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modified or influenced only through its subordination to the organism.

4. Again, the variations from external influences reacting on the forces of the species, became in plants a source of varieties.

5. The periodicity in astronomical changes, required the cy. cle of the year or annual growth in plauts; also the cycle of the day, or a 24-hour cycle of growth and rest; and perhaps other cycles of maxima and minima.

C. At the institution of the Animal Kingdom, through the creation, first, of species of Invertebrates, previous enactments were confirmed and other announcements sent forth.

1. The general laws of animal life were established.

2. Appetite, gastric and sexual, became a prominent impulse, exciting to action and locomotion.

3. The ordinance, perfection on obedience and imperfection on disobedience, had a new provision connected with it, in some of its higher departments, viz: sensibility, including pleasure and pain, in strict counterpart relation-pleasure to draw towards that which is good, pain to repel from that which is evil.

4. Consciousness of an outer world for the first time existed, evinced even in sightless species by their avoidance of obstacles; but this outer world to the lowest kinds of life, is only an encountered obstacle, or a bit of food; or a grade up, an individual of another sex; and a step higher, many individuals in a swarm.*

5. The law of the mutual influence of all forces, began to include mutual influence or sympathy between living beings.

6. Life had a guard, not simply of chemical law, but of a system of emotions, including fear and resentment.

7. Memory was made an attribute of life, and instincts were added that foreshadowed the attributes of intellect.

8. While the plant is purposeless, self became in the animal the end of action.

In the earliest fish, 9. The elements the vertebrate structure of man ap

* D. F. Weinland, in Silliman's Journal, 2d Series, Vol. xxvii, p. 1.

peared, but with a bony emotionless face, lid-less and tearless eyes, no external ears, no voice, and, with some exceptions, no affection for their young.

With Quadrupeds,

10. The suckling of the young came in, involving a long and close dependence of the progeny on the parent:—also, in general, perfect senses; a voice often strong and expressive; a physiognomy, form, and attitude, corresponding with the natural passion or character of the animal, so that the quadrupeds are thereby a system of personified passions and brute habits; affections often strong; memory frequently good; intellect in a moderate degree. But while having these qualities, progress, as in the lower races, was only natural growth or development.

11. Finally, in the animal, appetite and passion are never evil; for the brute under their control is led directly by nature, and therefore commits no excesses that contravene nature so as to lead to disease. The animal is true to its highest instincts or purpose of existence.

12. Although sympathy may extend to the individuals of a herd, self is still the end of voluntary action.

Next comes Man.

Standing at the head of the system of life, all the lines of the animal, and of nature in its widest generality, run up into him; and thus he was partly in nature long before he was created.

1. The initiatory edict of all existence-perfection on obedience, imperfection on disobedience-holds for him, and with a significance as profound as his nature; and in connection with it, sensibility to pleasure and pain takes its extreme development.

2. Liability to variation from external forces also embraces him and tends to produce varieties.

3. The cycles of the heavens are in his constitution—that of the year; that of the day; that probably of the week, connected it may be with the moon's changes; and the necessity of alternating action and rest in both eating and labor.



4. Death is in the cycle of life, (as in that of the plant and animal,) unless prevented by miracle.*

5. Appetite is a powerful motive impulse.

6. Memory, intellect, and the system of emotions, exist, but of vastly exalted character.

7. The face takes the impress of character, and even the passing emotion, with extreme delicacy.

8. But to the animal nature within him, are added :

a. On the one side: 1, reason; 2, a consciousness of power and self; 3, a desire of progress in strength and wisdom.

6. On the other side: 1, conscience ; 2, a sense of an overruling Being, powerful, righteous, bountiful; 3, love, with the desire of progress in all that is lovely.

c. With these qualities the free will coexists, as Dr. Bushnell illustrates with great fullness, to emancipate man from nature without, and the laws of nature within, and so raise him above self, in order that he may wield his powers in obedience to the law of love. Through the will, man escapes from the bondage of nature or self, and here, in the language of Dr. Bushnell, is the evidence of the supernatural within him.

9. Man's outer world transcends the bounds of the universe. The free will, prompted in its action by love, guided by the conscience, aided by the reason, and impelled by onward and upward desire, has not its proper affiliation with the natural. Its range is not self, but, elevated above the horizon of the animal, it is the world of humanity, the universe of existence, and even the realms of the infinite. Its hopes and aspirations reach upward, with yearnings as towards an Infinite Parent and an eternal home.

10. Hence the supernatural in man is something not of nature, and we call it spirit. Its true affiliation is with the Infinite Spirit; the existence of the one proves the existence

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This is plainly implied in Genesis iii, 22, where this miraculous power is attributed to the “Tr Life." Had not natural death been in the scheme of nature for man, as well as other animals, the statement would have been without meaning

of the other. Man is therefore two-fold in constitution-the natural under the law of nature, the spiritual to commune with God, reciprocate his love, and bring both nature and spirit to his service.

11. The Infinite Spirit is the source of strength for the spiritual, as nature for the natural. Life, in organic beings, is carried forward through forces received from without, reacting on the forces within. Stop the inflow, and nature ceases to work. Exclude the influences of the sun, the great source of active forces for the earth and all upon it, and the plant or animal will not flourish. So in the case of the spiritual in man, it needs, for growth, a constant flow of the pure spiritual from a higher source without, to react on that within; and that outer spiritual source of light and life, is the Infinite Spirit, for there is no other. But man, in his freedom, must voluntarily open himself to the heavenly influence to receive that light and grow thereby in strength and love. This is more than common place comparison; there is community of principle. The supernatural in man and nature are bound by common laws, as they are one in Author. The parallelism is just, notwithstanding the appearance above of discrepancy in the supply being through the finite in the one instance, and direct from the Infinite in the other. For Christ is the Infinite become tinite, to be a Sun of Righteousness, in order to recover man from sin, reëstablish communion with the eternal source, and promote perfect growth. The familiar comparison should therefore take in the mind the higher position of a comprehensive law.

12. If, now, while having such exalted powers, the upper source of light is voluntarily excluded, then all the energies of the being, appetite, passion, intellect, reason, leagued with the will and ambitious desire, gather about self, the attribute of the animal; and under this violation of the profoundest law of all life, natural and supernatural, comes an excessive growth of the mere animal in man's being, besides enfeebled or perverted moral vision, hate, deformity, disease, and horrible death. And along with these evils and the misery they engender, the type of the perfect man becomes degraded, and

there arises a wide diversity of races, in some of which, the soul is so dwindled, the animal so dominant, and the debased attributes so deeply stamped on the face and form, (according to the principle mentioned,) that the species is barely recognizable under the revolting deformity.

13. Man bears evidence of his fall in this, that while the animal is true to his highest nature, he is not so.

14. According to the law in nature, “tendency to the right and to the elimination of the impure,” even the crystal will often rise


clear and brilliant out of a turbid mass. And as law is universal, we may regard this tendency to the right as extending to any race of spiritual creations in nature, like man. Hence it may be inferred, that while imperfection is possible, a fall of every race like that of man cannot be assumed to be probable.

In case of the fall of a race, recovery according to the law just mentioned could not come from the man alone, but from the Infinite Spirit acting on the willing reacting soul.

Man is thus in and of nature, while still made to rise above it. The laws of his being were in part expressed in the very first act of creation, another part in the institution of the vegetable kingdom, and another in the creation of the animal tribes; and in these laws, the laws also of his higher being were shadowed forth.

We now come again to the question, in conclusion, whether all evil, defect, deformity, pain, death, and whatever appointments in nature tend to increase man's toil, were in anticipation of man as a fallen being? We may review these anticipations, arranging them according to their first origin. We mention, at the same time, the page on which each point is discussed.

I. Anticipations of Man in the fundamental laws of the Universe.

1. The laws of light, heat, gravitation, crystallization, chemistry, the universality of which is proved by the universality of light and gravitation, and the correlation of all these forces.

2. The connection between obedience to law and phys

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