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horse-block—it had been the base of the village reward at all, it belongs to me, to say nothing of cross langsyne—whilst Owen, the crier, after ring- your being the richest man in Caerinion, and I ing his bell three times, announced in sonorous only a poor parson.” accents that a “Sais' had been lost on the Sarn But Winny Rowlands now descended into the Helen, and that, if brought to Mr Rowlands' house cave, and put a stop to the squabble as to the alive, a reward of a hundred pounds would be paid. reward.
'Cant punt!'* exclaimed the Hen Doctor, who How shall we get him out of this ?' she cried. stood loafing there with his hands buried in his Owen, run and bring your dog-cart ; there is & pockets. 'Yah! where will he get the money? track almost all the way. If we take out the seat, Yah! it will break the bank; yes, by Jupiter.' and let him lie on the bottom, it will be better than
'Doctor,' said a sweet voice behind him, “you putting him in the carriage, where he would be all must come with me in the carriage now, at once. doubled up. Come, Owen. -Come, doctor!' I am going to look for the poor young Englishman, and we should have a doctor at hand.' •Cant punt, cant punt !' the doctor muttered to
THE MONTH: himself.—I'll go, Miss Winny; yes, by Jupiter.'
SCIENCE AND ARTS.
a communication to the Royal Society, which is But that it eats our victuals, I should think
well worth the attention of all who are interested Here were a fairy.
in navigation. It is, On the Present Amount of “Who are you, and what are you doing here ?' | Great Britain, and its Annual Changes
. This mag
Westerly Magnetic Declination on the Coasts of said Owen, sitting upright, and looking at the man netic declination is commonly known as variation who was groaning. Water you want, do you? of the compass, that is, the amount by which the How will I get any down here? Where do you keep compass needle varies from the true north. At it? Have you a cask of bragat here, or any present, the variation is to the west of north, and mead? Are you a Roman, perhaps, or one of the Captain Evans, taking his facts from recent AdmirGwylliaid Cochion,t and have you been here a
ty surveys, makes known that the rate of varihundred years, or more, perhaps?
ation is rapidly increasing, and is greatest in “I'm an Englishman, said a faint husky voice. amount in the highest latitudes ; for example
, "I've had a fali, and am dying, and I want water, on the north-east coast of Scotland, and thence to water !!
the Shetland Islands. This being the case, it is His voice was lost in the gurgle in his throat ; clear that the compass-bearings, as laid dowz on and Owen, recalled to the actual existing world, charts and sailing directions, must be rectified, if began to look about him, to see if he could find ships and seamen are to escape disaster. Of course any water. There was in one corner a small well
, the Admiralty will take care that charts properly inclosed by shaped stones, full to the brim with corrected shall be published; and Captain Evans clear, cold, pellucid water. He brought some water in the palms of his hands, and moistened the paper, with a chart corrected up to January 1872, lips and bathed the face of the man who was lying Transactions, so that mariners may provide them
will be printed in due time in the Philosophical there.
selves with safe guides. * Thank you, thank you! Now,
if you could
The variation, as above mentioned, is not only move me so that my weight shall not fall upon greater in the north than in the south, but is this arm, which is crushed underneath me.
greater in the east than in the west ; thus shewing ah!'
a difference on all our coasts. We may perhaps Gerard Robertson groaned with pain, but, placed remark further, that the westerly variation is now, in a more easy position, his arm straightened out, and has been for some time, decreasing: the needle his back supported by a stone, began to feel more is going back to the north and east, whence, in comfortable—almost happy. Was there not plenty the next century, another mysterious oscillation of water to be had now? No longer would he be will bring it back to the west. tormented with the trickle of the stream he could
The new Society of Telegraph Engineers have not reach. • What may your name be, young man ?' said the progress of telegraphy as a science and as an
commenced the publication of a Journal, in which Owen after he had tended him, and where do you art will be duly recorded. The first number CODcome from?'
tains a paper on Automatic Telegraphs by Mr R. My name is Gerard Robertson.' •Cant punt yrvovr !' (A hundred pound reward.) of general interest. Without the automatic appar
S. Culley, from which we gather a few particulars *I've found him, Miss Winny, bach. Cant punt !! atus, it would be impossible to supply the inforshouted a voice above their heads. A moment mation required by newspapers all over the kingafter, a dark ungainly form came sliding down the dom. From the central station in London as many loose gravel into the cave. • Hollo! Owen, are
as 400,000 words are transmitted in a single night, you lost too in the mountains ! Diaoul ! I'll find and through five or six stations simultaneously
, you for nothing, as you're such an old friend ; but whereby it happens that the quantity of matte I'll have a hundred pounds for finding the young telegraphed is equal to a thousand columns of the Sais. Think of that, Owen, bach.'
Times. All this is accomplished while one half "I found him first, cried Owen. "If there 's a of the world are asleep. The rate of transmissito
varies : to Aberdeen, it is 60 woris a minute; to A hundred pounds.
Sunderland, 90; while to Manchester, Liverpool, + 'Red' banditti, or wild men who flourished among the mountains temp. Henry VIII.—the tradition of and Cardiff, it is 120. The messages are punched whom is still existing.
in strips or ribbons of paper, and these can be
THE MONTH : SCIENCE AND ARTS.
multiplied to any extent when pressure of news- never take place while coal is cheap. And some paper work requires. The punching of the strips among those savants believe that the time will is greatly facilitated by the use of a pneumatic come when practical men will be able to precipiapparatus, in which the levers are struck by pistons tate sound, and so at once get rid of all the treactuated by compressed air. Three keys like those mendous noises that annoy a great city. As Voltaire of a pianoforte open the valves, and the touch is said, ' les jeunes gens verront de belles choses.' so light that three or four ribbons can be per- Mr C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., who ranks among the forated at the rate of forty words a minute by a foremost of electricians and mechanical engineers, female clerk. Expedition is, of course, the object has lately shewn that the steain-jet hitherto used kept in view; and it is satisfactory to learn on only to quicken the fire in a steam-engine, is good authority that it is 'one great point with capable of improvement, and applicable to many Mr Scudamore, and those engaged in the manage- useful purposes. The efficiency of the jet depends ment of the Post-office Telegraphs, that anybody on peculiarities in the construction of a tube which going into a telegraph office could feel sure that cannot be popularly described in few words ; his message would be forwarded for delivery within suffice it, that the steam rushes forth as a ring five minutes. It is worthy of note that more than enveloping a core of air, and this, with steam of twelve million messages were sent in the year only three atmospheres' effective pressure, will ending March last.
exhaust air as thoroughly as an air-pump. The jet In the working of the telegraph, some curious occupies but little space, and is moderate in cost, facts have been observed. A message sent through and therefore can be used in many places where land-lines and an undersea cable travels quicker an air-pump would be too bulky or too expento the place which has the long land-line than to sive. The Pneumatic Despatch Tube by which dethe shorter. From Amsterdam to London, a signal spatches are sent underground from the City to is transmitted at greater speed than in the reverse Charing Cross, is in the whole of its circuit nearly direction; the reason being, that on the English four miles long. The engine and air-pump by side there is a wire of one hundred and thirty which the tube was worked cost three thousand miles, then a cable of one hundred and twenty, pounds; three of the steam-jets now do the same and on the Dutch side a wire of twenty miles. work, and maintain so good a vacuum, that the This difference, however, can be rectified by a carriers' in which the despatches are inclosed scientific contrivance. Another fact arrived at by travel at the rate of nearly fifteen miles an hour. observation is, that on wires stretched east and west By adapting the jet to a double chamber and the speed is decreased every day about noon. The exhausting the air, Mr Siemens shews that water cause, we are informed, is not clear ; but it is can be raised as readily as by pumping. The supposed to be due to the diurnal variation in chambers are so constructed that as the one earth-currents.
empties the other fills, and so the flow of water It is a fact worth knowing that gutta-percha is continuous. The contrivances made use of for decays rapidly, and becomes brittle and porous economising power and multiplying effect are when dry and exposed to the light, but under singularly ingenious ; and to prevent the noise water appears to undergo no change whatever. that would be occasioned by the combined jet of Gutta-percha sunk in the sea for twenty years steam and air rushing from the open top of the hews no sign of decay, which must be regarded as delivery funnel of the exhauster, a sound-killer' a condition in which nature comes to the aid of is placed on the top: This sound-killer is a mechanical and electrical science.
cylindrical metal vessel, containing a series of perMany attempts have been made to devise a tell- forated wooden diaphragms, which have the effect tale to shew whether a watchman has gone his of deadening noise. Have we in this a step towards rounds faithfully during the night; but not many the precipitation of sound above referred to? Here have succeeded. Among the latest and best is the the question arises, could not railway companies one now in use at the Penitentiary, Lausanne, have sound-killers fixed to the locomotives that invented by Mr Cauderoy, which effects its object roar so intolerably while waiting at a station ? by electricity. A disk of paper, divided into In any case where exhaustion is required, the twelve hours, is set in movement by clockwork. jet may be employed with advantage, and already A number of electro-magnets are fixed in front of the manufacturers of sugar see that it will render the disk, and these are connected in the usual way them profitable service in evaporating cane-juice with buttons or keys placed in different parts of when in the vacuum-pans. There can be no doubt the building. These buttons indicate stations on that it will be largely made use of in the West the watchman's round, and he is expected to push Indies, where its simplicity will recommend it to a each one as he passes it. The push excites the population unaccustomed to complicated machinery. electro-magnet, and releases a pricker, which starts It will also be used for separating the molasses from forward and makes a hole in the paper disk. This the sugar; and thus supersede the present exmay
be placed in any part of the building ; pensive and troublesome process.-Another appliin the inspector's office or governor's room ; con- cation of the jet is in the production of gas sequently, any neglect or evasion on the part of the for heating purposes : the blast is admitted under watchman is immediately detected.
the fire-place, and with such economy, that coalSome of our scientific men are of opinion that dust of the most inferior quality can be used, while, good will arise out of the high price of coal, in- all other things being equal
, the production of gas asmuch as invention will thereby be stimulated to is doubled, and its quality improved. seek other means of lighting and warming.
In the discussion that followed the reading of they say, were ten pounds a ton, a way would soon Mr Siemens' paper before a meeting of the Institube found of concentrating caloric, and of having tion of Mechanical Engineers, suggestion was made good fires in the middle of a room, free from smoke that the jet could be used to draw off the noxious or noxious gases. But it is clear that this can dust in Sheffield grinding establishments, and in
exhausting the foul air from the lower part of ships. will draw a train twice as heavy, screwed tightly If the foul air is sucked out, fresh air must of up, and make no difficulty of starting, even up an necessity find its way in.
incline. The Iquique Railway in Peru, by which Authors who have been accustomed to indulge nitrate of soda is brought down to the coast
, is full in funny remarks about the slowness of the bucolic of sharp curves, and ascends for eleven miles I foot mind will now have to change their note, for, as in 25, and I foot in 28. Yet the Fairlie engine was exemplified by the recent agricultural gather- pulls up a load of one hundred and eighty tons at ing at Cardiff, the farmers are by no means slow in ten miles an hour, and the wagons which carry making use of the best implements and machines seven and a half tons of the mineral weigh not for the cultivation of their land, to say nothing of more than two and a half tons. A calculation has their persevering endeavours after improved breeds been made that three million pounds sterling could of horses, sheep, and cattle. At the gathering be saved every year in the transport of coal to referred to, a twin wagon was exhibited, which is London by the use of the Fairlie ; and any one eighteen inches lower, and will carry a one half who will take into account the saving of weight, of greater load than an ordinary wagon, with the further material, of time, of drivers and other train-seradvantage, that it will travel equally well in either vants, may verify the calculation. At a tiine when direction, and has a tipping movement for unload- coal is alarmingly dear, and likely to be dearer, it ing. Other wagons, to be used with a traction is eminently worthy of consideration. engine, are so constructed that they can be unloaded Another solution for the vexed question of sewon either side, or behind, or through the bottom, age has been offered by General Scott, whose name whereby labour will be saved and business facili- is well known in connection with the Albert Hall tated. A potato-digger was shewn combining a and other works at South Kensington. The general ridge-plough with revolving forks which pick out explained his views and his method to a meeting the potatoes, and thus do the work commonly done of competent persons, held at the residence of the by women and children.-An improved drill is so Duke of Sutherland, and from these it appears constructed that it will deposit one, two, or three that he proposes to perfectly clarify the liquid part seeds at pleasure, and the economy thereby effected of sewage before discharging it. upon
land or into is such that in sowing seeds of mangel-wurzel a river; and the solid part or ‘sludge' he would (which the British farmer persists in calling man- treat by a chemical process, and burn it into lime gold), there is a saving of eight pounds out of each or cement. The general holds that the chief manten pounds of seed commonly required, with the urial value of sewage passes off with the liquid, and further saving of the labour of chopping out sur- that the advantage of converting the worthless plus plants with the hoe. The thatch-making solid into good and valuable lime or cenient is machine which we noticed some months ago has therefore the greater ; and he points to worka at been improved and brought out in a cheaper form Ealing, where his process is carried on without by the inventor, Mr Gooday, of Stanstead :-a new annoyance to the neighbourhood. The
in centrifugal pump, driven by an engine of two- its ordinary state is there admitted to a receiver; horse power, will lift twenty-one thousand gallons lime and clay are freely mixed therewith, all the of water ten feet in one hour; and a nachine matters held in suspension fall to the bottoin, and to heat water uses waste steam to surround a large the liquid flows off clear. The solid matter is then number of ring-spaces through which the water burnt in a kiln, and finds a ready market at thirtyis driven, and heated in the shortest possible time. five shillings a ton, which, as the general states,
Steam traction-engines on common roads are yields a profit of more than ten shillings a ton, objected to because they frighten horses. Aveling From an American chemical journal, we learn & Co. of Rochester get over this difficulty, and that, in a family wash, borax is more useful than when the driver sees passing horses, he opens a soda, and effects an important economy of soap; valve, through which nearly the whole of the One handful of powdered borax to ten galons of exhaust steam immediately passes into the water-boiling
water is stated as the proper quantity. A tank. The hoarse coughing of the engine is there solution of borax is also said to make an excellent by silenced, and the chief occasion of fright is done wash for the hair or teeth ; and, to many persons
who live in cellars or kitchens, it may be an adWe have more than once called attention to the vantage to know that cockroaches forsake the place Fairlie locomotive engine, and the facilities it where borax is sprinkled. affords for railway traffic. Since then, its capabilities have been increased, and it has been tried on difficult lines in foreign countries, particularly
The Publishers of CHAMBERS'S JOURNAL beg to direct in Russia and Belgium. In the last instance, the the attention of CONTRIBUTORS to the following notice : engine drew a train of four hundred and eighty 1st. All communications should be addressed to the tons up a steep gradient 'with perfect ease.' The
'Editor, 47 Paternoster Row, London.' facts brought out by the experimental trials are so
2d. To insure the return of papers that may prova remarkable, as to make it clear that an enormous ineligible, postage-stamps should in every case accomsaving could be effected, especially in goods-traffic, were the Fairlie engine set to work on all our 3d. All MSS. should bear the author's full CHRISTIAN principal lines of railway. The waste of power name, surname, and address, legibly written. and material in the haulage of coal is almost in-4th. MSS. should be written on one side of the leaf only. credible. Owing to the present system of loose Unless Contributors comply with the above rules, the coupling, so much strength is needed in the trucks, Editor cannot undertake to return rejected papers. that one ton of truck is required for every two tons of coal, and by reason of this superabundant weight, Printed and Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, 47 Pater the train not unfrequently comes to a stand-still. A double-bogie Fairlie engine, on the contrary,
noster Row, LONDON, and 339 High Street, EDINETRUL Also sold by all Booksellers.
highest moral rectitude. Almost all are married THE SECRET POLICE.
men, the fathers of families, the regularity of Every one knows the police of Paris dressed in whose manners contrasts singularly with the life uniform, perambulating their different beats, and they are compelled to lead. looking after all evil-inclined persons. With these Their first object is to know by sight every bad the secret police have no outward connection ; they character that roams about Paris like a bird of have no mark embroidered on their collars, and are prey, where are their resorts, and the particular dressed like common citizens. Yet the search after line of life they adopt ; so that, when they hear of and arrest of malefactors belong in a special manner a crime, they can form an estimate of the number to this brigade, composed of men whose devotedness of those who would be likely to commit it. They has been proved in every way. It was the celebrated study every thief's plan of attack, so that when Vidocq, who, in 1817, first organised this police, they hear the account of a robbery, they say: and for a long time held to the false idea that to That is done by such a man ; we shall catch him know criminals you must have been one yourself. to-night, and in such a place. They acquire a sort He was himself liberated from the galleys, and of instinct and a taste for their occupation; they carried on his work by setting thieves to catch are like hunters, with the same keenness for sport. thieves, according to the old proverb. When his When they have succeeded, their eyes sparkle, agents appeared in the assize courts, the accused they speak volubly, their cheeks glow with pleasoften reminded them in their slang that they had ure. Their courage is unequalled : it is exercised mown such a meadow together.' The witnesses in presence of a certain amount of danger, the were worth no more than the criminals, the jury form of which is always unknown, without any of hesitated which to believe, and the barristers made the glory which leads a soldier into battle. This fine game of both. In spite of his boasting, his is an example: insupportable vanity, and his wicked antecedents, In 1848, M. Nicolai received a letter saying that, Vidocq had considerable success, and placed in the if he did not wish his house to be set on fire, he hands of justice thieves that it had sought for must lay down a sum of three thousand five hunduring many previous years. Dismissed from the dred francs in a certain place which was described. service in 1827, he was succeeded by another thief, The police, on being informed, sent its secret Coco Lacour, who had obtained great celebrity by agents. Soon a man arrived, who, after having his boldness in crime. The same path was pur- assured himself that no one was in the street, went sued, and shameless thieves were charged to watch to the place where the apparent packet had been over their acolytes. The revolting immorality of deposited. The policeman darted upon him, but such a system annoyed M. Gisquet, and he it was the robber dodged and ran off. He was again who, breaking through the absurd tradition, dis- caught, and before the other policemen could come solved the famous brigade in 1832, and reconsti- up, he presented a round cold object to the cheek tuted it on the basis that no one who had ever been of his assailant, which the policeman took for a committed should be enrolled.
pistol. But his courage did not forsake him. Its members are chosen with the utmost care Fire, you wretch !' he cried ; 'my comrades will from the non-commissioned officers, who, when soon catch you. Though he spoke thus, he was leaving the army, ask to be received into the fully persuaded that the next moment he would be police. On a principle diametrically opposed a dead man. What he thought to be a pistol, to the one which guided M. Vidocq, the con- proved to be a bottle of chloroform, by the help of clusion has been arrived at, that men exposed which the thief, little versed in its use, hoped to by their occupation to the temptations of drunken- throw the man into instant sleep. Though the ness and debauch should be possessed of the policeman escaped this time, he was destined to a
violent death, as he was shot dead at Brussels in residence of a fortnight. The one behaved with a the act of seizing a murderer.
gracious and condescending mien, like a man who Nor is patience less required than courage. To had tried all the greatness of the world ; the other hide behind a wall, or lie under a bench through humble, anxious to do his work, spoke of his the cold winter's night, exposed to twelve hours of good master, and served to perfection. Their frost and rain, or to look through a window all the returned to their proper position ; but the great
mission terminated with perfect success. They day long, are not among the pleasant things of lord had become so identified with his part, that life. Lately, the most populous barriers of Paris when his colleague addressed him as his equal, he were the favourite resorts of robbers who re- was seized with a fit of anger, and cried : : What lieved drunken men of their purses.
are you saying? Why this familiarity?' three agents went there, and, hidden by the dark- Sometimes a chain of very natural circumstances ness, lay down in the shadow ; the same number, leads to a result which seems almost miraculous. stretched on benches, feigned the sleep of inebriety: police office, and gave their names to the super
A few years ago, three Englishmen entered the From seven o'clock in the evening to midnight intendent. One was a detective in the London nothing occurred. Small steady rain fell the whole police ; the other two were rich jewellers in the evening, wetting the men through and through. City. They said that four days before, one of their About two in the morning, a band of thieves travellers had robbed the shop, carried away many approached, and began to rifle the pockets of the thousand pounds of valuables, that he had been apparent sleepers ; but these were equal to their traced to Paris, and requested help in searching task, and the capture of no less than seventeen for him. The superintendent replied: 'I know rewarded their perseverance.
all about your business.' Then, at a sign from The intellectual faculties may be developed had been taken, and who proved to be the culprit,
him, they brought from the station a man who exactly like the muscles of the body by exercise ; at the same time shewing the Englishmen three thus these agents acquire a wonderful memory, boxes, which contained the recovered jewels. The and never forget a face after it has once been seen, emotion of one of the owners was so great, that whatever disguise may be attempted. One day, he fainted. They thought the affair a prodigy; yet an inspector noticed a man whose
it was really very simple. The police had been awakened in him a confused remembrance; he abode at a good hotel in Paris
, and the very day
informed that a young man had taken up his followed him, which the man perceived, and got of his arrival pawned articles at five monts-dé-prété. into an omnibus. The inspector did the same, and They paid him a visit ; found his trunks, where sitting down on the opposite side, looked steadily the jewellery was thrown in a heap; and suspectat him. The poor fellow trembled, and said in a ing a crime, they arrested him, and seized his low voice : ‘Do not arrest me before all these property: people.' When the omnibus reached one of the In all such affairs, the administrative service police stations, the inspector got out with his gives great help. The prefecture of police is a prisoner and went in. He turned out to be a thief most careful office; it loves order for its own who, that very morning, had managed to escape sity. Thus it loses nothing, registers everything;
sake, and experience has demonstrated its necesfrom one of the courts of the prefecture just when and there is not the smallest bit of paper which the inspector met him. When the famous robbery it does not carefully preserve, and knows how to of the medals from the Royal Library took place, make useful when the moment comes. The reports in which a certain viscountess was implicated, it of the inspectors of furnished lodgings are docketed was sufficient for the police agents to examine the and arranged alphabetically, so that any inquiries saw, the lantern, and the cord left by the robbers, can be certain, quick, and easy. All the drivers to naine Fossard and Drouillet as the authors of the of cabs and omnibuses are known, the number crime ; which turned out to be the fact. When the assigned to them, and the company they serve. head of the staff was called in to see the frightfully only exercise their numerous functions after having
It is the same with the commissionaires, who can mutilated body of the Duchess de Praslin, who been authorised by the prefecture, and received a had been murdered by her husband, he said to medal. There are more than two thousand of M. Delessart, who was overcome by emotion : these ; and though their relationship with the * That, Monsieur le Préfet, is the work of an préfet is not a very strong one, yet they can always amateur ;' which contained the key to the revela- be found when wanted. Passports also furnish a tion of the whole drama.
very powerful means of investigation. It is very rarely that the agents adopt any Not to wander too far into the labyrinth of crime, disguise. There existed formerly a special ward- where the number of individuals would create robe for their use, but the costumes have become almost insurmountable difficulties, it is necessary to worm-eaten for lack of use. They are left quite know the antecedents of every criminal. This is her free to choose ; and, provided their mission is the prefecture of police arrives at such wonderful accomplished, they may wear anything. It is not certainty, owing to what they call the sommaire long since two inspectors were desired to make a judiciaires, an organisation so complete, so re: very important surveillance in one of the hotels Tarly kept, that it is an institution unique in the in Paris, exclusively frequented by distinguished world. Let the reader imagine three or four larze foreigners. The affair was difficult, and required rooms, faded and dusty, so dark in some corn, much skill. One of the police appeared in the that the gas is lighted at noon ; tables of blas disguise of a former ambassador, the other dressed wood, over which the clerks lean who are engu as his servant. Nothing betrayed them during a in writing, and from the floor to the ceiling