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action, for, by jingo ! instead of answering your In a word, the door opened outwards. I'd forquestion, they go and ask you one. And that makes gotten that peculiarity-ne

-never having had a room me so mad. Oh, they’re a very dense race, those so constituted before—and never will again. The Yorkshire people.

door went open with a crash, and I bounded backWhy, to open the safe, you stupid,' said I. wards into Mrs Markby's arms. Smelling-salts • Where is he?'

and sal volatile, was there ever such an untoward "Don't ye know ?' says she.

affair! 'Know ?' I cried in a rage. What should I ask Rum-tid-itimity-tum-de-de! The music struct you for, if I did know?'

up for the dances as I hopped back into my rooin. *Didn't thau know he were at thai house ?' I hid my head among the bolsters and muffs

, and Ah! so he was. I'd nearly forgotten that he almost cried ; for I'm such a delicate-minded man. was one of the guests at my wife's party. Clearly, Yes, it hurt me a good deal more than it did Mrs I couldn't get the safe open, and I didn't like to Markby, for, would you believe it?-she told the leave the money in my desk, so I put it in my pantomimic action--and when I shewed myself

down below to the whole company, with

story pocket, and took it home, thinking I'd give it to at the door of the drawing-room, I was received Cousins with my key, to put it in the safe when with shouts of inextinguishable laughter! he returned.

I think I called the Yorkshire people dense A nice mess I got into when I reached home; just now, didn't I? Well, I'll add another epithet for you see it had been arranged that I was to go

-coarse-dense and coarse. I told 'em so; but up-stairs and dress before anybody came ; and that they only laughed the more. then our room was to be made ready for the ladies

The guests were gone, the lights were out, to take their bonnets off-for they were not all into my brain, starting me up as if I'd been shot


slumber had just visited' my eyes, when right carriage-people. Well, you never saw such a thing! came à noise, a sort of dull bursting noise. I When I got home and crept up-stairs to dress-the wasn't really certain at first whether I had heard people had all come, so the servant said—there a noise or only dreamed of it. I sat up in bed and were six muffs, and four bonnets, and five pork-pie listened intently. Was it only my pulse thumping hats, and half-a-dozen shawls on the bed ; and one in my ears, or were those regular beats, the tramp lady had left her everyday curls hanging over the of somebody's muffled feet? Then I heard an looking-glass! Upon my word, I really didn't unmistakable sound-creak, creak, creak–a door like to perform my toilet among all these feminine being opened slowly and cautiously. All in a gear; and there was no lock to the door ; and my two thousand pounds. You see, all this dancing

moment the idea flashed into my head-Tuventydress-clothes were all smothered up amongst these and junketing, and laughing and chaffing, had mufis and things. But I got through pretty well, completely driven out of my mind all thought of and had just got one of my legs into my trousers, the large sum I had in my possession. I had left when bang-atrop-dop-dop! such a rattle at the it in my greatcoat pocket, which was hanging up knocker, and I heard my wife scuttling away into in the hall, down-stairs. the hall . They were the Markbys, our trump-rattling the doors and windows ; and then I hean

Puff! a gust of wind came through the house, cards, who kept their own carriage, and every

a door slam, and a footstep outside of some one thing grand.

stealing cautiously away. “So kind of you, dear!' said my wife, kissing Away down-stairs I went like a madman, my Mrs Markby most affectionately; I could hear the one thought to put my hand on that greatcoat

. It reports where I stood.

was a brown greatcoat with long tails, and two "So delighted! Really, how nicely, how beauti- pockets behind, and a little cash-pocket on the leftfully you arrange everything! I can't have things hand side in front, and this breast-pocket in which so nice, with all my servants and '--

I had put the bag of money. This pocket wasn't

, * Run up-stairs, dear, do!' said my wife ; ‘you There was no other coat hanging on those rails

as is usual, on the left-hand side, but on the right. know the room—my room, right-hand at the top only my wife's waterproof. What a swoop I made of the stairs.

to get hold of that coat! Great heavens! it was I heard a flutter of female wings on the stairs. gone! What was I to do? If I could have managed the door before I went to bed—now it was unfastened,

I had carefully barred and chained the front other leg, I wouldn't have minded, but I couldn't. I ran out into the street, and looked up and I hadn't worn those dress-things for a good while, down, hopeless and bewildered. It was a darks and I don't get any thinner as I grow older

. damp night; the lamp at the corner threw a long No, for the life of me, I couldn't dispose of that sickly ray down the streaming pavement

, but there other leg at such short notice. What could I do? wasn't a soul to be seen. Everything was stil, and I could only rush to the door, and set my back cold and dark. against it. Did I tell you this was our house- The money was clean gone-yes, it was some warming party ? I think not. Did I tell you our I repeated these words mechanically to myself

, as landlord had altered the house for us, making our

I crawled up-stairs. All the results of this los bedroom larger by adding a slip that had formed from the bank, ruin of all my prospects, utter Freising

pictured themselves clearly before medismisa a separate room? I think not. And yet I ought in fact? What could I do? to what turn ? The to have told you all these circumstances, to enable blow that had fallen upon me was so you to understand the catastrophe that followed. sudden, that it had benumbed ny faculties Up

heart and






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chief desire was, to crawl into bed, and fall asleep, I said I didn't know.
hoping never to wake. But morning would come, Ah, but I know,' said the superintendent. “You
surely enough-morning and its attendant miseries. went to get a glass of ale after you left the bank,

Then the thought came to me: Should I go to bed young man?'
and say nothing at all about it No one knew of I was obliged to confess I had done so.
my having received that money, not a soul but •That's how property gets stolen,' said he, look-
Black, the man who had deposited it. I had given ing at me severely. And what's more, you had a
no receipt for it, no acknowledgment. Black had glass with a friend ?--Ah! I knew you had. And
gone to America—a hundred things might happen perhaps you got talking to this friend of yours?'
--he might never return : at all events, here was Yes, indeed I had.'
respite, immediate relief. I could go to the bank Very well; and mentioned about the money
next morning, hang up my hat as usual, everything you'd just took ?'
would go on as before. If Black returned, my * Very likely
word was as good as his. The notes and cheques "Then this Joe, depend upon it, was in the crib
could never be traced home. But I don't think at the time, and he heard you ; and he followed
I retained this thought long. Do you ever con- you back to the bank; and you haven't got blinds,
sider how much resolution and force of will it takes but a wire-netting over the window, and anybody
to initiate a course of crime and deception? I'd outside can see you counting out the gold and
neither the one nor the other: I should have silver.'
broken down at once. I couldn't have met that “That's true,' I said.
fellow's eye and told him I had never had his 'Yes ; I see it all,' said the superintendent ; “just

as Joe saw it. He follows you up from here to I woke my wife--she'd slept through all the yonder, and he sees you put your money into your trouble. Mary,' I said, 'we're ruined—there's coat-pocket, and then he follows you home, and been a robbery.

when all's quiet, he cracks the crib. Oh, it's all • A robbery !' cried she, clasping her hands; and in a nutshell; and that's how property goes. And are the men gone?'

then you come to the police.' “Yes,' I said.

But if you know it's Joe, why don't you send "Oh, thank Heaven,' she said, 'then we're safe ! after him and catch him ?? Never mind the rest, Jack, as long as our lives are Oh, we know our own business, sir ; you leave safe. But there's my waterproof, Jack-oh! do run it all to us ; we shall have Joe tight enough, if not and see if they've taken that.'

for this job, anyhow for the next.

We'll give Then I told her the story of the twenty-two him a bit of rope,

like. thousand pounds. She wouldn't believe me at I couldn't put any fire into the man, do what first; but when she heard the whole story, she was I could : he was civil, that is for a Yorkshireman ; frightened enough. Yet she had wits about her impassive; he'd do what was right. Il given more than I had.

the information ; very well, all the rest was his • You must run off to the town-hall, Jack,' she business. said, ' and set the police to work. They must tele- So I came home miserable, despairing. It was graph to all the stations, to London, and every- just daylight by this time, and as I opened the where! Oh, do go at oncé, Jack, this very moment. shutters, the debris of our feast was revealed : the Every second lost may be ruin to us.'

lees of the lobster salad, the picked bones of the Away I went to the town-hall. This was a big, chickens, the melted residuum of the jellies ; classic place, with an immense portico and a huge whilst about everything hung the faint smell of flight of steps ; but you didn't go into the portico sour wine. I sat down amid all this wretched to get to the police office, but to the side, which mess, and leaned my head on my arms in dull, wasn't classical at all, but of the rudimentary style miserable lethargy. Then I sprang up, and as I of architecture, and you went along a number of did so I caught sight of myself in the lookingechoing stone passages before you reached the glass. Good heavens! was this wretched, hangsuperintendent's office.

dog fellow myself? Did a few hours' misery When I'd told the superintendent the story, change a man like this? Why, I was a very felon "Ah,' he said, “I think I know who did that job.' in appearance ; and so I should be thought to be.

“Oh,' said 'I, “how thankful I am! Then you who would believe this story of a robbery? Why, can put your hands upon him and get back the the police didn't believe in it, else they'd have money. I want the money back, Mr Superintend- taken a different tone. No; I should be looked ent: never mind him. I wouldn't mind, indeed, upon as a thief by all the world. rewarding him for his trouble, if I could only get Then my wife came down-stairs, and, with a few the money back.'

touches, restored a little order and sanity, both to “Sir!' said the superintendent severely, 'the outward matters and my

mind. She brought me police ain't sent into the world to get people's some coffee and an egg and some bread and butter, money back. Nothing of the sort; we aren't going and after I had eaten and drunk, I didn't feel quite to encourage composition of felony; and as for so bad. putting our hands on Flashy Joe, for he did the 'Jack,' she said, you must go to London at job, mark you-well, what do you think the liberty once, and see the directors. Have the first word, of the subject is for ? Where's your evidence ?' and tell them all about it all the particulars. It

I was obliged to confess I hadn't any ; whereat was only a little bit of carelessness, after all, and the superintendent looked at me contemptuously. perhaps they 'll look over it.


'' * Now, let's see into this matter,' said he, after “Yes ; that's all very well,' I said. “But how he'd made some notes on a bit of paper. "How am I to get there? I've got no money. This came they to know you'd got the money in your wretched party has cleared us right out.' coat ?'

· Borrow some of Cousins.' le

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• He asked me to lend him a sovereign last night, have been a rich-though perhaps a miserable and and I couldn't.'

insecure-man, and I should have been utterly Now, you 'll say: "Here's a man without and deservedly ruined.

Why didn't he pawn his watch ?' To tell you the truth, that is what I had done the week before, and the money was all gone. Then, under

CIVILISATION IN JAPAN. these circumstances, you 'll add, “it was immoral to One of the most remarkable features of the revolugive a party. But, you'll bear in mind, the invi- tion in Japan is the desire exhibited by this once tations had been out for a fortnight, and then we exclusive people for works describing the manners were in funds. • Well, Jack,' said my wife, you must get the this kind of information, if not created by the

and customs of European nations. Their thirst for man—the P. B.—to give you some more money on the watch. Sell it him right out. It must be government, has been cordially encouraged by worth at least ten pounds, for it cost thirty, and them. Five hundred students, at a cost to the you've only had five upon it. Sell the ticket.' nation of at least one hundred thousand pounds a

Yes; but where was the ticket? Why, in the year, are sent to America and Europe, to study the little cash-pocket of my brown greatcoat. Still, I languages and institutions of the (to theni) barhad heard, that if you'd lost a ticket, you could make barians. The peculiar features of our mode of the man give you another; and Brooks, the pawn- government, religion, and arts will be minutely broker, was å respectable fellow, who, perhaps, investigated by the members of the important

, would help me out of my difficulty. I went to him embassy now in this country, and if their workanyhow, on my way to the station. I felt like a ing is considered satisfactory, will be reproduced ticket-of-leave man as I went into his shop, but I in their own. In the meantime, reform proceeds put a good face upon it.

rapidly in Japan. A railway has been made from Brooks,' I said, that watch-you know the Yokohama to Shinagawa, and was opened in ticket-it's stolen.'

June last; gas will shortly be laid at Yokohama; Brooks gave a most portentous wink. He was a a suspension-bridge is in course of erection at slow-speeched man, with a red face, and a tre- Yedo ; and last, not least, the Mikado is said to be mendous corporation.

considering the establishment of a new religion. Nay,' he says, ' my lad ; thou ’rt wrong there. We propose, in the present paper, considering

What do you mean?' I said, colouring up some recent Japanese works, translations of portions furiously. Every one suspected me, it seemed. of which are 'entombed ’in a blue-book published

• Whoi, it might ha' been stolen once, but it about two years ago. Perhaps an apolo.y is aren't now; ’ave got it here. This is how it were. needed for noticing a work issued at such a date; A cadging sort o chap comes in, and he says: but the interesting character of its contents, and • Master, what'll you give me for this here ticket?” | the little notice taken of it at the time, must be Now, you know the hact don't allow us to give our excuse. We look upon Japan as one of the nought in that kind of way, but I says to the chap: countries of the future. The people are chivalrous * Let's have a look at it ;" and then I saw it was and brave, and though they are not so keen in yours, and I said to the man: My lad, you aren't commercial questions as the Chinese, possess adcome honest by this."

mirable qualities. The fact that their great feudal ' And you gave him into custody, he's in prison? princes, the Daimios, gave up the whole of their Old Brooks, what a capital fellow you are !! hereditary dignities and possessions to the Mikalo,

* Nay," he said; “I knowed better nor that. Do shews this, and is an example of self-abnegation you think I'd hexpose a customer? I know you for the good of country unparalleled in history

, gents don't care about these little matters getting The wonderful powers of imitation possessed by abroad ; and so I slaps my fist on the counter, and the Japanese is shewn by the fact, that they conI says: “ Hook it !" just like that. And away he structed a steamboat with capital engines from the went like a lamp-lighter.'

description in a Dutch book; while the beautiful I sank down on the counter, overpowered with articles recently exhibited in the Duke of Elinemotion.

burgh's collection at the South Kensington Vuzenin, * And what's more,' went on Brooks, he never manifest the marvellous delicacy of their lacker took the money I'd lent him for the coat.' and other decorative work. ( What coat ?' I cried.

The first document of importance for our pur“A very nice brown coat he put up with me. pose in the blue-book above referred to is a trans, About fit you, I should think. See, here it is.' lation by Mr A. B. Mitford of a government

It was my identical brown greatcoat, wrapped up treatise on Politics and Religion published to the in a bundle

, and tied round with my own hand people. This is a passage from it! • We have said kerchief. I made a dart at it, opened it, plunged that the institutions of the country of the gols my hand into the breast-pocket-there was the excel those of other countries.

The heavenly roll of money, there were the twenty-two thousand ancestors of the emperor of old created this pounds.

country, and established the duties of men in How did I go to the bank that morning, on legs their mutual relations. Since that time, the line or wings ? And how did I get home, as soon as I of emperors has ne

been changed. Generata a had put the money safe away? Mary knew by has succeeded generation in the rule of this my face it was all right; and didn't we have a country, and the imperial heart has ever betina dance of joy all round the house!

penetrated by a tender love for the people. La My burglar had only been a sort of sneak, after their turn, the people have reverenced and serre! all, who got in at an open window, and bolted with generation after generation of emperors

. In for the spoils of the hall; but if he had taken the countries, the lines of princes have been frequenter pains to look into the pockets of the coat, he'd changed; the people owe their sovereign a debi





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of gratitude which extends over two or three of its armies ; each and every one strives to invent generations ; the relations of sovereign and sub- warlike contrivances. But in spite of all this, ject last for a hundred or two hundred years; the there is a great principle existing over all the prince of yesterday is the foe of to-day, the world which prevents civilised countries from minister of yesterday is the rebel of to-morrow. being lightly and lawlessly attacked. This prinIn our country we have no such folly. Since the ciple is called international law. How much the creation of the world, we have remained unmoved; more, then, would our divine country, the institusince the creation of the world, the imperial line tions of which excel those of all other countries, has been unchanged, and the relations of sovereign be turning her back upon the sacred precepts and subject have been undisturbed ; hence it is established by the heavenly ancestors of the that the spirit of gratitude_has intensified, and emperor, should she be guilty of violent and lawgrown deeper and deeper. The especial point in less acts. Such a thing would be the greatest which the institutions of our country excel those shame and disgrace to the country of the gods. of the rest of the world, is the creed which has Hence it is that the emperor has extended a faithbeen established by the heavenly ancestors of the ful alliance to those foreigners who come here lawemperor, and which comprises the mutual duties fully and rightly, and they are allowed free and between lord and servant. Even in foreign uninterrupted access to this country, Following countries where lords and servants have over and this example set by the emperor, his subjects, over again changed places, these mutual duties are when they receive no insult from the foreigner, handed down as a matter of weighty importance. should observe the same principle, and refrain How much the more does it behove us to pay a from blows and fighting. If by any chance we debt of deep and inexhaustible gratitude which should be put to shame before the foreigner, it is extends over ages.'

hard to say what consequences may ensue.' To this This long duration of the Japanese form of we may fittingly append two out of seventeen subgovernment makes it all the more wonderful that jects of inquiry respecting foreign relations issued the nation should have entered with such spirit by the Japanese Foreign Office. into the scheme of reform. We must remember, "From ancient times till the present day, the as a writer in Blackwood (September) reminded us, question of opening or closing the country has that this is a country whose written history been a frequent theme of debate. Are the barstretches in an uninterrupted tale over 2532 years, barians birds or beasts, with whom we ought not whose sovereigns have fornied one unbroken dynasty to associate? Or seeing that our country is not since 660 B.C., whose first ruler of the still reign- really rich and strong, should we take of their ing family was contemporary with Nebuchad- surplus to supply our deficiencies, and then sweep

and Tullus Hostilius, whose present them away? Or shall we change our teaching emperor is the 122d of his race, and whose prin- altogether to the Western fashion, opening schools ciples of action have remained virtually unchanged for the acquisition of Western accomplishments, for five-and-twenty centuries.'

and mastering the arts of gunnery and of ship* Remember with reverence,' says the govern- building, and when we have done this, drive them ment treatise, that there was once an emperor utterly from the country? Or shall we cut the who in the cold winter night stripped off his clothes barbarians down? All sorts of schemes of this that he might know by his own feelings the suffer- nature have been debated down to the present day. ings of the poor.' Mr Mitford says this refers to If Japan is to be opened, shall we keep up our an anecdote of the Emperor Ichijô (tenth century foreign relations as they at present exist, or shall A.D.), as related in the Kokushi Riyaku, or abridged we place them upon a new and different footHistory of Japan. One cold night, the emperor, ing?' his heart full of pity and mercy, stripped off his • The object of the treaties between Japan and clothes. The Enipress Jôtô, astonished at this, the other countries was to promote friendship and asked the reason. The emperor answered and commerce between our people and foreigners. For said : “ The season is now cold ; I think of the the last few years, foreign countries have vied with poor who are naked. How can I bear that I alone one another in sending their fleets and soldiers to should be covered and warm ?” The Emperor reside in Japan for the protection of their people ; Ichijô was distinguished for his knowledge and love should any trouble arise, they will send out their of letters, and excelled in poetry and music. Five troops in a moment to protect the different places copies of this treatise were distributed to every at which they reside. At the present moment kôri, or parochial subdivision of every province there are some three thousand British troops here. in the country. With what astonishment many of The next in numbers to these are the French. the people must have read the following remark- The American and other countries have only their able passage, issued with the authority of the fleets. As yet, our illustrious and divine country unchanging descendant of celestial persons : 'Now has not been brought into contempt before the the spirit of the present differs from the spirit of foreigner; the present danger is lest we should the past. The countries of the world have joined call upon ourselves that contempt.' themselves in a relation of peace and friendship. We regret to hear that the parliament estabSteamers are sent round the world heedless of lished some time ago has been abandoned. It had stormy waves or of foul winds. The communica- not legislative power, but the debates were extion between lands distant ten thousand miles tremely interesting, judging from the specimens from one another is as that between neighbours ; given in the blue-book. These indicated the country competes with country in producing rifles, change taking place in the thoughts of the people and guns, and machinery; and each revolves plans respecting their foreign relations. From the report for its own advantage and profit. Each vies with of a debate on partnerships with foreigners, we the other in devising schemes to obtain the take the following opinions, though by no means mastery ; each exerts itself to keep up the strength singular in themselves, of three members :






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Ghimotsu Gonnai.-I am in favour of partner- Sakada Hakusa.—The seppuku has its origin ships in trade, but I think that stringent rules in the sacred vital energy of this divine country, should first be drawn up, in order to insure the and is the shrine of the Japanese national spirit punishment of fraudulent persons.'

(Yamato-spirit). Unquestionably, it should not Hamuro Raisuke.—“This is a matter of pressing be prohibited. Its practice should be extended, importance. We ought at once to establish and by this means a sense of shame fostered, and Japanese firms in foreign countries, and open a the seppuku should be made famous throughout flourishing commerce. This is the foundation of a the world, as an example of devotion to principle

. wealthy country.'

It ought to be introduced into our criminal code Shiga Rissaburô.—'I believe that a measure per- as the form of capital punishment for those abore mitting our merchants to go abroad and enter into the rank of Samurai.? mixed partnerships with foreigners, would be a But the ancient religion of Japan is that called means of restoring the broken fortunes of our Kami-no-mitsi—the doctrine of the Kamis

, or gods

. country.'

It is now generally called Sintoo, which is a It appears from recent reports that suicide is Chinese translation of the Japanese term. Ama going out of fashion in Japan. A debate in the terasu-kani, the goddess of the sun, occupies the parliament about three years ago, October 8, 1869, highest place in Japanese veneration, and the shewed that the members were not prepared to Mikado is believed to be descended from her. introduce any change in the law then, for three We begin our notice of the Japanese pamphlet, members only in a house of two hundred and nine Fuku Ko Ron (or, Return to the Ancient Régiine), could be found to vote for the abolition of suicide. by quoting its concluding paragraph. "On the When a member of the two-sworded class, or night of the 1st of the 8th month, at an inn in Samurai, commits a crime, a message is sent that Kioto Shushû, a retired Samurai indited this he is permitted to kill himself by disembowelling, rambling work. At the time, the autumn rains which custom is called the harakiri or seppuku. were not yet over, and the light of his lamp was It seems that the practice was considered so burning dim, and his spirits—for he was a solitary honourable that many men committed it without traveller-were disturbed. He fears that in its waiting the imperial permission, and this was con- pages are many errors and imperfections, which sidered' highly improper. The clerk of the house he entreats the indulgent reader to overlook.' The had very sensibly put the question before the object of the work is to shew that the restoration delegates in this manner : 'It should be remarked of power to the Mikado was the natural conse that most two-sworded men who commit seppuku quence of a general demand for reformation conare men of parts, and with a strong sense of shame. sequent on the inefficient condition into which It is needless to say that if such men repented, and, the administration of the Shôgun had fallen. It urged by an indignant sense of their errors, is as well to remember that the office of Shoun, employed their talents industriously, they would or Tycoon-as Europeans generally call him—has do their country good service; but, in my opinion, been abolished, and the Mikado reigns alone. death for a fault or two of doubtful character, at 'It is popularly argued,' says the writer of the the same time blocks up the way of self-examina- pamphlet, that the empire cannot be governed by tion to the individual, and is at variance with the the emperor for any length of time. This lanimperial plans for the national prosperity. I think guage, held only by men who, unable to read the advantage ought to be taken of the present reform signs of the times, imagine that the spirit of every of the government to prohibit this practice. The age is the same, betrays an utter absence of obeermembers thought differently, and recorded their vation and thought. I shall briefly set forth the votes as we have said. Let us transcribe one or historical aspect of the question. In the first two speeches.

place, then, passing over the age of the gods, from Kaji Matarayemon.— It may seem at first sight the commencement of the human epoch till the an immoral act to die without awaiting the judge's present day, about two thousand five hundred sentence, but this does not proceed from a con- years have elapsed. For about six hundred and tempt for authority. The commission of the eighty years of that period, the government has seppuku is owing to a natural sense of shame been carried on by the military class. During the being deeply rooted in the heart. It is a national rest of the time, that is to say, for nearly two eustom founded on what is due to the national thousand years, the Mikado, without the intersense of justice, and to Japan as a nation. It may vention of the military class

, has had the entire be proper to prohibit the seppuku in cases where conduct of the administration. Yet, in the face of no legal sentence has been pronounced, but if the this fact, we are told, forsooth, that the Mikado law constituting it a punishment for two-sworded cannot govern the empire! In support of this men be not maintained, the distinction between assertion, the events of (the era of) Genko (1331 them and the common people will be obliterated.' to 1336 A.D.) are adduced.

Karube Itsinja. — A speedy death by seppuku, government having reverted to the hands of the resulting from remorse for crime, is a means of Mikado, was, after a very short interval (about avoiding the pain of disgrace ; how can it be said three years), again wrested from him by Ashikaga to be a contempt of the criminal law? how, on the one of the Shôguns). But, in truth, this anuother hand, can it be styled an expiation of guilt ? ment is a most unfortunate one ; for on that ocido By death, the criminal barely restores himself to sion the return to the old system originated in the his position as a human being. If he lives, he is will of the Mikado himself, and was in no deze a scoundrel ; but if he dies, he, for the first time, brought about by the opinion of his subjecit manifests a sense of shame. To prohibit the Hence, when his majesty faltered for a moment " seppuku would be to choose the public path of his resolution, the government was at once or honour, and throw open the private path of sumed by the military class ; whereas the pret scoundrelism,

return to the ancient rule is

, both in its origin le


At that period, the


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