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whep of the noisy and boisterous sort, in alliance with Combativeness, ill-temper is just too-easily-excited Combativeness and Destructiveness. This inconvenient weakness in its excess generally holds an inverse ratio to the endowment of reflecting power. ' It is common in idiots, in whom it acts as a pure animal impulse. But in the ill-tempered, a large organ of Destructiveness may coexist with large organs of Benevolence and Conscientiousness, which will operate spontaneously the moment the activity of Destructiveness abates, and the individual will be kind and just, nay, generous and candid, till again irritated. This is so common as to have founded a sort of aphorism, that the warm-tempered are al ways warm-hearted. There is, however, no grounds for so general a rule; for the warm-tempered may not have a large Benevolence and Conscientiousness. This, to be sure, as we shall afterwards show, will connect them with the ill-humoured, and even the ill-natured; but these two last are also illtempered, and not warm-hearted. But it is phrenologically true, that the simply warm-tempered man is also kind and just; for, unless he has also large Benevolence and Conscientiousness, he is more than warm-tempered, he is illhumoured, perhaps ill-natured. The kind-hearted passionate man, nevertheless, is often a great nuisance. The recurrence of his fits, as regulating the duration of his calm and kindly intervals, is an important inquiry. We knew a servant who, after many years' forbearance with a hasty master, was at last forced to give up his place as untenable ; and gave as the reason his master's violent temper. He was told that he well knew that " it was no sooner on than it was off.” This he granted, but replied, “ that it was no sooner off than it was on."
We may add as a characteristic of the merely ill-tempered, that, however they may fret, and fume, and even imprecate, they will not seriously hurt or injure; the better feelings of Benevolence and Justice will start into activity even during the anger, and restrain the hand, if lifted for a cruel or
dangerous purpose. Although this illustration of the phrenological analysis of ill-temper be long, the analysis itself, which is all that one who thinks phrenologically needs when any phenomenon of human nature is contemplated by him, is simply this, that ill-temper, per se, without ill-humour and ill-nature, is large and easily-excited Combativeness and Destructiveness coexisting with large Benevolence and Conscientiousness; and, in cases of excess, without average reflecting power.
II. ILL-HUMOUR.—This is a person's selfish engrossment with his own discontented feelings; that peevishness, or sullenness, or moroseness, which, when on him, he has the inclination to establish as the tone of his circle. The illhumoured man is intensely selfish, and, during his fit, is altogether unconscious that any one else has a right to have human feelings. Now selfishness is the preponderance of the feelings whose object is self; in other words, of the propensities and lower sentiments over the higher sentiments, which spontaneously suggest regard to the feelings of others. It follows that ill-humour will appear in the direct ratio of the preponderance of the selfish over the social feelings, whenever the selfish feelings are disagreeably excited. We shall find ill-humour, therefore, in one or other of three degrees; 1st, When an individual has all or most of the animal propensities, from No 1 to No 9, large and active, while Benevolence and Conscientiousness, though absolutely capable of their legitimate application to kind and just consideration of others, are not of such power as to counterbalance the strong and active base of the brain. Disappointment in love, loss at play, a bad dinner, a stint of liquor, a fit of anger, a dispute, will throw such an individual back on self, and render him a discon. tented and ill-humoured companion. 2d, Add to this development, in another subject, a very large Love of Approbation, and let that most selfish and irritable of human feelings be disagreeably affected, or, as it is called, ' mortified, and aggravated ill-humour, with increased implacability, will be the consequence. The very existence of that entity, called a fellow-creature is then forgotten. 3d, There is yet necessary another obvious element to establish what may be called the tyranny of ill-humour, and that is a large Selfesteem. The two first individuals mentioned, particularly the second, will rather seclude themselves, and will only be unpleasant objects of contemplation, but not actual visitations, unless you excite their anger by making light of their sufferings, or venture, as Shakspeare says, to “ claw them in their humour;" but your ill-humoured despot is your Self
. It may be thought, after this exposition, that ill-temper is rather too strong a term for mere warmth, without any other unamiable feeling. We had ourselves that impression, but adopted it for the sake of symmetry, taking care to limit its meaning. We rather think it is the generic term which will cover all the three defects under consideration. We so understand the term ill-tempered
He takes the chair, gives the key-note of discontent to the company, and in his presence no happy dog shall bark, or cheerful bird sing.
It is evident how it may happen that the ill-humoured man may be both kind and just when the fit is off. He has Benevolence and Justice, though not in the highest endowment; and these will work when the selfish feelings are quiescent; but only then. We say he may be kind and just; for we doubt if that degree of the better feelings which the lower when excited can so completely master, is an endowment which admits of the higher effects of generosity or candour.
III. ILL-NATURE.—This last of the three can now be easily distinguished from both warm temper and ill-humour. Seeing that the ill-natured are necessarily ill-humoured, although the ill-humoured may not be ill-natured, ill-nature is an advance of the unfavourable compared to ill-humour, How then is it produced ? There needs no positive increase
of the selfish feelings, including Self-esteem and Love of Approbation. The contingent of the ill-humoured in these is quite sufficient for the ill-natured; so that the ill-natured are neither more nor less selfish than the ill-humoured. The difference is this, the merely ill-humoured can be kind and just, the ill-natured cannot; in phrenological language, the ill-natured are still more deficient in Benevolence and Conscientiousness than the ill-humoured. Johnson's definition of ill-natured is just, namely, “ habitually malevolent, want
ing kindness or good-will, mischievous.” Injustice is implied in malevolence and mischief; for the ill-natured are notoriously unjust.
It will readily appear that the ill-natured man acts more on the offensive than the ill-humoured. The latter snarls within the bounds of his own straw; but the former carries the war into his neighbour's territory; nay, pursues him to his privacy, and rejoices in dragging him forth, and holding him up to reproach, scorn, or ridicule. If the ill-natured are yet farther armed with wit, like Voltaire, sarcasm and satire will be their weapons, Destructiveness giving wit that biting quality. If they have not wit, their ill-nature will be the direct and vulgar expressions of mere malice. The spirit, however, is the same in both. From this analysis we are inclined to believe, and it may
be verified in nature, that ill or warm temper, ill-humour, and ill-nature, are three degrees, of which the first only can exist alone; while the second includes the first, and the last both the first and second. Thus, 1st, Ill-temper is only large and active Combativeness and Destructiveness coexisting with kindly, just, and even generous and candid feelings; 2d, Illhumour includes large and active Destructiveness, and superadds a generally large animal, and therefore selfish endowment, with some degrees less, than in ill-temper, of the higher or social sentiments; and, 3d, Ill-nature has all which belongs to ill-humour, with a still greater deficiency of Benevolence and Conscientiousness. A tolerably-skilled Phrenolo
gist, then, could, by inspecting three such heads, point out the merely warm-tempered man,--the ill-tempered and illhumoured man,--and the ill-tempered, ill-humoured, and illnatured man,-by their organization respectively.
Let us now see how the New Monthly Magazine, which happened to be rather forward in deriding, without, in the slightest degree, comprehending the view of human nature offered by Phrenology, * defines, distinguishes, and accounts for the three complaints in question :
“ An ill-tempered man is impatient of trifling annoyances; is "roused, by petty provocations, to hasty and unmeasured language
and actions, but is generally as easily appeased ; his fire being, “ like that of a straw, as evanescent as it is sudden. Such an indi“ vidual, when the corns of his irritability are not trodden upon, “ may be gay, cheerful, and benevolent. In general, however, he is an unsafe companion ; and to converse with
him is to inhabit over a volcano.t
* An ill-natured man is one who has a perverse pleasure in the “ misfortunes of his fellow-creatures ; one who enjoys all the vexa“ tions and disappointments of his neighbours; not because they af“ ford materials for laughter, but because they give pain to the vic« tims.
Very different from these personages is the ill-humoured man. “ Such a man may be just, generous, and, upon great occasions, com“ passionate and friendly; but, in his ordinary intercourse with so
ciety, he overflows with an unceasing stream of bitterness. All his “ remarks are severe, harsh, and annoying; and in the moments of “his relaxation, in the hour of social enjoyment, he is morose, snap“pish, and insolent.”
In general these definitions are just, and we shall pass them with a remark or two:-1st, Ill-nature should not precede, but follow ill-humour, as decidedly entitled to top the climax; 2d, The ill-humoured man is never generous, although he may, “when called out by great occasions,” be just, compassionate, and friendly; for selfishness will lurk in all he does, and prevent him ever ascending to the generous; 3d, On the other hand, " an unceasing stream of bit“terness" infringes too much on the offensive, the province
See our Fourth Number, vol. i. p. 534. + A pound of gunpowder had, as a metaphor, been better chosen ; in respect of its sufficiency for the occasion, as well as its quiescence and explosiveness.