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“Bibliotheca Casinensis”, IV (Rome, 1880), 322-46. a vision and revelation. Johannes Grossi wrote The work entitled “De tribus impostoribus" was not his “Viridarium" about 1430, and he relates that the written by Simon. A letter of Stephen of Tournai, Mother of God appeared to Simon Stock with the earlier than 1192, speaks in very flattering terms of a scapular of the order in her hand. This scapular Simon, who is probably to be identified with the she gave him with the words: “Hoc erit tibi et subject of this article.

cunctis Carmelitis privilegium, in hoc habitu moriens Hist. Littér. de la France, XVI, 388–94; DENIFLE AND CHATE- salvabitur” (This shall be the privilege for you LAIN, Chartularim Univers. Paris, I, 45, 71; HAURÉAU, Histoire de and for all Carmelites, that anyone dying in this la philosophie scolastique (Paris, 1880), 58–62; Notices et ertraits des manuscrits de la Bibl. Nat., XXXI, pt. II, 293-300; Notices

habit shall be saved). On account of this great privet extraits de quelques manuscrits (Paris, 1891), III, 250-59; ilege many distinguished Englishmen, such as King UEBERWEG-HEINZE, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie Edward II, Henry, Duke of Lancaster, and many (Berlin, 1905), II, 211, 277, etc.: DE WULF; Histoire de la phil others of the nobility secretly wore (clam portaverunt) osophie scolastique etc.; Histoire de la Philosophie en Belgique (Brussels, 1910), 56-57. the Carmelite scapular under their clothing and died

J. DE GHELLINCK. with it on (“Specul. Carmelit.", I, 139; Zimmermann,

340). In Grossi's narrative, however, the scapular Simon Stock, Saint, b. in the County of Kent, of the order must be taken to mean the habit of the England, about 1165; d. in the Carmelite monastery Carmelites and not as the small Carmelite scapular. at Bordeaux, France, 16 May, 1265.. On account As was the custom in medieval times among the other of his English birth he is also called Simon Anglus. orders, the Carmelites gave their habit or at least It is said that when twelve years old he began to their scapular to their benefactors and friends of live as a hermit in the hollow trunk of an oak, and high rank, that these might have a share in the later to have become an itinerant preacher until he privilege apparently connected with their habit or entered the Carmelite Order which had just come to scapular by the Blessed Virgin. It is possible that England. According to the same tradition he went the Carmelites themselves at that period wore their as a Carmelite to Rome, and from there to Mt. scapular at night in a smaller form just as they did Carmel, where he spent several years. All that is at a later date and at the present time: namely, in historically certain is that in 1247 he was elected about the form of the scapular for the present third the sixth general of the Carmelites, as successor to order. If this is so they could give laymen their Alan, at the first chapter held at Aylesford, England. scapular in this form. At a later date, probably not Notwithstanding his great age he showed remarkable until the sixteenth century, instead of the scapular energy as general and did much for the benefit of of the order the small scapular was given as token the order, so that he is justly regarded as the most of the scapular brotherhood (cf. Zimmermann, 351 celebrated of its generals. During his occupancy sq.; Wessels, “Analecta Ord. Carmel.” (1911), 119 of the office the order became widely spread in south- sqq.). To-day the brotherhood regards this as its ern and western Europe, especially in England; chief privilege, and one it owes to St. Simon Stock, above all, he was able to found houses in the university that anyone who dies wearing the scapular is not cities of that era, as in 1248 at Cambridge, in 1253 eternally lost. In this way the chief privilege and at Oxford, in 1260 at Paris and Bologna. This ac- entire history of the little Carmelite scapular is tion was of the greatest importance both for the connected with the name of St. Simon Stock. There growth of the institution and for the training of its is no difficulty in granting that Grossi's narrayounger members. Simon was also able to gain tive, related above, and the Carmelite tradition are at least the temporary approbation of Innocent IV, worthy of belief, even though they have not the for the altered rule of the order which had been full value of historical proof (see SCAPULAR). That adapted to European conditions. Nevertheless the Simon himself was distinguished by special veneraorder was greatly oppressed, and it was still struggling tion of and love for the Virgin is shown by the antieverywhere to secure admission, either to obtain phonies "Flos Carmeli” and “Ave Stella Matutina", the consent of the secular clergy, or the toleration which he wrote, and which have been adopted in the of the other orders. In these difficulties, as Guilelmus breviary of the Calced Carmelites. Besides these de Sanvico (shortly after 1291) relates, the monks antiphonies other works have been incorrectly atprayed to their patroness the Blessed Virgin. “And tributed to him. The first biographical accounts of the Virgin Mary revealed to their prior that they were Simon belong to the year 1430, but these are not to apply fearlessly to Pope Innocent, for they would entirely reliable. However, he was not at this time receive from him an effective remedy for these dif- publicly venerated as a saint; it was not until 1435 ficulties". (Cf. “Speculum Carmel.”, I, 101 sqq.; that his feast was put in the choral books of the monasZimmermann, 325; “Biblioth. Carmelit.", I, 609). tery at Bordeaux. It was introduced before 1458 The prior followed the counsel of the Virgin, and the into Ireland and, probably at the same time, into order received a Bull or letter of protection from In- England; by a decree of the General Chapter of nocent IV against these molestations. It is an his- 1564 its celebration was commanded for the entire torical fact that Innocent IV issued this papal order. letter for the Carmelites under date of 13 January, Acta SS., May, III, 653 sq.; ZIMMERMANN, Monument. hist. 1252, at Perugia (“Registr. Innoc. IV”, ed. Berger,

Carmel., I (Lérins. 1907), 313-22; SAINTE-MARIE, L'Ordre de

N. D. du Mont-Carmel (Bruges, 1910); see also CARMELITE III, 24, n. 5563).

ORDER, and SCAPULAR Later Carmelite writers give more details of such

JOSEPH HILGERS. VI

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