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unavoidably arises in drawing general inferences, just as Mr Jeffrey falls into error by mistaking the external nose for the whole organ of smell, and the external ear for the complete organ of hearing, and inferring, from the senses not depending for their acuteness on the size of these parts alone, that therefore Size does not add in any degree to the intensity of their functions.

With these sources of error clearly in view, and with the principle of Size for our guide, it may seem an easy matter to proceed a step farther, and, like Dr Gall, at last to unfold the true uses of the brain. But plainly as these principles now open to our view the path of knowledge, it was not by tracing them to their consequences that Dr Gall actually made his discovery. He never thought of this any more than did those who preceded him. It was the casual and repeated observation of the concomitance of great energy in a particular mental power, with great size of a particular and individual part of the brain, that first arrested bis attention, and forcibly directed his notice to the inquiry, whether these facts were connected in the relation of cause and effect, and whether other mental powers might not also depend for their energy on size of other individual parts of the brain ; and it was not till years after he had satisfied himself by the most extensive and varied experience, that the energy of several at least of the mental qualities bore an uniform relation, ceteris paribus, to the size of particular parts of the brain, that the idea occurred to him of tracing the relations of these parts to the general principles of physiological and natural science. This, then, while it proves, that, let Phrenology be what it may, still it is not the offspring of theory, affords also strong grounds of probability in favour of its truth, from the circumstance of all its doctrines, picked up as it were piecemeal, being in perfect harmony with the best-established principles of science, and, consequently, offers a strong inducement to every reasonable and inquiring mind to enter upon its serious and candid examination. And if the present paper, by ex

plaining this consistency and harmony, contribute in any de. gree to produce the effect just stated, its author will hold himself amply recompensed for the time bestowed in its preparation.

ARTICLE II.

LETTER— DR CALDWELL, PROFESSOR OF THE INSTITUTES OF MEDICINE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEXINGTON, UNITED STATES, TO GEORGE LYON, ESQ., SECRETARY OF THE PHRENOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

Lexington, August 1, 1826. DEAR SIR,-On returning home a few weeks ago from a four months' tour through the Atlantic States, I had the honour and gratification to find, in waiting for me, your very polite and acceptable letter of the 9th of February. The information it imparted, touching the progress and present standing of phrenological science in Great Britain and on the continent, could not be otherwise than eminently grateful to me. Intelligence to the same effect, but not so authentic, I had previously received by letter from travelling friends and other correspondents, and had endeavoured in my lectures to make the proper use of it. Man is essentially an imitative and a sequent being. Hence a knowledge of the fact, that a doctrine is becoming prevalent and fashionable in a distant country, highly distinguished in literature and science, may be rendered in no small degree operative in the establishment of that doctrine in other places. Nor, provided the doctrine be true, is there any thing blame-worthy in having recourse to such means.

The first volume of the Phrenological Transactions, and seven numbers of the Journal, I have been so fortunate as to receive about six months ago. Subsequent numbers I shall receive in due time and regular order.

These works are not only rich in matter, but are conduct.

ed with excellent judgment and ability and admirable tact. The stream of truth which they put in motion, and which afterwards bears them along on its current, is irresistible. Superstition, prejudice, the folly and obstinacy of ignorance, and legitimacy in error, must yield to it as certainly as the stream of the Mississippi or the Oroonoco washes the crumbling alluvion from its banks, or the vessel is swept from her mooring by the gale and the current when her cable is rotten, or her anchorage infirm. To attempt to make head against a current as irresistible as omnipotency itself, (for truth is omnipotent, if its Author is so,) by the miserable expedient of stale jests, or the no less pitiful hue and cry of “ materialism, fatalism, and the legitimating of crime," the course pursued and the means employed by the enemies of Phrenology-an attempt, I say, like this, is worthy only of the moral imbecility and intellectual ignorance of those hy whom it is adopted. - Philosophy rejects such assistance, and manhood disdains it.

• In my late tour in the East, of which I have already spoken, I was not forgetful of our favourite science. Besides conversing much on it with many of the most cultivated men of the country, I delivered, by invitation, another course of lectures in the city of Washington, where my lectures in the preceding summer had been instrumental in the establishment of a Phrenological Society,--an institution which, from the peculiar felicity of its situation, and the intelligence, zeal, and activity of its members, promises to be infinitely useful to the science.

During my last course of lectures in Washington, the con gress of the nation was in session, and members of it resident in various and distant parts of the Union constituted a considerable portion of my class. To the whole of them, as far as I know, the doctrine taught was acceptable, and the evidence adduced in its favour satisfactory and conclusive. Some of them, from sceptics and unbelievers, were not only proselyted, but converted into perfect phrénological enthusiasts. Thus, as I trust, has good seed been somewhat extensively sown in a genial soil. And I state, with entire gratification, and much to the credit of our science, that, of my class, those who were most devoted to the study of what are denominated the severe or exact sciences, were most easily and speedily proselyted, and became the most ardent votaries and the most powerful and dextrous advocates of Phrenology. This was particularly the case with Major K-y, of the U.S. corps of engineers, an officer of great professional worth, and distinguished for his ardent devotion to mathematics. To my first lecture he frankly acknowledged that he came to laugh, i. e. to be amused, but “ remained to pray.” In each subsequent lecture he became more and more interested, until, before my course was half-finished, he procured a pair of excellent callipers, and became, in a short time, as seriously and zealously engaged in the admeasurement of intellect as he had ever been before in that of heights, distances, angles, or quantities. Him I consider as my Paul of Tarsus, destined to prove a celebrated reformer. As far as my observation has extended, the facility with which an individual who has bent his attention to it becomes convinced of the truth of Phrenology, may be regarded as the measure of the soundness of his judgment, and the strength and excellency of his reflective faculties. Within my knowledge, no man has ever seriously studied the science without becoming a proselyte ; and, once a proselyte, no one has ever apostatized.

The difference, corporeal and intellectual, between the dif. ferent races of men, has long constituted with me a favourite topic of inquiry. For the radical superiority of the Caucasian I have always contended, and have published several essays in defence of my opinion. In verification of this belief Phrenology is conclusive.

During my late tour, I collected, on this subject, a certain amount of information highly satisfactory. to myself, and 'which, to the phrenological world, will not, as I venture to believe, be altogether without interest.

The aborigines of North America are to be regarded, I think, as a variety of the Mongolian race. Certainly they are not of the Caucasian. In the course of my tour I had an opportunity of examining and measuring the heads of six nations or tribes of that unfortunate family of men.

In the city of Washington were deputations of chiefs from the Cherokee, the Creek, and the Seminole nations; and in the state of New York, I visited the dwellings of the Oneidas, the Tuscaroras, and the Senekas.

Without going into details, I can state only the result of my observations and admeasurements, which were often repeated in presence of intelligent and competent witnesses.

The average size of the head of the Indian is less than that of the head of the white man, by the proportion of from an eighth to a tenth, certainly from a tenth to a twelfth part of its entire bulk. The chief deficiency in the Indian head lies in the superior and lateral parts of the forehead, where are situated the organs of Comparison, Causality, Wit, Ideality, and Benevolence. The defect in Causality, Wit, and Ide ality is most striking. In the organs of Combativeness, Destructiveness, Secretiveness, Caution, and Firmness, the functions of which constitute the dominant elements of the Indian character, the development is bold. The proportion of brain behind the ear is considerably larger in the Indian than in the white man. The organ of Adhesiveness in the former is small.

This analysis, brief and imperfect as it is, unfolds to us much of the philosophy of the Indian character, and enables us, in a particular manner, to understand the cause of the peculiar inaptitude of that race of men for civil life. For, when the wolf, the buffalo, and the panther, shall have been completely domesticated, like the dog, the cow, and the household cat, then, and not before, may we expect to see the full-blooded Indian civilized like the white man.

Of the mixt breed, which is very numerous, the cerebral development and the general character approach those of the white man in proportion to the degree of white blood which

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