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E Di DINBURGH, the metropolis of Scot- 140 feet above the level of the drained morals of Lothian, to which county it frequently gives which it occupies gently declining to the E. is a. name, is situated about a mile S. of the Frith of bout 180 feet above the palace of Holyrood-house. Forth; in Lon. 3° 14' W. from London, and Lat. The amazing height of the houses in this quarter, 55° 57' N. It is surrounded on all fides, except has always rendered it an interesting object to a to the northward, where the ground declines gent- ftranger visiting Edinburgh; and perhaps the ly towards the Prith of Forth, by lofty hills. Ar- High Street of this city is not equalled in granthur's Seat, Salisbury Craigs, and the Calton-hill, deur by any street in Europe. Parallel to the High bound it on the E.; the hills of Braid, and the Street, in the valley on the S. runs a ftreet called extensive ridge of the Pentland hills rise on the S.; the Cowgate, from ro to 20 feet in breadth. The and the beautiful eminence of Corstorphine rears buildings in this street, though lofty, are less elem its summit on the W. These hills form a magni- vated than those of the High Street. From the ficent amphitheatre, in which, on elevated, tho' High Street down to the loch on the N. and to on ground of less altitude, stands this flourishing the Cowgate on the S. run narrow cross streets or city. It is said, with considerable propriety, to lanes, called wynds and closes, which grow fteenftand on three hills, which run in a direction from er and steeper the farther weft towards the castle ; E, to W.; and hence the natural division of the fo that, were it not for the closenefs and great town into the fonthern, middle, and northern di- height of the buildings, this city, from its lituavisions. The southern division is bounded on the tion and plan, might naturally be expected to be S. by the low grounds, called the Meadows, on the best aired, as well as the cleaneft, in Europe, the É. by the street called the Pleafance, on the The former, notwithstanding thefe disadvantages; N. by the Cowgate strect, and on the W. by the it enjoys in an eminent degrec; and cvery poflible Crass-Market and Portsburgh. The middle di. means has been used by the magistrates to accom. vition, which contains the most ancient part of plish the latter object, and with confiderable fucthe city, or what is called the Old Town, is cess. bounded on the S. by the Cowgate, on the E. by (2.) EDINBURGH, ANCIENT the Canongate and Holyrood-hoase, on the N. by The Romans, during the time they held the domi. the valley called the North Loch, and on the W. nion of part of this illand, divided their pofleflions by the high rock on which the castle stands. The into six provinces. The most northerly of these northern division, or New Town, is bounded on was called Valentia, which comprehended all the the S. by the North Loch, on the E. by the Cal- space between the walls of Avrian and SEVIRUS. ton Hill, and the road leading down to Leith, on Edinburgh, lying on the very out-skirts of that the N. by the villages of Canon-mills, Silver-milfs, province which was most exposed to the ravages and Stockbridge, and on the W. by the high road of the barbarians, became perpetually subject to leading north by Cramond. These three divisions wars and devastations; by means of which, the are united by the North and South Bridge Streets; time of its firft four.dation cannot now be guessed the one built on the bridge thrown over the North at. The castle, however, is certainly very anLoch, the other on that over the Cowgate. (See cient. According to our earliest historians, it was

19, 16, 17, &c.) The peculiar situation of the built by Camelon king of the Picts, about A. A.C. Old Town has often attracted attention. The 330. Be that as it may, it was in the hands of principai street, which occupies the flat furface of the Anglo-Saxons, from the invasion of O&a and the central hill, extends nearly in a straight line Ebusa in 452, till the defeat of Egfrid king of Norfrom the Castle, on the western extremity, to the thumberland in 685 by the Picts, who then repofpalace of Holyrood-house on the E. This street, fessed themselves of it. The Saxon kings of Nore thich is not improperly nained the High Street, thumberland reconquered it in the oth century: measures in length from the Cattle-gate to the Pa- and it was retained by their fucceffors till the ycar fact-gate, about 5570 feet, and is about 90 feet in 956, when it was given up to Indulfus king of brealth. The upper part of it is elevated about Scotland. In 1093, it was unfuccessfully besieged Vol. Vill. PARTI,





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