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the Moslem Kabyle serves the infidel Jew most unwillingly, and envies him the position of master; and when in periods of agitation he enters the ranks of the Turcos he finds his opportunity to wreak his vengeance on his former employer for his wounded pride and humiliation. The Jew must now pay for being wealthier and more elevated in the social scale than the Moslem. He is rich, he has money in his coffers, and his wife and daughters have costly ornaments, and these are great attractions to the greedy, booty-loving Turco. Persecutions and plunderings of the Jews are, therefore, sure to accompany the commencement of any war, first in the garrison cities, and then in the villages all over the country. In the city of Algiers especially, where these murderous hordes collect for embarkation, the Jews are beaten and slaughtered, or robbed and their homes burned. Sometimes the authorities are powerless to control them; and at times it seems as if they think it will whet the savagery of the Turcos to give them an opportunity to taste of blood and plunder before starting. It is of course well understood that it is only native Jews that are thus treated. If French Jews are touched, means are soon found to quell the outrage and violence. Such scenes were enacted on the eve of the Italian and Mexican campaigns, and were repeated as these brutal bordes were collecting to proceed on the German raid that landed them securely in the military prisons of the Fatherland.

And these savages are just as ready to turn against the power they serve if they have any thing in the line of plunder to gain by it, or have the least hope of success. The French troops had scarcely been withdrawn from Algeria before the native troops left behind began a revolt, accompanied with rapine and robbery. The military art which the French had taught them they put into operation against their masters; and we all know of the chronic revolt in Kabylia that continued as long as the French were weak and unable to protect themselves. The opinion of thoughtful men, therefore, seems to be, that the whole system of colonization and government in Algeria is rotten to the core, and must be radically altered before France can hope to have a colony from which she can derive the least benefit.

Baron von Maltzan has spent several years in studying every phase of life in the coast-lands of Northern Africa, and has become most thoroughly acquainted with them even into Arabia, and is a better authority regarding Algeria than Rhlofs. He has gained much of his information in the most adventurous disguise, among a population fanatically hostile toward Christian blood in any shape. Within the last twelve years he has wandered from Mogador through Morocco to Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli, and so along the coast to Egypt and into Arabia as far as Mecca, making a most careful pilgrimage, during which he has combined scientific research with the love of adventure. His success in assuming the Moslem garb and tongue has been so great that he has entered into the most inaccessible social circles of the Arabs, and unvailed to us a phase of life seldom observed by any but genuine followers of the Prophet.

Thoroughly acquainted with both Algeria and Tunis, he draws an interesting comparison between the two countries, which forty years ago were just alike. Algeria has become partly French, while Tunis has remained wholly Arab. The city of Algiers has assumed the appearance of Marseilles, while the original populace remain there as firmly imbedded in the ways of the Moslems as ever. Moors and Arabs bow their necks to the superior French sword, but French ideas gain no access to their heads. Tunis still shows the irregular, labyrinthine style of Oriental architecture, and few Europeans are seen except the scum of Southern Europe, who escape there to avoid the consequences of crime, and who are such a pest to European consuls that these defend the entrance to their houses against them by armed janissaries. The Court is endeavoring to assume the European style in military costume, but they are so awkward in the effort as to excite little else than ridicule. In both cities the power of Islam seems to have held its own, only in Algiers it smothers under the ashes, while in Tunis it shoots forth into bright flames at every opportunity. In Algiers, French bayonets protect the Frank in entering the mosques; in Tunis, the stranger exposes himself to a stoning if he even dare to cross the threshold.

French reports boast of the success of the government schools established for the Arabs in Algiers. This, Maltzan


denies, affirming that only those Arabs send their children to the schools who are in the service of the Government, and when their children leave the schools the parents do their best to make them forget what they have learned. No respectable Arab sends his children to such schools, and much less his girls to the Franco-Arabic girls' school established by the authorities. Those who are educated in the latter are regarded as the scum of humanity by the true Arabs. The sorry teaching of the Koran is all that the great mass enjoy, notwithstanding the efforts of the French for forty years. It is only in the Jewish institutions of learning that French culture has a visible influence. Algeria is the better governed of the two, on account of the protection afforded to property by the French officers, while Tunis still suffers under an arbitrary military despot. And this difference of administration has produced a marked difference in the moral status of the people. · Polygamy is almost unknown in Algeria, while it is very common in Tunis.

Experience proves that the race in Northern Africa deteriorates as we proceed from west to east. Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, and Egypt seem to form a sliding scale, with degraded Egypt at the base. Energy, strength, and the sense of patriotism seem to decrease; but the people become more docile and ready to accept efforts at civilization. Tunis lies further to the east, and follows this law. During the last thirty years no less than three sovereigns have occupied the throne, each one of whom has been the representative of a different system, with new virtues and vices. They all try in some measure to adopt something from European civilization, but are sure to halt between two opinions, and do neither one thing nor the other. The last ruler was quite inclined to introduce some reforms, and affected a constitution; but his fanatical people, who are blindly attached to the ways of Islamism, annoyed him so much on account of this innovation that he is said to have been actually tormented to death.

The present ruler, brother of the former one, is no better. He calls himself “the Just,” but his justice is of a negative character, for he does neither good nor bad.

He has transferred his government to a Greek renegade, who rules the country in his own interest, while the sovereign amuses him


self in the most childish way with jesters and court-fools. His usual associates are young men whom he has picked up here and there and dubbed with high-sounding military titles. He has a lieutenant-general of twenty-one years of age, two majorgenerals of nineteen, a dozen colonels of about sixteen, and captains, etc., whose age does not exceed eleven or twelve. The son of the prime minister, however, though quite a young man, has made a very rare collection of antiquities from the Phænician and Carthaginian ruins in the vicinity, and possesses a museum that of its kind has no rival in the world. But this treasure is watched with argus eyes, and no stranger is allowed to have a glance at it. The boy who collected it seems to have no adequate conception of its value, but in an undefined suspicion of its rarity he guards it with a fanatical zeal, and especially against European eyes. Maltzan only gained access to the sanctuary after the most determined persistence and the boldest efforts. He was then surprised to find it 'exceeded all his expectations in its wealth of Phænician inscriptions—there being several hundred wholly unknown to European museums, and about as many as are found in all of the European collections taken together.. But he was treated quite rudely, and absolutely refused the privilege of copying them. A casual inspection was all that was accorded to him, and he left with the determination of seeing them under more favorable circumstances at some other period. This was in 1868.

The following year he made another visit with the express intention of knowing more of this rare collection and obtaining exact copies of the inscriptions. He was not permitted to copy them even this time, although he had been promised the privilege, of doing so, for, when he undertook to transfer the Phænician inscriptions to paper, the Tunisians with great rudeness interfered with him as if he were a defiler of their sanctuary. He was obliged to abandon the effort again, and deceived and discouraged he again left Tunis. But in the fall of the same year he presented himself a third time to the son of the premier in a condition to resent any ignominious treatment. A very emphatic recommendation and introduction on the part of the Prussian Government changed the barbarously rude possessor of the museum into quite an obliging man, and Maltzan received the permission to make copies.

He had a strong desire to take photographs of the inscriptions in order to prevent all doubt as to his scientific accuracy, but in this lie met with a refusal, as the owner declared that he conld have them photographed himself, and thereby become a celebrated man. Determined not to be thus baffled, Maltzan made another effort, backed by the influence of the English Governor of Malta, and this time he succeeded. Overjoyed at his success, he sent innmediately to Malta for a photographer and apparatus, but on their arrival the young man changed his mind, and withdrew the permission with the declaration that it was his intention to publish a set of photographic inscriptions on his own account. So Maltzan was obliged to be contented with bringing away copies, of which he obtained about sixty. Among these are the most important eulogistic inscriptions found in the museum of the castle of Manuba, and the only tomb inscription found in modern times, also from the same place. To these may be added some very valuable ones from an ancient museum of Carthage, and also a few from the maritime port of Goletta. It

appears that the fortunate possessor of these relics sent some of them to Paris to the great Exhibition of 1867, with the assurance that he had a great many more. From the character of these it was suspected that he knew nothing about their intrinsic value, and had only chosen those that struck lis fancy as being the most presentable for the Exposition, therefore the ardent desire of Maltzan to get a sight of these antiquities that had never been subjected to the investigation of any one skilled in ancient inscriptions. Most of those sent were in reality figures in the coarsest style of art, awkward and childish, and containing but few inscriptions. It was quite evident that they were sent because they pleased the rude fancy of their possessor, and it turned out that he has abont one hundred and fifty in all, some of them of rare value to the archæologist.

The discovery of these induced Maltzan to make a tour through the provinces of Tunis, which he did under the protection of the Bey, on account of his letters froin the Court of Prussia. This portion of Africa possesses a very large amount of monumental souvenirs of the great periods of its past. The monuments of the remotest period--that of the Phænicians

FOURTH Series, Vol. XXIV.-6


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