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is wholly derived from the one next below. The two series would read thus :

1. Simple elements

colloid - organism. 2. Simple forces -- vitality -mind.

Mr. Spencer begins with his series of bricks” as a “possible analogy.” Doubtful at first, he waxes bolder as he proceeds. He soon slips over from “bricks” to “molecules," “knocks” his “inolecules" about as easily as his “ bricks," and soon calls his “ possible analogy” by the strict and dignified name "formula,” and begins to deduce “consequences " and “corollaries," attains an equilibrium, and emerges complacently with a specimen of “nerve," saying, “We now pass from the genesis of nerves to the genesis of nervous systems.' And this is the scientific way in which, in Mr. Spencer's hands, “physical and chemical forces," "colloids," "motions," “ lines of least resistance," etc., being given, do the work of the supposed “ vital forces.” And this is the showing of a master in the school to which he belongs.

Before ten years shall pass, we predict of Mr. Spencer's First Principles," Biology," and “ Psychology,” that instead of occupying the place some have claimed for them, they will be regarded by most as mere curiosities in respect to much that is peculiar to himself in them. But Mr. Spencer does not stand alone in using his imagination in science. All do not use " rows of bricks,” but vary the figure to suit personal taste or convenience. For example, we have " cell laboratories, ." “ molecular machinery," etc. Now for a moment suppose there is something that may be compared to a laboratory, what of it? A skillful chemist (a tyro or ignoramus will not do) enters a highly and minutely furnished laboratory, filled with all the appliances of that science which has done so much in the past, and some of whose votaries entertain for it such extravagant expectations for the future, and he emerges, after a bewildering series of experiments, with two or three specimens of“ organic matter” which stand at the very bottom of the list, such as urea. Now, in regard to the urea, did these vaunted chemical and "physical forces” make it of them. selves, as they are asserted in innumerable other instances to have done, or did the learned and intelligent chemist make it,'


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using his machinery?” Did any chemist ever have the hap-
piness to sit down in his laboratory, and, like another Aladdin,
by rubbing his retort, see these wonder-working " forces of
nature" perform any, even of his more humble, work? If the
chemist must coax and compel in his laboratory, who does the
business in question in that “cell laboratory” where molecular
changes take place by “subtle influences," or by “ mysterious
agents,” under “peculiar circumstances,” in “certain condi-
tions," all by invisible" molecular machinery ?”

How is it these forces conspire to come together, and do
within the limits of a microscopic cell what the chemist is not
able to do in his “cell ;” and that, too, without any help, or
guidance, or machinery, transcending all the calculations, pon-
derings, devices, and experiments of a Dumas, a Liebig, a
Wöhler, a Graham, a Miller, etc. The chemist and physicist
goes on and “imagines ” a “cell laboratory," then he imagines
“ machinery,” being influenced by the spell of his own cham-
ber; but there is just one more step forward in the imaginative
process none of these gentlemen have dared to take-that is,
to imagine a chemist in the cell, master of its “ machinery

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But let us return to our “imaginative” work. With the "cell laboratory” fitted up with “cell machinery,” no matter how we come by it, heat steps in, we will say, and, finding nobody at home, all ready, “swept and garnished,” steam is soon up, and the “cell machinery” grinds away at a grist of oxygen and carbon, water and ammonia, and, as a “result,” "evolves" protoplasm, the same machinery spinning its own fibers or molding its own matter into cells or into molecular “ bricks," to be set up “askew” and knocked down again, until a “structural equilibrium” is reached, and “ motion,” the shadow of force, dances along the “lines of least resistance," laying the silver cords, and brightens finally into mind. Was there ever a purer piece of imagination than this ? Can

you pick up any fairy tale or mythologic bit lighter of wing than this? Talk hereafter about imagination having no place in science when its apostles breathe so freely its divine air! Just listen now to Professor Tyndall in the closing passage of his Heat as a Mode of Motion,” and as the sun speaks in him, distinguish between the truth and beauty of the thought:

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This is a representative case. Every tree, plant, and flower grows and flourishes by the grace and bounty of the sun. But we cannot stop at vegetable lite, for this is the source, mediate or immediate, of all animal life. In the animal body vegetable substances are brought again into contact with their beloved oxygen, and they burn within us as a fire burns within a grate. This is the source of all animal power, and the forces in play are the same in kind as those wbich operate in organic nature. In the plant the clock is wound up, in the animal it runs down. In the plant the atoms are separated, in the animal they combine. And as surely as the force which moves a clock's hands is derived from the hand which winds up the clock, so surely is all terrestriai power

draron from the sun. Leaving out of the account the eruptions of volcanoes, and the ebb and flow of the tides, every mechanical action on the earth's surface, every manifestation of power, organic and inorganic, vital and physical, is produced by the sun. . . . And remember, this is not poetry, but rigid mechanical truth. He rears, as I have said, the whole vegetable world, and through it the animal, (new edition of the Psalms;] the lilies of the field are his workmanship, the verdure of the meadows and the cattle upon a thousand hills. He forms the muscle, he urges the blood, he builds the brain. His fleetness is in the lion's foot, he springs in the panther, he soars in the eagle, he slides in the snake. He builds the forest and heros it down, the power which raised the tree and wields the ax being one and the same. The clover sprouts and blossoms, and the scythe of the mower swings by the same force. The sun digs the ore from our mines, he rolls the iron, he rivets the plates, he boils the water, he draws the trains. He not only grows the cotton, but he spins the fiber and weaves the web. There is not a hammer raised, a wheel turned, a shuttle tbrown, that is not raised and turned and thrown by the sun. His energy

is poured freely into space, but our world is a halting-place, where his energy is conditioned. Here the Proteus works his spells, the self-same essence takes a million shapes and hues, and finally dissolves into its primitive and almost formless form. The sun comes to us as heat, he quits us as heat, and between his entrance and departure the multiform powers of our globe appear. They are all special forms of solar power, the molds into which his strength is temporarily poured in passing from its source through infinitude.—Page 446.

And “this is not poetry, but rigid mechanical truth." Where “rigid mechanical truth” is so much “stranger than airy fiction," we are wholly prepared to believe that the natural philosopher of to-day may dwell amid conceptions which beggar those of Milton." After what has been already said, it is useless to comment on this passage, which is as conspicuous for its want of truth as for its beauty. Until now we

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did not so much as imagine the sun could think such a pas-
sage. But “as surely as the force which moves a clock's hands
is derived from the arm which winds up the clock," so surely
was it the sun that uttered this rhapsody in its own praise.
But this is “rigid mechanical truth.” If this is so, what would
the scientific “imagination” or its sportive fancy do if it did
not restrain itself ?

This shall end our review of "evidence" as to the truth of
the doctrine that the physical, vital, and mental forces are
“correlated.” Incidentally, also, we have said negatively all
we have the space to say in regard to the origin of forces.
Positive statements as regards the correlation and origin of
forces must be postponed until another occasion. But we have
seen, during the preceding examination, no reason for enter-
taining the notion, now quite common among physicists, that
the higher forces are derived from the lower by a species of
evolution. This view we believe to be a direct misreading of
the whole case. Neither is there any evidence worthy the
name that can fairly justify the belief which many have, that
the physical, vital, and mental forces are correlated in the
same inanner as the physical and chemical forces are among
themselves. The course of our reasoning thus far would seem
to leave to us two other alternatives. They are,

First, That the physical, vital, and mental forces are radically distinct; that there are different kinds of force.

Second, That they all have one common origin or source, and that source, instead of being physical, is mental, in niind or will.

To fully state both these alternatives, and decide in view of *all pertinent facts which may be received of either, may be the subject of another article. Thus far the simple object has been to examine the evidence on which the modern doctrines of the physical origin of vital and mental forces have been reposed.

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Christianity and Greek Philosophy; or, the Relations between Spontaneous and Re

flective Thought in Greece and the Positive Teaching of Christ and his Apostles. By B. F. COCKER, D.D., Professor of Moral and Mental Philosophy in the Uni

versity of Michigan. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1870. The work of Dr. Cocker is, in effect, a brave defense of the fundamental truths of Christianity. It is a grammar of religious thought, illustrated by citations from Grecian thinkers. It is an attempt to introduce to personal consciousness the axioms of religious philosophy, and familiarize it with their characteristics and implications. But the method is not alone abstract. The necessary laws and tendencies of human thought are illustrated by the history of Greek philosophy; and the necessary relation of all correct thinking to a correct conception of the Christian system is also exemplified in the gradual preparation of the philosophic mind of Greece for the reception of ideas peculiarly Christian.

The work consists, essentially, of three parts : 1. The fundamental ideas of religious philosophy. 2. Illustration of these in the results of Grecian speculation. 3. Christian revelation a final disclosure divinely correlated to the religious instincts of man and the previous education of the race. Such, at least, if not the strict arrangement of the work, is a classification of its ideas, of which we now proceed to give a condensed statement.

In the preliminary chapter the author passes in review the city and the men of Athens, and the physical features of the Grecian peninsula in general. In commenting upon the connection between national character and physical surroundings, he takes occasion to remark that the latter are merely modify ing forces; while human spontaneity-reason and will-in connection with a superintending Providence, are the fundamental forces which give direction to national development. Human will impresses even the face of nature ;* and, thongh great men are generally mere mouth-pieces of their generation,

* On the “ Power of Mind over Nature," see Cocker, in “Methodist Quarterly Review," January and April, 1870: and on human will as an original spontaneons cause, see“ Whedon on the Will," page 42, and elsewhere; also Cocker in "Methodist Quarterly Review," Oct., 1864.

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