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Supper, because they have not any visible sign or ceremony ordained of God.

The sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be gazed upon, or to be carried about; but that we should duly use them. And in such only as worthily receive the same, they have a wholesome effect or operation : but they that receive them anworthily, purchase to themselves condemnation, as St. Paul saith, 1 Cor. xi, 29.

XXXVII. Of Baptism. Baptism is not only a sign of profession, and mark of difference, whereby Christians are distinguished from others that are not baptized; but it is also [in adults] a sign of regeneration, or the new birth. The baptism of young children is to be retained in the Church.

XXXVIII. [Of the Moral State of Infants. The moral condition of infants being that of “justification unto life,” they are entitled to the sign of that grace; and such as die in that state are saved through the atonement of Christ, being, as Christ saith,“ of the kingdom of heaven.”]

XXXIX. [Of the Mode of Baptism. Baptism being " the answer of a good conscience,” the mode or forin of it should be left to the choice of the subject, if adult, or to the parent or guardian, iť infant.]

XL. Of the Lord's Supper. The Supper of the Lord is not only a sign of the love that Christians onight to have among themselves one to another, but rather is a sacrament of our redemption by Christ's death, insomuch that to such as rightly, worthily, and with faith receive the same, the bread which we break is a partaking of the body of Christ; and likewise the cup of blessing is a partaking of the blood of Christ.

Transubstantiation, or the change of the substance of bread and wine in the Supper of our Lord, cannot be proved by Holy Writ, but is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of the sacrament, and hath given occasion to many superstitions.

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The body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten in the Supper, only after a heavenly and spiritual manner. And the means whereby the body of Christ is received and eaten in the Supper, is faith.

The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was not by Christ's ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted up, or worshiped.

XLI. Of Both Kinds. The cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the lay people; for both the parts of the Lord's Supper, by Christ's ordinance and commandment, ought to be administered to all Christians alike.

XLII. [Of Open or Free Communion. In the communion of the Lord's Supper we invite the Lord's people without respect to denominational peculiarities. Those who sincerely repent of their sins, and believe in the divinity of the atonement, may be admitted to this sacrament.] XLIII. Of the one Oblation of Christ finished upon the Cross.

The offering of Christ, once made, is that perfect redemption, propitiation, and satisfaction for all the sins of the whole world, both original and actual; and there is none other satisfaction for sin but that alone. Wherefore the sacrifice of masses, in the which it is commonly said that the priest doth offer Christ for the quick and the dead, to have remission of pain or guilt, is a blasphemous fable and dangerous deceit.

XLIV. [Of Marriage. The marriage of one man to one woman is a holy and honorable estate, and was instituted of God, in the time of man's innocency, for the mutual happiness and lawful propagation of our race. It is a moral, as well as civil and social, relation, and should be subject to the laws of God as well as those of the State.]

XLV. Of the Marriage of Ministers. The ministers of Christ are not commanded by God's law either to vow the estate of single life, or to abstain froin marriage: therefore it is lawful for them, as for all other Christians, to marry at their own discretion, as they shall judge the same to serve best to godliness.

XLVI. Of Rites and Ceremonies of Churches. It is not necessary that rites and ceremonies should in all places be the same, or exactly alike; for they have been always different, and may be changed according to the diversity of countries, times, and men's manners, so that nothing be ordained against God's word. Whosoever, through his private judgment, willingly and purposely doth openly break the rites and ceremonies of the Church to which he belongs, which are not repugnant to the word of God, and are ordained and approved by common authority, ought to be rebuked openly, that others may fear to do the like, as one that offendeth against the common order of the Church, and woundeth the consciences of weak brethren.

Every particular Church may ordain, change, or abolish rites and ceremonies, so that all things may be done to edification.

XLVII. Of the Rulers of the United States of America.

[Civil government is a divine institution, therefore we recognize that] the President, the Congress, the General Assemblies, the Governors, and the Councils of State, as the delegates of the people, are the rulers of the United States of America, according to the division of power made to them by the Constitution of the United States, and by the Constitution of their respective States. And the said States are a sovereign and independent nation, and ought not to be subject to any foreign jurisdiction. [As far as it respects civil affairs, it is the duty of Christians, and especially of Christian ministers, to be subject to the supreme anthority of the country where they reside, and to use all laudable means to enjoin obedience to the powers that be, (except when in conflict with the word of God, as when requiring idolatry;) and therefore it is expected that all our preachers and people, who may be under the British or any other government, will behave themselves as peaceable subjects.]

XLVIII. [Of Obedience to Government.
Although we are forbidden to kill any human being in

anger or revenge, yet in obedience to the civil laws or magistrate, who is God's minister, Christian men may execute sentence of death upon criminals, or kill enemies in a just and lawful war, or in defense of life when no other means of escape are apparent.]

FOURTH SERIES, VOL. XXIV.-16

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XLIX. Of Christian Men's Goods. The riches and goods of Christians are not common, as touching the right, title, and the possession of same, as some do falsely boast. Notwithstanding, every man ought, of such things as he possesseth, liberally to give alms to the poor, according to his ability

L. Of a Christian Man's Oath. As we confess that vain and rash swearing is forbidden Christian men by our Lord Jesus Christ and James his apostle, 80 we judge that the Christian religion doth not prohibit, but that a man may swear when the magistrate requireth, in a cause of faith and charity, so it be done according to the prophet's teaching, in justice, and judgment, and truth.*

ART. V.-MINISTERIAL EDUCATION IN OUR CHURCH,

(SECOND ARTICLE.] Address to the Clergy. By Rev. John WESLEY, M.A., Presbyter of the Church of

England: Works, Vol. VI, pp. 217–231.- Address to the Ministers and Mem. bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church in New England by the Convention of Min. isters and Members, held in Boston April 24, 25, 1839, to consider the expediency of establishing a Methodist Theological Institution.- -Contributions and Editorials relative to the proposed Theological Seminary. (More than a hundred, pro and con.) Zion's Herald. Boston: 1839–40.- Ministerial Education in the Methodist Episcopal Church. By Rev. S. M. VAIL, D.D. Boston: 1853.-- A Treatise on the Need of the Methodist Episcopal Church with respect to her Ministry. By Rev. R. S. FOSTER, D.D. New York: 1855.- -A Defense of the Present Mode of Training Candidates for the Ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church. By Rev. J. H. PERRY, D.D. New York: 1855.-Nine Letters on Ministerial Education. By W. F. W. Christian Advocate and Journal: Vol. XXXIII.Educational Qualifications for the Ministry. By Rev. Dr. Nadal. Methodist Quarterly Review: April, 1867. -Supply and Qualifications for the Ministry. Three Essays by Rev. Messrs. E. S. STANLEY, E. F. CLARK, and W. F. WARREN. Report of First Rhode Island Convention. Providence: 1870.--The Sword and Garment; or, Ministerial Culture. By Rev. L. T. TOWNSEND, D.D. Boston: 1871. - Educational Reports and Documents in Journal of General Conference, 1864 and 1868.- -Addresses at the Dedication of Heck Hall

, Evanston, July 13, 1867, and at the Opening of Drew Theological Seminary, Novem

ber 6, 1867. -Annual Reports of the Buston Theological Seminary, 1868-1872. THERE is in this country one theological school of special interest. It is the largest in the world. Its last Freshman class numbered seven hundred and ninety-three. The entire number of students now in attendance is about three thousand. While other theological institutions, the world over, have required but a brief three years' course of study, this one has from the beginning prescribed four years.

* Our publication of this article implies no opinion as to the desirableness of New Articles.-ED.

While other seminaries surrender a quarter of the year for vacation, this one is in uninterrupted operation from one year's end to the other. For more than half a century fresh classes have been organized almost every month, and after completing their four years' curriculum have graduated with fitting honors. Its alumni, living and dead, are already numbered by tens of thousands. Its campus is broader than the continent.

This grandest of theological seminaries is the Methodist Episcopal Church. From the beginning this Church has deliberately and intelligently undertaken the work of such a seminary. At the outset she proposed to educate her own ministers, and in her own way. She developed her system with the same wise reference to providential circumstances which distinguished her in other departments of Christian effort. As soon as thoroughly elaborated it was formally incorporated into the law of the Church. This was done by the General Conference of 1816. At that time, when as yet there was but one theological seminary in the whole land, the Methodist Episcopal Church instructed her highest dignitaries to elaborate and prescribe a uniform and appropriate course of theological study for all her candidates. She charged another class of officers, scattered throughout the entire connection, to see that the curriculum was mastered. She provided for annual examinations, and enacted a law that no student could be graduated, and receive the parchment of deacon or elder, until he should have passed the prescribed examinations in a manner satisfactory to the authorities. Those enactments of 1816 have remained almost unchanged in the law-book of the Church from that day to this. * In theory they cover every feature of

* "It shall be the duty of the bishops, or of a committee which they may appoint, at each Annual Conference, to point out a course of reading and study proper to be pursued by candidates for the ministry; and the presiding elder, whenever such are presented to him, shall direct them to those studies which have been thus recommended. And before any such candidate is received into full connection he shall give satisfactory evidence respecting his knowledge of those particular subjects which have been recommended to his consideration." Discipline, 1816.

In the edition of 1868 these enactments are found in the following form. 1. The

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