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and full penalty due to the sins of the race. reasoning is as follows:
On the latter point the
"He (Christ) assumed the nature that had sinned, though not a sinful nature, that He might reach its sin, and forever put it away. This he accomplished by bearing its penalty. Say some, he could not have endured the precise penalty due to sin, for eternity enters into the sufferings of the lost. True; but does eternity enter into the essence of punishment, or belong rather to the inability of the creature, who is not strong enough to bear the whole at once? Say some, the humanity of Christ suffered only, and therefore it was impossible that could have borne all the curse, suffering, and misery due to the myriads redeemed. Who shall say what humanity could bear as sustained by the divine? Upheld by Almighty power we believe it did bear a tornado of wrath which must have sought to expend itself upon a guilty Church, forever, but in vain. 'You talk mysteries; yet, sacred to a believing heart. The precise penalty-impossible! what! wrath, anger, remorse, despair? Do these belong to the essence of punishment, or arise out of the sinner's consciousness that he can never meet the requisitions of justice? If Christ did not bear the precise penalty threatened, what relations have his sufferings to the law? If he bore but part, then to that extent must judgment go by default. In the theory of perfect equivalent men may find difficulties, but does not its denial involve greater ?"
With regard to ability,
"Some will say, Why exhort the sinner to seek when he is dead? To which we reply, that the rule of a man's obligation is not his ability or inability, but the commands of God, which commands are built upon His eternal law, which law makes it incumbent upon man that, in whatever form the will of God is made known to him, he should receive it, and conform himself to it."
THE CAPTIVE ORPHAN.*-An eloquent exposition of the Doctrine of Divine Providence in the form of a series of lectures to the young on that fascinating portion of the Old Testament Scriptures, the book of Esther. Like the story of Joseph, the leading characters and events, connected with the history of the Captive Orphan, bring out in beautiful distinctness the subordination of all human schemes and purposes to the all comprehensive scheme of Him who governs the world and causes even the wrath of man to praise Him. The several incidents of the story are clearly described, and the various lessons to be derived from them distinctly pointed out and suitably enforced in the book before us, and its gifted author has laid under obligations not only the youth of his own congregation, for whom these lectures were originally prepared, but all who shall read them in the attractive form in which they are now published.
*The Captive Orphan: By STEPHEN H. TYNG, D. D., Rector of St. George's Church, New York. New York: Robert Carter & Brothers. 1859. pp. 414. 12mo.
SMOOTH STONES FROM ANCIENT BROOKS.*-How much Rev. C. H. Spurgeon had to do with the compilation of this book it is difficult to discover. His name is subscribed to a brief commendatory preface, and this, it has been intimated, is the extent of his responsibility in the matter. Be this as it may, as a book of "extracts" it is a good one enough of its kind. Among the many sentences, culled from the pages of the old Puritan, there are many pearls of thought, and spiritual gems of the first water; but pearls and gems are apt to be more useful, and appear to better advantage, in their own appropriate settings, than when taken from these, and exhibited by the whole basket-full, mixed together indiscriminatingly. We doubt whether such books of miscellaneous sentences and sayings, however good intrinsically, are ever very much read; though from the fact that they continue to be printed, we are bound to conclude that there are those who like and buy them.
HAVEN'S MORAL PHILOSOPHY.t-This volume is characterized by the same excellencies and the same defects which are found in the author's previous volume on Mental Philosophy. His style is admirable, his illustrations are felicitously chosen, and his method is good. He seems to the reader, who does not scrutinize his author very closely, to be profound and satisfactory. The historical exhibitions of the opinions of others, and the criticisms upon them, to one who has not read those authors, give a general and plausible impression of fairness and skill. The practical duties are felicitously enforced, so far as they can be from the preparation furnished in his theoretical principles.
We miss, however, in these pages, the movements of a mind that sees all principles with a thorough discrimination, and that develops his subject from his principles by a rigorous and progressive method. Every elementary book in philosophy ought to furnish, unconsciously, a kind of philosophical discipline and education, to the student. It ought also to satisfy his mind with the pleasure which comes from clear definitions
* Smooth Stones taken from Ancient Brooks. By Rev. C. H. SPURGEON, of the New Park street chapel, Southwark Being a collection of sentences, illustrations and quaint sayings, from the works of that renowned Puritan, Thomas Brooks. New York: Sheldon & Co. 1859. pp. 269.
+ Moral Philosophy: including Theoretical and Practical Ethics. By JOSEPH HAVEN, D. D., Professor in Chicago Theological Seminary. Boston: Gould & Lincoln. 1859. 12mo. pp. 360.
a natural development, and a well compacted system. We do not find these characteristics in the works of Prof. Haven so conspicuously as we could desire, but do not the less appreciate their manifest and peculiar excellencies.
LIBERTY AND NECESSITY.*-This work is clearly thought and clearly written. Every line of it is perfectly intelligible and the thoughts are connected together by logical dependence into a compact and consistent system. The doctrine of the book we do not accept. Its fundamental conceptions or assumptions in respect to the soul we can by no means receive. But though the author inculcates the doctrine of necessity with all the force of argument which he can summon to his aid, it is yet refreshing to find that he does it with entire self-consistency, and that he does not shrink from the conclusions to which this doctrine must carry him. The fact that he is forced to these conclusions is a powerful argument against the assumption or first principles themselves. All those interested in philosophical thinking will be instructed by this book.
DWIGHT'S MODERN PHILOLOGY.t-The author of this handsome volume has undertaken to supply a deficiency which has been widely felt in the community of educated and intelligent people. Many persons will now be able to gratify a curiosity of which they have long been conscious, without knowing how or where to procure the desired information. They have heard that a new science has sprung up within the last half century—a science of comparative philology, which claims to be something essentially different from all the attempts at etymology by which it was preceded-professing to have emerged from the chaos of uncertified guesses and unsystematic comparisons, in which (to use an apt description) the consonants went for very little and the vowels for nothing at all, and to proceed on acknowledged principles by regular methods to results of unquestionable certainty. But what those princi
* Liberty and Necessity; in which are considered the laws of Association of Ideas, the meaning of the word will, and the true intent of punishment. By HENRY CARLETON, late one of the judges of the Supreme Court of Louisiana. Philadelphia: Parry & McMillan. 1857. 12mo. pp. 165.
+ Modern Philology: its Discoveries, History, and Influence. With Maps, Tabular Views, and an Index. By BENJAMIN W. DWIGHT, Author of "The Higher Christian Education." New York: A. S. Barnes & Burr. 1859. 8vo. pp. 354.
ples and methods are, and what the main results arrived at through them, it has been impossible to learn without studying works designed for professed philologists, and lying of course beyond the range of the general reader. It has been difficult, also, to obtain information in reference to the authors and cultivators of the new science; and one who could repeat the rather unmusical trio of monosyllabic namesBopp, Pott, Grimm-which designate its illustrious founders, has bad more than the usual modicum of information on the subject. All who have felt the desire to inform themselves more fully on these topics— and we believe that the number of such persons is large already, and constantly increasing—will be disposed to give a hearty welcome to the work before us. Its anthor has here brought together three essays, which originally appeared in a separate form, the first and the last in the Bibliotheca Sacra, and the intermediate one in the New Englander for August, 1858. All of them, however, have been rewritten by the author, with extensive additions and alterations. The first and longest of the series is devoted to a general survey of the Indo-European languages. Among all groups of mutually connected idioms, this is by far the most interesting and inportant, whether we look at their aggregate extent, reaching from the mouth of the Ganges to the westero coast of Ireland, or at their complex, yet manageable system of grammatical forms, and their capabilities of varied expression, or at the treasures of literary art of wbich they are the depositories. At the close of this article, Mr. Dwight takes occasion to controvert the pre vailing opinion of comparative philologists, that the primitive elements of language were words of one syllable, and that the most highly inflected idioms have arisen by various processes of development from radicals of this kind. We acknowledge the vigor of Mr. Dwight's argument, though unable to accept his conclusion. To us, the formation of language from monosyllabic roots appears, like the formation of stratified rocks from deposition under water, to be a fact apparent in the very constitution of the product, and not to be set aside by specu: lations as to the probable circumstances and capacities of Adain and Eve. The second article, wbich contains an animated historical sketch of the progress of comparative philology, with an account of the men by whom, and the books in which, that progress was brought about, is already familiar to the readers of this journal. In the remaining article, entitled “Science of Etymology," our author has aimed to put together in a systematic form the principles which have been recognized and followed by the most successful laborers in this department of research,
The topics which we have tbus briefly indicated, are treated by Mr. Dwight with a fervor and enthusiasm peculiar to himself. His familiarity with his themes is not the familiarity that breeds contempt. Words are to him " the sacred symbols of human thought," and all their conditions and affections, all the chances and changes that befall them, partake of the same sanctity. These feelings will go far to account for a style of composition which some readers may be disposed to censure as exuberant or florid. We must frankly confess that a calmer tone, and a mode of expression more characterized by simplicity and moderation, would have been somewhat better suited to our own taste. But on such points, one must beware of setting up his personal subjective feeling as a universal law. Nor can we deny that there is great force in the considerations urged by Mr. Dwight in his preface, where he pleads that his enthusiasm was not forced or artificial, but inspired by the subject itself, and that he hoped, by giving it free course, to avoid the impression of something dry and repulsive, which a style more strictly scientific would be likely to make on many readers.
The author of this work has been ably seconded by his publishers, who have contributed everything that typography can do, to render it attractive. We trust that both parties will have reason to be satisfied with the result; that the publishers will receive an abundant return for their liberal outlay, and that the author will meet with a reward which he will value more highly than all accessions of fame or money, (though these, we hope, will not be wanting) in seeing multitudes brought to a just appreciation, and not a few attracted to a thorough prosecution, of his favorite science.
SPRAGUE's Annals.* _Dr. Sprague, with his accustomed punctuality, has given us another volume of his great work. It is the largest he has yet published, containing 882 pages, and is devoted wholly to the BAPTISTS. It presents us with accounts of more than a hundred and sixty individuals, extending from Hansard Knollys, in 1638, to John Lightfoot Waller, in 1854. In addition to the well known names of Maxcy, Messer, Stoughton, Baldwin, Stillman, and others, who have stood at the head of the denomination, we are here introduced to a large number of strong-minded men of little or no early education, and
* Annals of the American Pulpit, Vol. VI. New York: Robert Carter & Brothers. 1860.