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had been lost and her crew drowned within sight, a hill, and sheltered from the north and east. It and almost within hail of their homes, then surely commanded a magnificent view of the sea, of the this programme would have to be abridged very estuary, and of the mountains bounding it on each much, and the rejoicings entirely stopped. In side. A carriage-road wound up to it by easy England, the loss of a few common people, more gradients, and by that road it would take you some or less, would not be accepted as a valid excuse for time to get to the house ; but by a footpath running interrupting the enjoyments of their betters; but up the breast of the hill you could reach it from in Caerinion they are yet uncivilised, still influenced the town in a few minutes. By this footpath by the sympathies of blood and race, still rejoice young Rowlands must have run up to the house, and mourn in concert, still own the ties of kindred when he burst into the breakfast-room, shouting : and affinity

Good news! Good news!' Spite of all this, however, the people of Aber- 'Ah, ah !' said the banker, looking out from that hirnant were specially addicted to backbiting and network of wrinkles which framed his eyes, with slandering each other; and there was no man in his peculiar glance, half-puzzled, half-shrewd ; Aberhirnant whose tongue was fiercer, and whose good news, eh! And what's the good news ? scandals were more virulent, than Dr Lewis Owen, Something to do with Mary Roberts, no doubt.? usually known as the Hen Doctor. Don't run away Wrong, father, wrong! Kate! Winny! guess with the idea that he was a practitioner amongst what the good news is.' poultry; he was simply the old doctor. The rival · Don't torment us, Arthur, please; we give it surgeon, whose current name was Jack Bach,' up.' being a young and rising man, whilst Dr Owen · Arthur's Bride, reported lost in the late storm, was now nearly seventy, this title was given him as has just been signalled off the bar, and will come a distinction. The Hen Doctor was a tall, old man, in with the flood. She has lost spars and rigging, with eagle nose and bald head ; he wore a conical and is very much shattered, and will have to be white hat with broad flapping brim, a cut-away laid up for repairs as soon as the weather moderates; Quaker's coat, a bunch of seals at his fob, trousers but she's safe, you see, father, safe. Hurrah!' usually very threadbare and very short, reaching ‘Hurrah shouted the girls. It wasn't to be little below his knees; a pair of hand-knitted stock expected that old Rowlands would shout hurrah. ings, and low shoes tied with strings, completed Perhaps the change that came over his face, as his attire. You would have suspected him to be a he heard the news, was caused by the revulsion Quaker till you heard him speak, when you would of feeling arising from the loosening of the strain notice that his conversation was garnished with upon him, the relief from suspense and anxiety. expletives to a greater extent than is customary However, he soon recovered himself, received the among ‘Friends. The Hen Doctor hadn't joined congratulations of his family with a smiling face, in the subscriptions to the funds to provide for the and muttering something about calls of business, expenses of the wedding rejoicings.

took his way down the road to the bank. They'll be bankrupt before the year 's out; yes, · Arthur,' said Winny, his sister taking him by indeed !' he growled in reply to any solicitation the arm, 'I think this is a good omen for you. to contribute.

think Arthur's bride is destined to good luck, and Perhaps one reason why the doctor was so em- I know that she deserves it. But oh, Arthur, bittered against the banker and his son was, that think of the poor woman, Gwen, the captain's wife! he himself had been a candidate for the office of dis- That which makes us so glad must make her so tributer of stamps, but had been beaten by the sorrowful, for surely the wreck that came ashore superior political influence of Mr Rowlands. The belonged either to the one or the other; and if our office was a lucrative one, as the county contained ship is safe, where is Menevia's Pride ?' the cathedral town of St Padarn, which had a local But Arthur was too happy to have much symprobate court of its own, and the distributer of the pathy to spare for Gwen Pugh, and went off prescounty received a commission on all the moneys ently to order his horse for a ride to Llanfechan. paid for proving wills and taking out administra- When the banker reached his office, it was not tions. This year especially the receipts would long past nine, and the bank was not opened; he

old Sir Samuel Bogoak, the great sank down into his easy-chair in the little dark
millionaire of Manchester, had lately 'died at his back room which formed the parlour;' the shutters
seat of Castle Deudnant in this county, and having were closed, and the room in a sort of dusky gloom.
left the bulk of his property to an adopted son, Rowlands lit a candle, took out some papers, burnt
the duties to be paid on his bequests would be one or two, and then resting his head on his arms,
something enormous, and the corresponding com- seemed to fall into a kind of mental stupor.
mission to the distributer a very comfortable sum. He hardly stirred or moved for more than half

The prospect of this comfortable sum of money an hour, though at times he would sigh softly, but
had hastened Arthur Rowlands' marriage. It would heavily.
furnish handsomely the new house at Bodhealog, Presently, John, the chief clerk—there were but
and start the young couple on their career with two, John and a little boy—came in to the outer
a sufficient balance at the bank. Arthur Rowlands office, and began to unlock the safes and take out
and Mary Roberts had waited for each other some the books and ledgers wanted for the day's work.
years, for the old banker, although he was not • John !' said Rowlands feebly.
penurious, was very grudging of ready money. What's the matter, master ?' cried John, hurry-
No; he wouldn't furnish a house for his son ; let ing in, somewhat scared at his master's look and
him wait till he could save enough to do it him- tone. Is anything wrong?
self; that was the way he, Evan, had to do when John was the only man in whom Rowlands
he was married.

reposed his confidence. He didn't confide anything Evan Rowlands lived in a large ashlar-built to Arthur or to his daughters respecting business house, standing on a terrace cut out of the

side of matters, but to John he told everything.

be great.

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“John, I'm afraid Menevia's Pride is gone.' down, they saw framed in the window the half

• Well, they do say so, inaster; but depend upon length figure of a man, of eagle beak and long it, it isn't true. But why take on about it so ? lantern jaws. The man was taking a pinch of You're too kind-hearted, master.'

snuff with one hand ; in the other he held a stout No; it isn't that, John ; but look here : I've oaken staff uplifted, as if he were about to strike underwritten Menevia for three thousand; she's the door. It was the Hen Doctor. lost. I insured Arthur for five thousand; she's saved !' Anwyl dad !' said John; 'three thousand pounds !

THE WEED. Name o' goodness, what a loss to you! But never | WHEN Christopher Columbus discovered the island mind,' he went on briskly; you'll make it up, of San Salvador in 1492, he sent two Spaniards Mr Rowlands, bach. You will give me less salary into the interior to examine the country. They for a year, I daresay-it was lucky you didn't raise related, on their return, that they had met many it when I asked you last week—and you 'll dismiss of the inhabitants holding some herbs in their Thomas : no doubt it will be only a little more hands, and inhaling the smoke, when lighted. work for me. Oh, you 'll make it up, master; only, This little firebrand was called tobaco, a word don't fret.'

which has been adopted all over Europe, and in “John, I can't help fretting. You know how Havana. They still say, probar un tobaco, for losses have crowded upon me : how these cursed smoking a cigar. It was to Sir Walter Raleigh ships that I took for Lewis's debts have been prey- that we owe the introduction of this favourite ining upon me. Bottomry bonds, port dues, re- dulgence into England; whilst Jean Nicot, ambasfittings, and all kinds of pulls upon me; and my sador of France to Spain, brought it to his own captains coming home in ballast without a pound country, it being already well known in Spain and in their pockets, and telegraphing to me for money. Portugal. Catharine de' Medici adopted the new Oh, it's devilish! Another five hundred at the plant, imagining it to be a cure for every ill least that wretched Bride will cost me ; and I had that flesh is heir to, and in her honour it became hoped to get five thousand by her !'

the Queen's herb, the Medicean herb, and the * But oh, Mr Rowlands, bach, you didn't hope holy herb. The fashion being thus introduced, the that she was lost, did you? Oh, that would be use of tobacco extended itself by degrees, though wicked; that would be going against the Bible. not without meeting with considerable opposition. You that's a magistrate and all! Oh, Mr Row- Amurath IV. commanded that those who took it lands!'

should be beaten in a mortar ; the shah of Persia ‘But, John, it would have saved me.'

contented himself with cutting off the delinquents' • Well, you know, master,' said John, “you've noses ; Innocent VIII. condemned them to eternal only got yourself to thank for it. You would go ruin ; and James I. wrote a book against them meddling with those nasty ships, and muddling full of wise sayings. All was in vain ; tobacco all your money away in the sea.

was to conquer its adversaries, triumph over Rowlands groaned.

every obstacle, and become a strange kind of * And didn't I warn you against going into the aliment, which the tyranny of habit was to reninsuring business ?'

der indispensable to a great part of the popula• Name o' goodness, stop your jabber !' cried tion. Tobacco is now consumed in every posRowlands, angrily arousing: What good is all that sible form ; the makers try to invent new comchatter? Why didn't you do this, why didn't you binations, in order to satisfy the passion of certain do that? Go to your work, you fool !'

amateurs who appreciate a good cigar as others do * All right,' said John. 'Is it worth while to take a glass of old wine. Smoking has superseded the down the shutters ?'

snuff-box of our forefathers ; it is allowed everyWhat do you mean ?' cried Rowlands, looking where—in public gardens, clubs, cafés, and most at him with staring eyes.

private houses; perhaps, after a time, it will be so You know very well what I mean. There 's at the theatre, as it now is in Holland. three thousand pounds in gold, and that's all to As the use of the weed increased, it was adultercarry on with to-day. Now, have you brought ated in every possible shape. Under its name, any more with you, Mr Rowlands ?-now! There cabbage-leaves, walnut-leaves, seaweed, and hay will be the quarry checks coming in directly, Mr were smoked. Bark, peat-moss, the roots of IceRowlands—now ! All gold then, Mr Rowlands land moss, were pulverised with many other in-now! Give me your orders, master-now !' ventions. Real amateurs were at great expense to

John, John, if you begin to turn against me, get it pure from Holland, which sold the real proI'll give up. Am I ruined, John ? Is it come to ducts of Varinas and Virginia with the mark of that? And the children and Arthur! O John ! it the three kings. Such was the case until the will kill me.'

early part of this century; in France, at least, it The clock in the church tower hard by tolled out led to the government taking the manufacture into the hour—one, two, three, four, five. At the sixth its own hands; and a characteristic anecdote will stroke, Rowlands sprang to his feet.

shew why this exclusive monopoly was commenced. Anwyl dad! and I forgot! John, tear the At the beginning of the year 1810, a ball was shutters down. Heaven grant there are no cus- given at the Tuileries, when the Emperor remarked tomers !'

a lady pass before him whose dress was splendidly There was a clank and rattle of bars for a ornamented with diamonds. He inquired who moment as the clerk let in the light of day ; the could be so rich as to make such a display. The fame of the candle on the table disappeared in the reply was that Madame Rwas the wife of a glory of the sun. The last shutter taken down was tobacco-manufacturer. The hint was not lost upon that of the glass half-door which opened from the Napoleon I. ; and by the 20th December, a decree bank into the little lobby outside ; as that came had appeared commanding that henceforward the

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sale and manufacture of tobacco should belong ex- for, excepting Havana cigars, all tobacco, to be clusively to the state. As experience was needed, agreeable, must be mixed in certain proportions, the old makers were employed; but they were which have here been made the subject of deep rigorously watched; each manufacturer had his study. The common rappee is composed of eight own ideas, and would not change ; opposite results different kinds, which, by correcting, modifying, were obtained—what was good tobacco to-day was and developing each other, acquire the peculiar execrable in a week, though it came out of the aroma that a connoisseur perceives at once. One of same primary elements. Science was called in to the workmen taking a pinch with great gusto help; a director-general was appointed ; the best remarked: "Ah! how many touches have been pupils of the Polytechnic School were placed under necessary to reach this result. Of this snuff we instruction ; and every smoker will allow that there will first describe the process. is no relation between the crude article of former The bales are emptied ; the leaves have been days and that of the present. The mysteries of already tied together in bunches of twenty-five ; fermentation, the mixture of different growths, the these are shaken out with care, examined, and splendid machines which have superseded the work every leaf withdrawn which shews any mark of of the old blind horses which turned the mill, and decay. This is most disagreeable work; it raises a the chemical analysis of the leaves, are all scien- cloud of dust, which gets into the throat and excites tifically treated.

a constant cough ; but as soon as they are arranged The government manufactory of Gros-Caillou, on and spread, they are sprinkled with water conthe Quai d'Orsay, where these preparations are taining ten parts in a hundred of marine salt. carried on, is not an elegant building. There is They remain for twenty-four hours under this the laboratory, where more poisons are distilled humid influence, which gives them the suppleness than a Borgia ever dreamed of. Within its walls, of wet linen, and prevents their being broken when lined with pure white tiles, a rod dipped into the handled ; the salt is added to avoid any fermentadangerous essence of nicotine (from Jean Nicot), and tion, which would certainly arise from the contact applied to the throat of a cat or rabbit, produced the of vegetable matter with water. The choppingmost frightful convulsions, and almost immediate room comes next: the leaves are pushed through a death. In the court opening into it is the botanic cylinder towards a drum, armed with six oblique garden, consisting of eight or ten old casks, in which blades; it is worked by steam, and cuts the leaves are placed different kinds of earth, as it is well into slices, a hundred and twenty times in a minute; known that the elements of the soil and the culture its force is irresistible ; and it is impossible to see go far to produce certain qualities of tobacco. Here the operations of the man who attends to it withthe students treat the plants to different varieties out feeling the danger he runs of having his arm of salts or gases. Chemical analysis has demon- cut off. strated that the combustible power is specially due The tobacco is then brought down into a wooden to salt of potassium-all that is grown on soil that apartment, where it is heaped together in stacks, possesses little of it burns badly: By these experi- for the purpose of fermentation, which is not long ments, the proper manure can be furnished to any in shewing itself: thus the different kinds, peneground on fixed principles.

trated by the emanations from each, acquire the The culture of the plant is not free in France ; essence of the whole. The heat increases each day, formerly, only eight departments had the privilege, attaining to 75 and 80 degrees. As soon as any now it is extended to nineteen. Not only do they danger appears of spontaneous combustion, the register the number of feet occupied by each plant inasses are partially cut into, and the air admitted ; in a field, but also the number of leaves on each. but light, which is prejudicial, is carefully excluded No hot-house plant can be more carefully tended; by thick dark blinds. Here it remains for six they are visited night and day to take away the months; the desired result cannot be obtained in a caterpillars and snails. One by one, as they become shorter time. By a slow operation, the tobacco ripe, the leaves are gathered and hung up in airy loses a part of its poisonous nature, the nicotine ; drying-rooms. No cultivator can use the seed he and the injurious acids are destroyed. The heaps pleases ; each year he receives from headquarters are pulled apart with a pickaxe, and look like what is necessary, for experience has proved that masses of earth ; they are placed in sacks and certain kinds prosper in one soil that would perish carried to the top of the building, to be put into in another. About eighteen months are required the mill. for a harvest to be gathered, dried, folded, and Great improvements have been made in this packed in bales, to be forwarded to one of the part of the machinery : the workmen rebelled manufactories. Entering one of these, there can be against them, refused the new engines, and were no doubt as to what it is employed for, without only brought to obedience by the law. Formerly, seeing anything; the perfume envelops and attaches they were hand-mills much like the ordinary houseitself to you, impregnates your clothes, and follows hold coffee-mill: the working of them was very hard you long after you leave: as the door closes on you, and painful, and it required many men and cost you sneeze ; the porter smiles, and recognises you a very large sum: now four or five men can superfor a novice. Following M. Du Camp as a guide, intend the whole. There are twenty-six of these in his work on the subject, the process shall be mortars in the same room. An Archimedean screw described as carried on in Paris.

crushes, presses, and pulverises the leaves, after Entering the magazine, the different kinds are which they pass through a sieve, which rejects all seen carefully separated: there are the bales which the larger particles, to go through the process again. are grown in the country, the camel-hair sacks It is calculated that each fragment makes the passsent from the East, coarse hempen ones from the age through the mills ten times before it is perbanks of the Danube, hogsheads from Virginia, and mitted to go through the fine sieve. In this workox-hides full from Guatemala. These are all wait- shop, as well as in all those where the tobacco is ing until they may be required in the workshops, in a powdered state, the men wear long linen gaiters tied at the knee, which allow of their of day is found to be injurious, that of the sun passing about without carrying away morsels that fatal. When this fermentation is ended, the leaves can be utilised. When pulverised, it might be are passed on to the makers. supposed to be ready to put into boxes; but These are always women : each has before her a patience ! the end has not yet arrived. It is now roll of leaves, the broken bits, a pot of glue, a called dry rappee, and is fastened up in oak chests knife, and a plate of zinc, in which is a hole the away from the light, where it remains for two exact shape of the cigar to be made. The morsels months, when it is taken out and shovelled into are taken up, arranged so that they are perfectly a large square tub, where it receives another water- even, and with the palm of her hand she rolls ing of salt and water. Again it is fastened up to them in a leaf of second-rate goodness. One of undergo a second fermentation, which is hastened those of the best quality is taken from the roll, cat by putting in a little already fermented powder. into a strip, and, with much precaution, wrapped The great chest is then hermetically sealed; a card round and gummed lightly at the extremity, to is attached to it with the date of the fabrication, prevent its being untwisted ; the end is cut by the watering, the kinds of which it is composed, an instrument, and the operation is ended. A and the day when it was closed. The temperature clever workwoman, in her day of ten hours, can is raised to forty-five degrees, and in three months make from ninety to a hundred of the choicest the powder is well mixed up, that the fermenta- kind ; the commoner are done at the rate of three tion may be equal, and put into a fresh case. At hundred. The women are well paid ; but as the the end of a year, it is ready for use, with that most rigorous silence is enforced, it cannot be slightly ammoniacal savour which produces the supposed that they enjoy it. Indeed, it is a marvel irritation so much enjoyed by snuff-takers.

that some hundreds of women can be together All the cases which bear the same date are at without talking, and when the clock marks the length brought up for inspection, and emptied. hour for rest, the animation becomes considerable. This is most painful work for the novices: the The cigars, after being dried, are tested one by eyes pour down tears, the sneezing is continuous, one as to their weight and size, and shut up in a and violent headache generally follows; yet they drying-room for six months, to lose what little become accustomed to it more quickly than would humidity they may have; if for a year, it is all be believed, and soon think nothing of it. The the better for the public. When they come out, workmen, however, in this department acquire a they are divided according to a certain mode of pale grayish complexion ; it is only a discolora- selection, tied into packets, placed in boxes, sealed, tion of the skin, and not an indication of weak- stamped, and sent to the place where they are to be ness, for they shew their strength by lifting sacks sold. The best are put into boxes of cedar-wood, of great weight. The contents of the different a steam saw being used to cut the odorous trunks chests having been well mixed, a sample is sent from the Antilles and South America into thin to the laboratory, to decide whether it has the boards. The perfume is said to have a good required strength and goodness : if the opinion is effect on the cigars. At one time, it was found infavourable, it is once more put through the sieve, possible to procure as good cigars as the best sent and placed in casks, which are stamped down by a from Havana ; notwithstanding every precaution, man's feet, like grapes in the vintage ; and in two the tobacco sent was not equal to the sample ; frand months it is ready for sale. So that, from the every day increased, and threatened to ruin the gathering to the completion, it will be seen that commerce. The director-general proposed that not less than three years and four months are special persons should be established in Cuba to required to make a pinch of snuff.

buy the best cigars that could be produced on the As for the cigars, they require even more atten- spot, and send them safely without adulteration, or tion as to the tobacco used ; that grown on the undue use of the public money, which in this case most celebrated estates in Cuba is imported and would amount to thousands of pounds. The stored in large cellars, darkened, and of constantly minister of state hesitated to grant such a request. equal temperature. Not only are the bales wrapped What agents can you propose,' he said, who in strong cloth, but within is a layer of palm-leaves, could be trusted with such large sums, and be from which the bunches of tobacco are carefully proof against temptation ?'. The director replied: removed, shaken out, and dipped in pure water. The engineers who leave the Polytechnic School' When they are sufficiently softened, old and skilful The minister bowed : With them there is nothing workwomen examine them, remove the stalks, and to fear,' and signed the order. The necessary arsort them according to their fineness, colour, and rangements in Cuba were made, and the sale of preservation. It is for them to decide what shall cigars in the last ten years has increased to three be placed in the interior or exterior of a cigar : times the amount. Above two million francs silent, bending over their baskets, they study each worth are now sold in a year at the two special leaf separately by-smell, touch, and sight with the shops in Paris. most minute attention. The chosen specimens The cigars thus bought come exclusively from having neither too harsh a texture nor too strongly the vegas and vuelta de abajo, which are to tobacco developed veins, are rolled together by a machine, what the estates of Johannisberg and Clos-Vougeot and preserved for the outside. Those for the inside are to grapes ; they are sent direct to the manupresent more difficulties. There is no doubt that factory to be tasted. During the passage, though the climate of Havana, at once warm and damp, they are packed in separate boxes, enclosed first in has a direct influence on the tobacco, and com- zinc and then in wood, some decay or deterioration municates to it peculiar qualities. This it is generally takes place, and they are not in the attempted to imitate by placing that chosen for superior condition which their price demands; the the inside in presses in a large room, where a jet public would have some ground for complaint of vapour gives the necessary moisture and heat. The boxes containing the same kinds are emptied A lamp is required to see this room, as the light on to the table, and three of the most experienced


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men examine each separately as to the exterior, gulf between that admission and the and then take out twenty and smoke them. This quences which some predict from its use. work has to be done upon three hundred and fifty abuse is pernicious in every sense. varieties, large and small, strong and weak, from smokes incessantly from long-used and too short the damas, of which you scarcely perceive the scent, clay pipes, he may be attacked with small cancers to the vegneros, which are so potent, every day, and in the tongue ; but this seems to be the only effect without leaving the spot : such work might be which science has established, though the Italian enough to disgust the smoker for his whole life doctor, Pauli, asserts that the skull of smokers time. These men arrive at such a delicacy of taste becomes black. Public attention has been directed that they can not only distinguish the soil on which since 1829 to nicotine, an organic alkali, composed each is grown, the place of its fabrication, but also of carbon, hydrogen, and azote; which is furnished if the leaf has been gathered at the beginning or by the leaves of tobacco, and is one of the most end of the harvest. This part of the labour, which violent of poisons. It is certain that one of the is incomparably the most trying of all, is carried on stronger kind of cigars contains sufficient of this, in an immense room, where the open windows which, if extracted and treated chemically, would carry away clouds of smoke. The price is lowered kill a man; but the same may be said of a pound of those cigars that are not first-rate; while the best of almonds having prussic acid in them. It is one are placed in cupboards around dark rooms, where thing to swallow a pure body chemically isolated, they remain eighteen months or two years in an and to absorb it when mixed with foreign matters atmosphere as nearly like that of Cuba as can be. which take from it all its mischievous properties.

Tobacco for smoking is the only kind left to be Half the nicotine in tobacco is extracted from it described, and as many processes are similar, during its manufacture by washing, fermentation, it will not be necessary to dwell long upon it. and evaporation, and of the small quantity which After the softening of the leaves by water, they remains it is needless to speak, as people use it so are placed in a machine not unlike a guillotine, constantly and do not die of it. which cuts them with the greatest precision ; the Some medical writers have supposed that the blades are changed every twenty minutes, so soon increase of insanity was in proportion, and had do they lose their fine edge, and sent to be re- relation, to the use of tobacco; but it would be sharpened by steam. The fermentation, which more according to truth to set it down to the gives the savour to snuff, would be ruinous to excessive drinking which prevails in England, tobacco : it must be placed in a high temperature Sweden, and Norway more especially ; and also in to kill all the seeds of it. A beautiful cylindrical France, since the Algerian army introduced absinth. machine, called a torrefactor, doing the work that That and alcohol are the true causes of the inused to require twenty men, is now employed; it crease of mental maladies ; in the former, which seems as if it were endowed with intelligence, so contains seventy-two degrees of alcohol, there is real well does it regulate the temperature of ninety- poison, which burns and destroys the vital organs, five degrees which is required. The cooling and and traces of exfoliation and depression have been cleansing from dust are accomplished by means of clearly marked on the brain of drinkers of absinth, a ventilator in a turning cylinder, which does not leading to maniacal madness, and softening of the allow of a moment's repose. All the essential mental organs. Tobacco, on the contrary, is a operations are now ended; the tobacco, which looks soothing narcotic, to which we become easily very much like crisped hair, is collected in a well- accustomed; the moderate use of which is without ventilated room, where it remains for six weeks. danger, and which helps to mitigate many of our The larger pieces are picked out, with any morsels troubles. To convince ourselves that the alarmists of iron, leather, or wood that may have got in by need not utter their anathemas as to its destruction chance; it is weighed, and made up into sealed of reason and health, it is only necessary to see packets, which are stamped and dated, in order what passes in the navy and the manufactories, that amateurs who prefer the article fresh, may where so much is daily consumed. It is ascertained have the opportunity of procuring it.

without doubt that the quid is the form of tobaceo Fashion has for a long time approved of the in which the most nicotine is taken, since it is smoking of tobacco instead of the use of snuff, in chewed, and thus enters into the digestive organs. which our forefathers loved to indulge, but official Sailors are seldom without it in their mouths, as returns shew a great increase under the head of smoking is forbidden between decks and at many rolls for chewing. Is it owing to the infiltration other times. It is not found that there is more of American manners that this is due ? Any one than an ordinary proportion of insanity in the who has seen a rope-maker at work with a winch, navy. As for the workmen in the manufactories, will understand how the rolls for this purpose are those who live from morning to night amidst its prepared. The leaves, previously moistened, are emanations, and are, so to speak, steeped in the arranged on the turning-wheel, and when twisted, fumes of nicotine, no special illness attacks them. cut into lengths of a certain weight ; to increase In cases of epidemics they take their chance, but the flavour, and prevent too rapid drying, they are in these, and especially in cholera, they are found dipped in a trough filled with concentrated tobacco to be in some degree protected from contagion. juice. They are then pressed in packets, so as to Those who make the tobacco into rolls, and dip give the proper shape, and express the superfluous their hands into the concentrated juice, feel no evil fluid, after which they undergo a few days' drying, from Sometimes the skin is slightly excoriated and are ready for sale.

by the salts of potassium, but that is all. One man The increase in the sale of all kinds of tobacco, has been at the work for fifty years, and is eighty shews how many ardent votaries it has ; but there years of age ; his hands are dyed black with the are also its declared adversaries, who wage war strong liquid, but he has never suffered from illupon it. Many surgeons undertake from time to ness. There is only one affection noticeable; it is, time a crusade against it; but there is a wide that if a person whose hands are impregnated rubs

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