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and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.

SCENE V. Chap. xxi, 1–5. Theme—The final glorification of the saints represented in a rapid succession of the most vividly glowing transformation scenes.

1. A new heaven and a new earth, in which righteousness is found, verse 1: “And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.”

2. A new and gorgeous city in which God and the saints are to dwell for ever. The grandeur and glory of this city are so magnificent that the revelator exhausts all the wealth of Oriental conception and imagery on its minute description. (Chap. xxi, 2-26; xxii, 1-5.)

And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband, etc.

THE EPILOGUE.-In which is set forth the import and purpose of the book, and its sacred and inspired character, and the fearful consequences of rejecting or misrepresenting its teachings, with a final warning of the certainty and suddenness of Christ's visitation in judgment of his enemies and reward of his friends, closing with the Christian benediction. (Verses 6-21.)

It is not assumed that the above is an exhaustive treatment of the subject. This were impossible in so brief a form, and with so many suggestive aspects of the subject as the inspire Revelator presents it in. The writer hopes hereafter to present it in an enlarged and more complete form; and if an artist can be found who can enter into the spirit of these themes, to have the work elaborately illustrated.

ART. IV.-GERMAN EXPLORATIONS IN AFRICA.

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For the last twenty years the Germans have been exploring Africa in every direction, but in a manner so quiet and unoltrusive that the world has not been aware of their labors, Most of these travelers have undertaken their difficult and dangerous journeys with but little or no support from the gorernments or scientific associations, and frequently with means and retinues so meager that we are astonished at the boldness of their enterprises, and the almost reckless courage that seems to have inspired them in their thirst. after knowledge; and knowledge appears to have been the great incentive of their labors in nearly all circumstances, until quite recently, in the case of Rohlfs, who, to the accuracy of the scientific explorer adds the keen eye of the commercial investigator, and is already suggesting to Germany the feasibility of making a German India of Northern Africa, and from this base opening commercial relations that shall find their passage across the deserts to the rich plains of Central Africa, and from these to the ports on the western and south-western coasts.

For years the German savants have been listening with intense interest to the stories of Barth and Vogel, Overweg and Beurmann in Central Africa, and to Heuglin and Steudner along the Upper Nile and in Abyssinia. Most of these men have been veritable heroes, and have sacrificed their lives to the cause of science; and some of them have been so fortunate as to establish friendly relations between various African chieftains and their own governments. This is especially the case with the Sultan of Bornou, who has ever received these German explorers in so kindly a spirit that the King of Prussia recently sent a deputation to his Majesty with costly presents as a testimonial of his esteem for the sable monarch.

In the practical relations that have thus of late grown up between Germany and Africa the leading spirit is Rolilfs, who has spent the last ten years in acquiring an intimate acquaintance with Central Africa and the western and northern coasts. He is inspired with the idea that Germany has a great and peaceful mission to perform in that comparatively unknown and unappreciated country, and for the past year he has been

lecturing before learned associations and popular gatherings to that effect. He is largely aided in this labor by the letters of Maltzan, a fellow-countryman, who has long lived and traveled in the provinces along the northern coast and in Lower Egypt. These two are the live men of the hour, and have given to the world a mass of most interesting and useful information concerning Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, and Egypt.

In case of European colonization, this northern belt, along the Mediterranean coast, will of course receive the first settlers, and is therefore first in importance to the present hour. For many years the French have been making efforts to settle Algeria, with indifferent success, and these German explorers attribute the failure in great measure to a very unfortunate system of government, which much resembles that of a penal colony. With the aspirations of the new Gerinan empire there is a strong desire to meet France even on the shores of Africa; and it is quite clear that hereafter French influence is to find along this .coast, and in Egypt and Turkey, no mean rival.

Rohlfs' accounts of his experience in Morocco sound more like romance than history. Several times he was attacked by robbers and left for dead; and once, covered with nine wounds, he lay for two days and three nights in the desert: there he found good Samaritans in the inhabitants of a neighboring oasis, who kindly cared for him, and enabled him to resume his travels. He had scarcely entered on his first journey in this inhospitable country when he was robbed of every thing that he possessed; but, declining to turn back, he had the courage to press on to the first grand cheriff and apply for the position of surgeon in the army. This he obtained, and was soon promoted to the post of body-physician to the Governor, and thus obtained access to the royal city of Fez, the residence of the Emperor. Shortly after this the Governor was poisoned, evidently by superior orders, and Rohlfs was suspected of being accessory to the deed. His life, however, was spared through the dying words of the Governor himself, who in the warmest terms recommended the physician to his son and heir. He was then soon promoted to be private physician to the Emperor himself; but he found his position one of so much delicacy and suspicion that he de clined giving internal remedies, lest any unfortunate result of

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his treatment might receive an unjust and dangerous interpre. tation. He depended entirely on strong external applications and written amulets, which rewarded him with so much success that he found it difficult to get rid of his charge with a view of pursuing his travels.

The intervention of the English Consul procured him a release, with the permission to travel throughout the empire with imperial protection, which he did with so much the more success on account of his experience, and the acquisition of the Arabic tongue during liis stay. He was now prepared to be as good a Moslem as any of them, and adopted this disguise to insure his safety and success. The tribes of Morocco seem to have made but little progress during the last two thousand years. They are fearfully rude and degraded. They seldom wash themselves more than once a year, and rarely lay aside their clothes until these fall from their backs in rags. They eat with their fingers out of a common dish, and think it an attention to a stranger to fish out the choice pieces and stuff them into his mouth. One fifth of the population consists of Arabian invaders, and the remainder are native Berbers. But very few of them understand the Koran, the prayers, or the religious precepts, which are all in the Arabic tongue, even in Turkey; yet, nevertheless, they are the most bigoted Moslems, ard threatened several times to murder Rohlfs, whom they suspected of being a “Christian dog." But his life was always saved by the intervention of the Governor's son, who was a distant descendant of the Prophet; and, as these persons always become more sacred with every generation, their influence is all-powerful. He finally gave Rohlfs a document in which he acknowledged distant relationship with the traveler, and thus the possibility of his having a particle of sacred blood in his veins saved him from violence on several occasions, and proved a safe conduct through manifold dangers.

Having become pretty well acquainted with the main points of interest regarding the cities, plains, and rivers of Morocco, he crossed the Atlas chain with great difficulty and thus made his way to Algeria. Here he took occasion to read the French Emperor a lesson which it is to be hoped his successors in government may profit by. The native tribes of Algeria are ruled by a set of bureaucrats, who introduce all the

rigor of military law into civil affairs, and have no sympathy with those who are placed under them. These rulers go to Algeria as the English go to India, not to identify themselves with the country, but to see how much they can profit by it, and the result is, that they are cordially hated by all parties. Even the French settlers there complain greatly of them. Algeria needs to be colonized by a race that propose to stay there and make it their home, and desire to leave a profitable inheritance to their children. But the French seem to be little calculated for such emigration, and less inclined to it, and Algeria is therefore rather a satrapy than a French colony. Rohlfs takes the position that the Arabs can never be civilized, and thinks that they ought to be driven to the desert whence they came, as they are the most intolerant of men in religion, and the most unwilling to be bound by the rules of civilized life. With the Arabs away, and a general commingling of French immigrants among the Kabyles, or native tribes, in the form of settlements, there would be some possibility of making in the land an acceptable home for industrious agricultural races.

Maltzan has made a more thorongh study of Algeria than Rohlfs, and has given us some very timely information regarding the native troops that the French brought over to Europe to help them fight their battles against the Germans. These Turcos seem to possess the worst qualities of the wild Arab and the native negro. They have not the remotest idea of honesty, and the colonists stand in mortal fear of them on the occasion of any outbreak. During peace the rigor of military discipline keeps them within some bounds; but the moment the war trumpet sounds they are as wild and reientless as savages. Their religious fanaticism makes them turn against all that are not followers of the Prophet; but they seem to have a special hatred of the Jews, of whom there are great numbers in nearly every city in Algeria. The Jews have profited largely by the regular government of the French, and in the security thus afforded them have grown to be the richest of the land. In periods of peace these Turcos, or Kabyles, as they are called out of military service, are frequently servants to the wealthy Jews, on account of the profitable rewards that these people are able to bestow. But still

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