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James's translators. This is a part of the common English vereion, in the broad sense; and cannot properly be omitted, when King James's Bible is printed in full. A preface which the translators made to explain their own meaning, is very different from “note or comment” on their meaning by another hand. For some interesting remarks on this Address, see Trench,

P. 69 ff.

2. Although it was publicly known to be a revision, and to differ from the other issues of the Society, yet there is not the least intimation in the book itself of such difference. Dr. Noah Webster, long before, in his “ Amended Version," found it expedient and proper to state what edition he followed.

3. What is more important, although it was known to be a revision, and to have made some considerable changes, it does not state at all what those changes are. Yet it might have been done in a very small space, and is still feasible.

4. Some of the principles on which the Revision has been made, are, in our view, either trivial, or objectionable; as, for example, the distinction of “Scripture commencing with a capital S, and “scripture," commencing with a sinall 8; the theological distinction laid down between “Spirit,"

spirit;" the disparagement of the parenthetic marks, as if they were not one of the modes for making the sense of a writing clear. The Report on this subject was not suited to the occasion.

Our objections, it will be seen, are altogether of a literary character.

II. Dr. Webster's Amended Version.-The second problem is a partial revision of the commonly received version, retaining throughout the sense or meaning of King James's translators. This permits all grammatical improprieties to be corrected, obsolete words or phrases to be exchanged for those now in use, and some irreverent and indelicate expressions to be altered. This was the work which Dr. Noah Webster undertook, and for which he deserves much more praise than is generally allowed to him. Dr. Webster was familiar with English literature. He wrote a pure English style. He was an ex

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cellent judge of what constitutes English diction. He did his task well, but received little or no encouragement from his contemporaries. His work is now out of print; but a new edition will without doubt soon be required. The labors of Dr. Webster will ever be a guide in this part of Biblical revision.

The irreverent expressions alluded to are such as, God forbid, God speed, would God, and I would to God. There is nothing in the original Hebrew or Greek of these phrases which authorizes the use of the name of the Deity. The indelicate expressions we pass over.

The limit to this problem is the sense or meaning of the translators. However clear it may have been to the mind of Dr. Webster that the original word in Gen. ii, 13, means Cush, and not Ethiopia, yet as the translators, in conformity with the age in which they lived, meant Ethiopia, Dr. Webster should not bave made the change.

Mat. xxiii, 24, is another instance, unless we assume the ground, taken by Dr. Trench, that the preposition at is a misprint for out. See Trench on Authorized Version, p. 170.

It is remarkable that these are alınost the only cases in which Dr. Webster has trespassed on his own theoretical principles.

The grammatical improprieties began to be noticed by Bishop Lowth in his Short Introduction to English Grammar. The collection has been since greatly increased. The numerous gramınatical errors in the construction of compound sentences have not begun to be noted.

The following is a list of grammatical inaccuracies in our Common Version, which need to be corrected. They consist of ungramınatical and antiquated forms and constructions :

1. The use of the singular forms folk and victual for the now usual forms folks and victuals.

(1.) The use of folk, Gen. xxxii, 15; Jer. li, 58; Mark vi, 5; John v, 3. The form folk seems more appropriate than folks. For folks naturally denotes peoples or nations. But the form folk is now obsolete, and the form folks, though used, is doemed inelegant.

More correctly people or persone.
(2.) The use of victual, Ex. xii, 39; 1 Kings iv, 27.

The form victuals seems more appropriate, comp. Mod. Lat. victualia, which is plural. The form victual is now obsolete, and the form victuals, though used, is deemed inelegant.

More correctly food.
2. The use of peculiar forms for the plural; as,

(1.) Brethren for brothers, uniformly, even where natural brothers are intended. Gen. ix, 22; Mat. iv, 18, etc.

Campbell and Norton have adopted brothers, in Mat. iv, 18.

The form brethren is more ancient, having the old Teutonic termination of the plural. It is retained only in solemn style, and in certain metaphorical acceptations.

(2.) Hosen for hose, trowsers.

Dan. iii, 21, Then these men were bound in their coats, their hosen, and their hats.-Webster, hose.

This import of the word, as well as the form of the plural, is now obsolete. (3.) Kine for cows, Gen. xxxii, 15; xli, 2, etc.

The form kine is the more ancient, having the old Teutonic termination of the plural; but it is now obsolete.

(4.) Staves for staffs, Ex. xxv, 13; Mat. 10, etc. Staffs is now the correct orthography and pronunciation.

(5.) Twain, (comp. Anglo-Sax. twegen, Old Germ. zwene, Eng. twenty, between,) for tuo.

Mat. xxi, 31 ; xxvii, 21 ; Eph. ii, 15, etc.- Wakefield, Campbell, Newcome, Webster, and Norton, tuo.

The form twain had descended from Wiclif. 3. The use of the abstract nouns forgivenesses, righteousnesses, in the plural.

Dan. ix, 9, To the Lord our God belong mercies and forgivenesses.—Webster, no change.

Is. Ixiv, 6, And all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags. Add Ezek. xxxiii, 13; Dan. ix, 18, and the marginal reading of some other passages.-Webster, no change.

This usage may be regarded as an unfortunate imitation of the original Hebrew.

4. The use of double plurals.

(1.) In appellative as, cherubims for cherubim, Gen. iii, 24 ; Ex. xxv, 18, etc.; seraphims for seraphim, Is, vi, 2, 6.-Webster, cherubim, seraphim.

(2.) In certain gentile nouns; as, Anakims, Deut. i, 28 ; ii, 10, 11, 21 ; ix, 2; Josh. xi, 21. Avims, Deut. ii, 23, (comp. Avites, Josh. xiii, 3.) Caphtorims, Deut. ii, 23, (comp. Caphtorim, Gen. x, 14.) Chemarims, Zeph. i, 4. Cherethims, Ezek. xxv, 16, (comp. Cherethites, 1 Sam. xxx, 14 ; Zeph. ii, 5.) Emims, Gen. xiv, 5 ; Deut. ii, 10. Gammadims, Ezek. xxvii, 11. Horims, Deut. ii, 12, 22, (comp. Horites, Gen. xiv, 6; xxxvi, 21, 29.) Nethinims, 1 Chron. ix, 2; Ezra ii, 43, etc. Rephaims, Gen. xiv, 5; xv, 20, (comp. Rephaim, Is. xvii, 5.) Zamzummims, Deut. ii, 20. Zuzims, Gen. xiv, 5 —Dr. Webster has left these proper names uncorrected.

The suffix im is the termination of masculine plurals in Hebrew, (comp. purim, shittim, teraphim, thummim, urim.) No sufficient reason can be given for repeating the sign of the plural.

5. The use of the word number, as a collective noun to be construed with a plural verb.

Acts i, 15, The number of the names together were about an hundred and twenty.—Wakefield and Newcome, vas; Webster, no change. This

usage had descended to our translators from Tyndale, Cranmer, and the Geneva version.

6. The use of wicked as a substantive for wicked one.

2 Thess. ii, 8, And then shall that Wicked be revealed.—Wakefield, wicked person; Newcome, unrighteous one ; Webster, no change.

This incorrect construction had descended to our translators from Tyndale and Cranmer.

7. The use of abject, ancient, familiar, and innocent, in the plural, as substantives.

(1.) The use of abjects for abject persons or abject ones.

Ps. xxxv, 15, The ahjects gathered themselves together against me.-Webster, no change.

The substantive abject was used by Bale, Shakespeare, and Sir Walter Raleigh; but it is now obsolete.

Note.-Gesenius, however, gives to the Hebrew word in this place the sense of calumniators.

(2.) The use of ancients for elders, as a name of age or office.

Ps. cxix, 100, I understand more than the ancients. Add Is. iii, 14; xxiv, 23 ; Jer. xix, 1 bis, Ezek. vii, 26 ; viii, 12; xxvii, 9.-Webster, elders in Is. iii, 14; Ezek. vii, 26; viii, 12. Th use of the word ancients is found in Udal, but is now obsolete.

The use of ancients for persons living in ancient times, 1 Sam. xxiv, 13, is correct.

(3.) The use of familiars for intimates or friends.

Jer. xx, 10, All my familiars watched for my halting.–Webster, no change. Compare Jer. xxxviii, 22, where our translators use friends for the same Hebrew phrase.

This use of the word familiars is found in Chaucer, Brende, and Strype; but is now obsolete.

(4.) The use of innocents for innocent ones.

Jer. ii, 34, Also in thy skirts is found the blood of the souls of the poor innocents.-Webster, no change.

Jer, xix, 4, And have filled this place with the blood of innocents.—Webster, no change.

The substantive innocent was used by Chaucer, Gower, Spenser, and Shakespeare, but is now obsolete, except in special applications.

8. The use of double comparatives and superlatives.
(1) The use of the double comparative lesser.
Gen. i, 16, And the lesser light to rule the night.-Webster, no change.
Is. vii, 25, And for the treading of lesser cattle.—Webster, no change.

Ezek. xliii, 14, From the lesser settle even to the greater settle.-Webster, no change.

The form lesser is obsolete, except in some technical expressions which have descended to us.

(2.) The use of the double superlative most straitest.

Acts xxvi, 5, After the most straitest sect of our religion.—Wakefield, Newcome, and Webster, strictest.

9. The use of comparison, where from the nature of the adjective it is deemed inadmissible ; as, chiefest, 1 Sam. ii, 29; ix, 22 ; xxi, 7 ; 2 Chron. xxxii, 33 ; Cant. v, 10; Mark x, 44 ; 2 Cor. xi, 5; xii, 11.-Retained by Dr. Webster, 1 Sam. ii, 29, but rejected in the other passages.

10. The use of the prefix an before the participial adjective hungered.
Mat. iv, 2, He was afterward an hungered.–Webster, hungry.
Mat. xii, 1, His disciples were an hungered. -Webster, hungry.
So passim in the New Testament,

This prefix is employed uniformly in the Common Version before the participial adjective hungered, but never before the simple adjective hungry. The same distinction is made in Tyndale's New Testament. The nature of this prefix we are not able to explain. The participial adjective hungered, is now obsolete.

11. The use of the form none before a complement beginning with a vowel or a silent h, instead of the now ordinary no. (Comp. No. 12.)

Gen. xxviii, 17, This is none other but the house of God.—Webster, no.
Deut. xxviii, 66, And shalt have none assurance of thy life.-Webster, no.

12. The use of the forms mine and thine before a complement beginning with a vowel or a silent h, instead of the now ordinary my and thy.

(1.) The use of mine, Ps. xviii, 23 ; John ii, 4, etc.-Webster, my.
(2.) The use of thine, Deut. xxiii, 24 ; Mat. vi, 22, 23, etc.—Webster, thy.

The Anglo-Saxon had only the longer forms. In Old English these longer forms were retained before a vowel or a silent h, in order to avoid the cacophony occasioned by the hiatus, and so they are now in elevated solemn style:

Before an h not silent, the Common Version vacillates between the use of mine, thine, and of my, thy.

13. The use of his and her for its.

(1.) The use of his for its, Gen. i, 11, 12 ; Josh. iii, 15; 1 Chron. xii, 15 ; Pe. i, 3 ; Is. xi, 10 ; Ezek. xxi, 30 ; Mat. v, 13.

In Anglo-Saxon and Old English, his was the common possessive or genitive case for he and it.

(2.) The use of her for its, Jer, xvii, 8; Ezek. xvii, 7, 9; Ecclus. xxii, 19 ; 1 Cor. xiii, 5.

We have seen no satisfactory explanation of this usage. 14. The common personal pronoun used for the reflexive.

Hab. ii, 1, I will stand upon my watch, and set me upon the tower.-Webster, seat myself ; Noyes, more correctly, set myself.

Hab. ii, 5, But gathereth unto him all nations, and heapeth unto him all people. – Webster, no change; Noyes, himself.

15. The use of his for one's, and himself for one's self.

Mark xii, 33, And to love his neighbor as himself.-Campbell, and to love one's neighbor as one's self ; Newcome and Webster, no change.

James i, 27, And to keep himself unspotted from the world.—Newcome, one's self; Webster, no change.

This construction had descended to our translators from Wiclif,

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