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ing. The author deems the fragmentary style a bore, and has avoided it as much as possible. In order, however, to obviate the danger of wearying and puzzling the young learner, who has little confidence and less dexterity, whole paragraphs of easy sentences are disposed here and there, as halting places in the progress of the narrative, where the pupil may take a brief review, and reassure himself of his knowledge of what he has already learned. In addition to this, the Notes leave no difficulty unexplained. We have never seen any so patiently thorough, and so minutely critical.
A peculiar feature of the book is a collection of Tables, chiefly etymological, designed for a brief compendium of reference. We will specify among these "The Euphonic Laws of Declension," "The General Principles of Conjugation," and the "Synopsis of Latin Syntax;" in the latter of which the author has made a happy attempt to reduce the numerous rules of Andrews and Stoddard to the generalizations of Prof. Crosby's Greek Syntax, so far as the subject allows.
We must disagree with our author in a few points, chiefly in his theory of the Modes; upon which, however, our limits restrict us to a few general observations on his division of the Modes into "Distinct and Incorporated." Our author follows Prof. Crosby in regarding the Infinitive and Participle as Incorporated Modes. The Infinitive, it is true, has inherited from the older grammarians its time-honored rank among the Modes; to which, however, it has none but a prescriptive right. If we define mode to be that subjective limitation which the mind imposes on the verb-idea, we must exclude the infinitive, so called, from that category. It is evidently the negation of mode, rather than mode itself. But if we define mode, more loosely, as the manner of the action or state expressed by the verb, it is hard to see why we should stop short with the infinitive and participle, and not go on to include some other verbals among the Modes. "Lying is base," and "To lie is base;" where is the distinction of mode? Why are not amabilis and amandus, moribundus and moriens, equally good modes? Why is TOTéos regarded as only a verbal adjective, while its equivalent, faciendus, is called a mode? Why should not ἡ ἐπιορκία rank with τὸ ἐπιορκεῖν ?
We are reluctantly obliged to take leave of the subject. We will simply remark that our author has been remarkably successful in following out his method, which is severely grammatical. We should have been pleased to observe some recognition of the new philology, according to Becker and his followers. In our opinion the perfect text-book for the study of language is yet to be written; which should combine
the grammatical and the logical in their due proportion. There is great danger that in following the exclusively grammatical method our scholars will become mere word-mongers. But we recommend the "Latin Lessons" of Mr. Richards as the ne plus ultra yet offered to those who have no proclivities to Ollendorff on the one side, or to Becker on the other.
THE "LATIN" QUESTION.-The "Latin " question is not yet settled. The exact relation of the Latin language to the Greek is still a matter of debate among the more recent philologists.
Dr. Augustus Schleicher of Bonn, a highly distinguished philologist, holds that the Latin and Greek form a family group or pair, being more closely allied to each other than to any other Indo-European family. He supposes that the Latin and Greek people continued together for some time after their separation from the main stock. See his Die Sprachen Europas, Bonn, 1850; p. 135.
C. Lottner of Berlin contends, on the contrary, that the Latin is as closely allied to some of the northern families, particularly to the Teutonic, as it is to the Greek. Notwithstanding the clear lexicographical relation of the Latin and Greek, he finds a still nearer connection of the Latin with the Teutonic. For 123 words specially related to the Greek, he finds 137 specially related to the Teutonic. Roman mythology is connected with the Teutonic and Sanskrit as well as with the Greek. See an essay by Lottner on this subject in Kuhns' Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforchung, Band VII. Berlin, 1858.
We are inclined to believe that the view of Schleicher approaches nearest the truth, and will finally gain the ascendency.
As philologists maintain a close relation between the Indo-European languages, and derive them all from one original language or common source, they naturally wish to show how and in what order the different families have separated from the main stock.
The latest view is that of C. Lottner in the periodical mentioned above.
According to his theory the Perso-Sanskrit group first separated from the main stock, and formed at a subsequent period the Sanskrit family and the Persian or Iranian family.
The remainder of the stock, or the European portion of the IndoEuropean languages, continued together, though on a new soil, till at last the Latin family separated itself, then the Greek, then the Celtic, leaving the Teutonic, Lettish, and Slavic as one group, which finally formed three distinct families.
ELLIS'S THREE VISITS TO MADAGASCAR.*—The Island of Madagascar extends over an area twice as great as that of the six New England States combined, and is inhabited by more than three millions of people. For years it has been regarded with special interest by the Christian world. In 1828 the prospects of its civilization and Christianization were exceedingly hopeful. Missionaries of the London Missionary Society had been received by Radama, the king, and for ten years had been established in his capital. Ten or fifteen thousands of the natives had learned to read; many of them also to write; a few had made some slight progress in English, and a number had professed themselves Christians. A thousand or fifteen hundred native young men had been placed as apprentices under missionary artisans, had been taught to work in iron, and had been trained in all the mechanical arts. But unhappily for Madagascar, Radama died in 1828, at the age of thirty six, and all the enlightening and humanizing influences, which were so full of promise for the nation, terminated with his life. The Prince designated by him as his successor was assassinated, and the supreme power passed into the hands of the present Queen, who soon changed the whole policy of the government. The old superstitions of the country were restored to their former supremacy, the profession of the Christian religion was prohibited, all Christian books were required to be given up, and the missionaries and Christian artisans were expelled from the country. The new government showed itself determined to arrest the progress of Christianity, and to destroy it wherever it might appear. The reports of the terrible persecution which then commenced, to which the Christian converts were exposed, attracted at the time universal interest and sympathy in England and America. The firmness with which those who had but so recently embraced Christianity maintained their new faith, even after their religious teachers had all been expelled from the island, and the fortitude with which they met death in all its most aggravated forms, rather than apostatize, have never been surpassed.
But all communication from Madagascar soon ceased. Whether
*Three Visits to Madagascar, during the Years 1853, 1854, 1856. Including a Journey to the Capital; with notices of the Natural History of the country, and of the present civilization of the people. By the Rev. WILLIAM ELLIS, F. R. S., Author of “Polynesian Researches." Illustrated by wood cuts from photographs. New York: Harper & Brothers. 8vo. 1859. pp. 514. For sale by S. Babcock.
there were any of the converts that had survived and what was their fate was unknown. Even the foreign traders had all been banished, and under circumstances which made the probabilities of a renewal of commercial intercourse with Europeans extremely doubtful. For years nothing could be learned about the internal affairs of the island.
In 1852 there were rumors that political and other changes were in progress in Madagascar, which led the London Missionary Society to invite the Rev. Mr. Ellis, well-known as the author of "Polynesian Researches," to proceed to the island, on a visit of friendship, to ascertain the actual state of the people, and the intentions of the government.
In prosecuting this mission, he made, between the years 1853 and 1857, three visits to Madagascar, full details of which he has published in the large octavo volume, whose title we have given. In the first visit he was allowed only to land at Tamatave, a town on the coast, and spend a few days there, while the letters he brought were forwarded to the Queen at her capital in the interior. He was so far successful, however, as to carry away the terms on which future intercourse, commercially or otherwise, would be permitted. These terms having been complied with, he went to the island again in 1854, with the hope of penetrating to the capital, and having an interview with the Queen, that he might the better learn the state of affairs. On this occasion he spent more than two months on the coast, and was finally allowed to leave with some intimations that his request might be granted at a future time. In 1856, on his third visit, he succeeded in reaching Antananarivo, the capital, in gaining an audience with the Queen, and in obtaining most of the information he wished.
The London Missionary Society were very fortunate in securing the services of such a man as the Rev. Mr. Ellis for this important mission. We have been impressed with the ready tact, the good sense, the perseverance, and the energy which characterized all his intercouse with the Malagasy. His book is a mine of valuable and interesting information on every subject pertaining to that distant island. Information is given with regard to its past history, its present condition, the nature of its government, the natural productions of its soil, the customs of the people, their dress, their houses, their modes of living. The botany of the island is very fully described. Many rare and curious plants were sent by Mr. Ellis to England, and he informs us that from one of them, a fine Angræcum superbum, "a number of large, pure white flowers were selected, on account of their rarity and beauty, to form part of the bridal bouquet, on the occasion of the nuptials of the Prince of Prussia
with the Princess Royal of England." The story of his adventures is altogether so novel, and is told with so much vivacity, and is enlivened with so many incidents, that a charm is thrown around the whole narrative.
Mr. Ellis took with him to Madagascar photographic apparatus, which proved very effective in gaining him friends, and in enabling him to obtain free and unconstrained access to all classes of people. Some of the incidents connected with his taking likenesses are very amusing.
"One man had a mole on his cheek, and, as it was on the side next the light, it came out clear and strong. Nothing excited more remark than this. I saw the man himself, after feeling the mole on his cheek with his finger, go to touch the mole on the picture hanging up to dry, exclaiming, 'How very wonderful! I never felt anything here,' putting his finger to the mole on his cheek, and yet there it is,' pointing to the picture. And this phase of human character, peculiar perhaps to no country, but rather common to all, was the evident anxiety about personal appearance, when that was to be regarded by others, or perpetuated. I never sugggested the arrangement of the dress or the hair, but rarely found any one come and sit for a likeness without giving some previous attention to one or both. Even a woman returning from work in the field, with her child at her back, when asked if she would have her likeness taken, adjusted her burden before having her tout ensemble rendered permanent. Sometimes the women brought their slaves to arrange their hair, immediately before sitting down. At other times the men brought a looking-glass and comb, and borrowing a bowl of water to moisten their hair, arranged their toilette by one holding the glass for the other."
The book has a large number of engravings from photographs, which enable us to form a good idea of the peculiar physiognomy of the Malagasy people, their dress, and the structure of their houses. There are also engravings illustrating the botany of the island, of which we will mention two as specially interesting, the Ouvirandra fenestralis, or Lattice Leaf Plant; and the Urania Speciosa, or Traveler's Tree. Both are among the wonders of the vegetable kingdom.
The most important part of the narrative is the information obtained with regard to the fate of the Christian converts, and what may be hoped with respect to future missionary operations among the people. The testimony from all quarters received by Mr. Ellis, was that the persecution had been most severe, and that now few or none remain of those who at first professed Christianity. No Christian observances are any longer publicly practised in the country. Still Christianity has not been exterminated. The pure and unselfish lives of those who met death joyully for their attachment to the Christian faith has had its influence upon