectual. For instance, let us view the Taste. When this faculty distinguishes acids and alcali, sweet and bitter, the operation certainly is an intellectual one, but when we sit down, delighting in the dainties of a well-stored table, is not then the working of the sense wholly affective ? I presuppose, that it must be the same faculty that distinguishes and enjoys the dishes, even as it is the same faculty that distinguishes the colours and enjoys their brightness.
As I mentioned in No V. of the Journal, we remember the perceptions of Taste, and they may revive by imagination. This is most commonly looked upon as a proof that the taste belongs to the intellectual faculties; but regarding an animal, for instance a dog, when it sits at the table, following with his eyes every bit we swallow, I think you will not deny that the expression of the activity of his soul is highly affective. But you may say, this is not an effect of Memory and Imagination in the tasting organs, but an immediate mimic manifestation of an active instinct for taking nourishment (appetite). This I shall not contradict, but turn by that motive to another indeterminate point. That the sensation of Taste only passes through the nerves,
, and is perceived in a part of the brain, is a supposition, I think, sufficiently proved. Now, it appears to me as highly probable, and by analogy agreeing with other experiences, that it is one and the same organ which tastes (viz. distinguishes and enjoys) and incites us to taste; or, in other terms, to take food and drink. This,, according to my opinion, is the organ of appetite for food, and, consequently, it may also be named the organ of Taste (gustus), and stands in the same relation to this of the external senses as the
organ of Tune to the sense of Hearing. The senses of Smell and Feeling I suppose to stand in similar relations to different
I parts of the brain.
Dr Spurzheim (Phrenology, page 257), thinks it probable, that one fundamental power, inherent in a particular part of the brain, knows and conceives as sensations, all the varied impressions made on the external senses. I cannot, I confess, but think this arrangement not at all aceordant with the common regulations of nature. Besides, as to the senses of Sight and Hearing, it appears to me not necessary to assume some farther intermediate organ, every perception passing through these two senses being sufficiently ascribed to organs already ascertained.
To resume, it is my opinion, which I have produced here, in the purpose possibly to bring this subject under eonsideration of more experienced Phrenologists, that the lower organs of senses, which are situated in the middle of the basis cranii, manifest themselves partly with intellectual and partly with affective functions, forming a gradation from Intellectuality to Propensity. If so, it will be no more possible to draw a distinct line between the different classes of faculties and their organs in that region, than it has succeeded, at least hitherto, in the regio frontalis.
DESCRIPTION OF AN ASHANTEE SKULL.
The subject of this notice was sent to Sir G. S. Mackenzie, through the medium of the Admiralty, but without any communication from the person who was so good as to forward it, so that he is yet ignorant of its history. It bears, however, in its anatomical peculiarities, the stamp of African origin, and there is no doubt to be reasonably entertained of its authenticity. It appears to be the skull of a female.
. The accounts of the Ashantee character have been so recently before the public, that it seems unnecessary at present to repeat what everybody knows. The mass of brain behind the ear is very large in proportion to that in front. The head is of nearly an average size ; and the forehead very narrow, -small, and low, sloping rapidly backwards. The dimensions are as follows:
DEVELOPMENT. 1. Amativeness, small.
18. Firmness, very large. 2. Philoprogenitiveness, large. 19., Upper Individuality, moderate. 3. Concentrativeness, rather large. 19. Lower do. large. 4. Attachment, rather large. 20. Form, large. 5. Combativeness, large.
21. Size, rather large. 6. Destructiveness, large on one side, 22. Weight, or Resistance, small.
rather large on the other. 23. Colouring, small. 7. Constructiveness, large.
24. Locality, moderate. 8. Acquisitiveness, moderate. 25. Order, or Symmetry, small. 9. Secretiveness, rather large. 26. Time, small. 10. Self-esteem, large.
27. Number, small. 11. Love of Approbation, very large. 28. Tune, small. 12. Cautiousness, moderate.
29. Language, small. 13. Benevolence, small.
30. Comparison, full. 14. Veneration, moderate.
31. Causality, moderate. 15. Hope, small.
32. Wit, moderate. * 16. Ideality, small.
33. Imitation, moderate. : 17. Conscientiousness, rather full. 34. Wonder, moderate.
There are some anatomical peculiarities in this skull, which, though not connected with Phrenology, may be interesting to some of our readers. The condyloid processes seem large. The mastoid processes are not rounded on the inner side, but are impressed with a deep and sharp furrow, and are very large. The styloid processes are very short. The distance from the foramen magnum to the occipital spine is only 3-4ths of an inch. The pterygoid processes of the sphenoidal bone are very deep. The alveolar processes of the front of the upper-jaw project forwards remarkably, and give a decided character to the face.
NOTE. We may add, that another and a known friend had, with considerable trouble and difficulty, procured, in the neighbourhood of Sierra Leone, several specimens of native African skulls, with which he was daily expecting to embark for England, when, unhappily for himself and for us, he was visited with an attack of fever of the worst description, and remained in a state of insensibility during many days, and at last slowly recovered ; when, to his great mortification, he found, that not only his skulls, but the whole of his baggage had disappeared. We are in hopes, however, that the former loss may yet be repaired, as we have written to a very zealous and scientific friend, who goes out as surgeon of H. M. S. Sybille, about to sail for the African station, to request his assistance, and, as he is thoroughly acquainted with Phrenology, and aware of the importance of the inquiry, we feel assured that he will do his utmost to satisfy our wishes. In the mean time, it is gratifying to know, from the above donation, that we have active friends, who, personally unknown to us, are exerting themselves in all quarters of the globe. -EDITOR.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE PHRENOLOGICAL SOCIETY.
November 16, 1826.-Mr William Scott read an Essay on Individuality. Four Ceylonese skulls, two skulls of Ceylonese Tom-tom boys, and one Burmese skull, were presented by Mr Lyon ; and also two skulls from the neighbourhood of Loch Tarbet, in Kintyre, by Miss Baillie of Polkemmet.
· November 30.-Letters from Dr Caldwell of Lexington, United States ; from Dr Otto, Copenhagen, and Mr Whitson, were read. Dr Andrew Combe read Observations on the Influence of Organic Size on the Functions of the External Senses. The following donations were presented :—“ Gall, sur les Fonctions du Cerveau,” by Dr Gall; Ashantee skull, by Sir G. S. Mackenzie, Bart. ; Chinese skull, by Mr William Mackenzie ; double cranium and brain preserved ; cast of brain of a whale, and skull of an owl, by Mr T. Buchanan, Hull; four skulls from Madagascar, by Dr Sibbald; four casts of skulls of Indians of Columbia river, America, by Dr Wright of London ; four skulls of Sandwich Islanders, and three skulls of South Americans, by Lieut. Charles Malden, late of the Blonde frigate. At a general meeting of the Society, held this evening, Mr William Scott was unanimously re-elected President ; Mr Simpson and Mr Waddell were chosen Vice-Presidents, in room of Dr Andrew Combe and Mr James Bridges; Mr William Bonar and Mr James Tod were elected Counsellors, in place of Mr Joseph and Mr Simpson ; Mr Lyon was re-elected Secretary, and Mr Ellis Keeper of the Museum ; Mr Donald Campbell was appointed Clerk, in the place of Mr Thomas Lees.
December 14.-Observations on an Organ on the State of which the Phenomena of Dreaming seem, to a certain Extent, to depend, by Sir G. S. Mackenzie, Bart., were read. Mr Simpson read an Essay on Ill-nature, Ill-temper, and Illhumour.
January 4, 1827.-A letter from Dr Spurzheim was read. The President was instructed to write to Dr Spurzheim, accepting of his offer to lecture in Edinburgh in December next, which was agreed to. A letter from Charles Collier, Esq. M. D. Ceylon, and a letter from Dr Strange, were read; also a letter from Dr Chalmers, proposing that a monument should be erected to the memory of the late Dr Thomas Brown. Mr Combe read the first part of an Essay on the Relations between the Physical and Mental Constitution