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window, which commanded a fine view of the farfamed bay; and Miriam on a low foot-stool beside her. They were both disturbed and agitated, and

CHAPTER XIV-DEFEAT. bright tears were standing in Florence's eyes. She Florence heard Miriam's account of what had instantly started up, as Mr St Quentin came inside happened with dismay. Mr St Quentin had left the door, and stood looking at them with stern the room without another word; and Miriam had displeasure.

rushed to the door, slammed and locked it with Leave the room, Dixon," he said coldly; ‘I wish unmistakable emphasis, and then related the to speak to Mrs St Quentin.'

story of this serious matrimonial misunderstandReturn in five minutes, if you please, Rose,' ing to Florence, only suppressing Mr St Quentin's said Miriam ; ‘I want to dress then.-Pray, what reference to Walter's suspected marriage. With have you to say to me?' she continued, in a far all Miriam's faults—and they were numerous and different tone, to her husband. Has anything increasing, in the fostering false atmosphere of new or extraordinary happened ?'

her life-she was thorough.' Nothing could be 'I don't suppose it is either new or extraordi- more perfect than her fidelity to Walter's trust, nary,' he replied, "that you should act against my her attachment to Walter's wife. These feelings decided injunctions. I find you again in unbe- made her self-sacrificing, acute, ready-witted, and coming confidence with a servant. Pray, who are reticent. All the passionate temper within her the correspondents whose effusions are the joint was roused by her husband's conduct, and yet she property of yourself and your maid ?'

did not forget that Florence would be rendered "I don't know what you mean, Mr St Quentin,' more unhappy if she told her all. Whatever was said Miriam, with an unsuccessful attempt at the ground of Mr Clint's suspicion, and whatever calmness.

its extent, it had evidently fallen short of the '0 yes, you do. You were each reading a truth in one respect, and outstripped it in another. letter, and talking over it, when I came in-as So long as he continued to believe that the girl unexpected as I was unwelcome. I insist on he suspected of being Walter's wife had gone with knowing who wrote those letters.'

him to America, Florence's position with respect to “Do you suppose I scrutinise my maid's corre- him would remain secure. But he had imparted spondence ?'

his suspicions to Mr St Quentin, equally to the Nonsense. There is something between you surprise and consternation of Miriam ; and the which I am determined shall not remain concealed ground on which she had built the superstructure from me.'

of delusive and fancied power, in which she had You had better ask my maid yourself who are taken refuge as in a stronghold, had crumbled her correspondents,' said Miriam, in a tone of the away under her feet. most insolent contempt. 'That would be such a Where were her promises to her sister-in-law suitable proceeding towards a servant.'

now? Where was her power to fulfil them ? 'If Who her letter is from, is a secondary consider- papa should turn you out of his house,' she had ation ; though I shall learn that too, if I continue said, in contemplation of what had then seemed to to think fit to do so. My present question is to be the very worst that could happen, 'there will you, and I will trouble you to answer it. From be mine for you to come to.' "Was all this whom is the letter you were reading when I came in? changed ?' she asked herself, because the old man From my brother.'

she had married in order to have her own way "I don't believe you.'

had suddenly lifted the mask of smooth amiability Miriam turned her back upon him, and struck and shewn his teeth in a snarl. a hand-bell on a table in the window. "Be so There was plenty of fight' in Miriam, if fight good as to leave my room,' she said: 'I am going should prove to be all that would be needed ; but to dress,

she was too clear-sighted, in spite of her inexperiHe took two steps towards her, his face dark ence, to believe that it would be all. Shewing with passion. The look was highly unbecoming fight is a matter for two people only; but in this to him, and would have revealed his age to the case there were three, and Miriam could not suffice least acute observer. 'It is not from your brother; for Florence, or, as she instantly felt, Florence for if it were, it would not be of interest to your herself. If Mr St Quentin chose to insult her, and maid. I believe you and she are in league to make the position untenable, what could Miriam deceive me. And, let me tell you, if it were from do to prevent it, short of revealing the secret which your brother, I should forbid any correspondence. every day's experience of her husband's character Your brother is a lying, dissipated blackguard, convinced her it would be highly dangerous to who has taken a low girl abroad with him, whom reveal? he has either married, or pretended to marry.' “We must be more careful: I have been dread

"You are mad,' said Miriam, 'or drunk.' fully incautious, I confess,' said Miriam. 'I ought

"Like your father! No, I am neither mad nor to have told you the first time he complained of drunk; and I know and mean what I say. Shew my familiarity with you, but I did not like; I was me that letter; I command you.' Ι

afraid it might hurt your feelings. Miriam was not far from her husband, but the • You see how hard a false position is to maintable was between them. She slipped adroitly to tain,' said Florence with a sigh; 'I fear it will soon the end of it, and reached the open window; then cease to be possible. My dear, dear sister, we must she drew the disputed letter from her bosom, tore think of some other resource for me ; indeed, this it into shreds, and as Florence, pale-faced, and in will not do. In all our calculations, we never tears, entered the room, she saw the fragments go thought it possible that I could be made a subject tuttering downward in the air, and Miriam's great of dispute between you and Mr St Quentin.' golden eyes flashing their scomful triumph upon I hope you may prove the only one,' said her husband.

Miriam impatiently; but I begin to think there

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will be a good many strong points of difference would have sent it to Mr Clint, and asked him between Mr St Quentin and me. As to your whether he knew the handwriting ; but Miriam entertaining any idea of leaving me, it is simply had destroyed the cover also. The incident reimpossible. Our faith is pledged to Walter on that mained rankling in his mind, long after the tacit head. We must both be more cautious, and you reconciliation between him and Miriam, and he so must keep out of his way as much as possible.' fed his distorted fancy upon it, that to her most

Florence assented, with a heavy heart. It careless words and looks were assigned motives and never was right,' she thought, and it never can be meanings of which she was both innocent and made right, and it never can come right. Oh, if it unconscious. were but over! If my Walter could but come Even the ingenuity of jealousy and uneasy selfback to me!'

love could not discern in Miriam's conduct any This first quarrel was made up, of course, but cause for her husband's distrust and suspicion. the reconciliation afforded an illustration of the Her frank and free enjoyment of a society in which influence of the disparity of age between Miriam she had no intimacies, with which her relations and her husband. There was an awkward slurring were merely superficial, might have been thoroughly over of mutual offence, there was a cold set reassuring to any reasonable mind. She was always courtesy, but there was no heartiness, no genuine amused and amusing, ready to enter into any unrestrained feeling of regret and reparation ; and scheme of enjoyment; she appreciated to the full ever afterwards there was an indefinable difference the luxury of her life, and was usually in high in their mutual relation. Mr St Quentin admired spirits, and radiant with health and beauty. This Miriam as much as ever, was as proud of her beauty order of things was hopelessly opposed to a theory and brilliancy, and as tiresomely anxious that both of a prior attachment, abandoned from mercenary should be recognised to his glorification ; but he motives, and renewed, in the form of a dishonourdistrusted her, and betrayed it. The torture of able intrigue, under the shelter of marriage, to the jealousy was making havoc with him. He had discomfiture and misery of a confiding husband. genuinely disbelieved Miriam's statement about the But the mind of Mr St Quentin was no more or letter, and the circumstance had set his suspicious less reasonable than the mind of any individual mind off on a tormenting tack of imaginary abandoned to a mean passion, and this was the grievance. What was the tie between her and absurd fiction he had fabricated, when his marriage this insolent servant, who so far outstepped her with Miriam was not yet a year old, and had actuplace? Of course, Rose Dixon's knowledge of a ally wrought himself up to believing, as a positive previous love-affair of Miriam's. They were con- truth. The fact, which even he could not ignore, spirators, these two, against his happiness and his that it was impossible for him to fix upon any honour. What did he know of Miriam's girlhood ? individual, among the Englishmen whom they met Miss Monitor's testimony-the testimony of the in foreign cities, as the object of this attachment, most interested witness, being the person respon- the sharer of this intrigue, did not shake Mr St sible for Miriam's good behaviour. Neglect at home, Quentin's belief in his bugbear. How could he and eight years in a London boarding-school, com- tell that Miriam had never seen any one of the men prised the history of his wife, so far as he knew it. whom she met at Florence, Naples, Rome, and He felt the full import of this reservation, and elsewhere, previously? Aided and abetted by Rose his self-tormenting faculty set itself to work. He Dixon, and with all the facilities of the perfect began to think of his first wife, so short a time dead, freedom he had allowed her, in his blind faith and and yet, until now, so utterly forgotten. He had credulity, from the first, there was no deception known she did not love him ; but he had never which she might not practise safely and successhad any fear, doubt, suspicion concerning her, fully. This was a sheer delusion, and there was a during their marriage, or before it. She had been strong probability of its growing into a mania; but quite amenable and obedient, and, if not very with the cold craftiness which existed in him, happy, had not troubled him about it. He had felt though it had hitherto been but little exercised, no jealousy in her case-of course he did not call Mr St Quentin concealed the real spring of his it jealousy’ in his thoughts; she had been entirely altered mood and changed action, and hoped thus dependent upon him, and had never endeavoured to deceive Miriam, which, however, he did for only to elude or decrease that dependence. Mr St a very short time. Quentin was not very far from that fatal stage of One of the first results of the condition of mind affairs at which a man calls himself a fool for into which Mr St Quentin worked himself was the having married his wife ! Miriam did not love curtailment of Miriani's morning leisure. He took him either, had never pretended to love him; and to interfering with her disposition of her time, he was at least not such a fool as to grumble about to capricious demands upon it, and to a sort of that; but she was not manageable, she was not fidgety espionage which disgusted her. In all dependent; she went her own way, and had her own material respects, Miriam had nothing to complain will, and cared nothing at all for his tastes or of. She had the full value of the bargain she had opinions. She enjoyed her life thoroughly, and made ; his promises were all fulfilled, even beyond his share of it was as little as she could contrive her expectation, because her girlish imagination had to reduce it to—not nearly so important as that of not fully compassed the solid and enviable realities her obnoxious maid.

of the position in which her marriage had placed What was this correspondence, so unbecomingly her ; but Miriam was bored to death' by his presshared between the mistress and the servant ? It ence when he was with her, and by the uncertain never occurred to Mr St Quentin to believe his anticipation of it when she was not. wife's statement that the letter he had seen was Partly in consequence of this pervading boredom, from her brother. Rose Dixon's part in the matter and partly because her mind required the cultivaset that aside at once. How was he to find it out ? | tion of congenial companionship to keep up her If he could have secured the cover of the letter, he interest in `foreign parts,' Miriam wished to return

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to England in the second year of her marriage. to interfere with its existence ; and

very

stubborn She had never exacted from Mr St Quentin any and sullen grew her resolution that she would not specific promise on the subject; but it had been be beaten. generally understood that, the process of acclimati- This was the situation of affairs when Miriam sation accomplished by a year on the continent, he received a letter from Mrs Ritchie, the cook and would settle' in England. The question of the housekeeper at the Firs. place' had been left undecided, at Miriam's

Honoured Madam' (so ran the letter), 'I anu request; she had expressed her sentiments concerning the pleasures of rurality to Mr St Quen- sorry to have to tell you anything which will cause tin with entire frankness, and he was not, at you trouble, but I consider it is my duty to let you that period, inclined to oppose her or them. A has not been well lately.' ('Drinking, of course,

not done so

.' ' house in a 'good' part of London, and the free

was Miriam's mental comment.) 'He forbade anyenjoyment of the pleasures of the metropolis, was now Miriam's great object; and it was, therefore, and since then he has had a bad attack of fever, and

thing to be said about it, but that was some time ago, with excessive anger and keen disappointment that is lying, at this present writing, in an exhausted

. she received a peremptory refusal from her husband, when she suggested their making a move in state

, his recovery not being satisfactory to my mind; the direction of England. He had no intention of indecd, I am not sure whether it is a recovery at all.

He is much wasted ; and even before this last attack, returning thither, he said, and he wished to know he had not left the house for several weeks. I take as what was her motive in proposing it. Miriam replied, that her motive was sufficiently plain; she regular; but I think, honoured madam, you ought to

much care of him as I can, and Mr Martin comes was tired of foreign travel, and wished to go to be informed of his illness, in case it would be a satisEngland. Instantly, he began to speculate upon faction to you to return to the Firs, and see to him some hidden reason for this most straightforward yourself. I make bold, considering all things, to tell proceeding. Some one had gone, or was going to

you that Mr Clint has frequently spoken of you England, and Miriam wanted to get there too! His surveillance of Miriam increased in strictness that kind of gentleman, I am sure he would be very

lately, and, though he has never said so, not being and cunning with this supposed discovery, and she glad if you could come. He reads little, and seems frequently expressed her annoyance to Florence, at times very solitary.— I remain, honoured madam, accompanied with the remark, that she had been

your
obedient servant,

PHEBE RITCHIE.' a fool not to suspect, in time, that the smooth complacence of Mr St Quentin was not of a durable This letter caused Miriam a genuine pang of fear kind. But she did not acknowledge to Florence and sorrow. Supposing her father were really that she had penetrated the motive of his conduct, seriously ill, and were to die without her seeing and found it to be jealousy; the instinct of the him again-neglected, alone, save for the hired woman, the pride and self-respect inseparable from services, which, in the case of a man like him, the wife, with held her from so humiliating a dis- could not be expected to be zealous, heartfelt, or closure. That her husband should dare to insult efficient! Without an instant's doubt or hesitaher by a doubt, exasperated Miriam, who was proud tion concerning the proper course of action, and and impulsive, and by no means logical, as deeply without one thought of the coincidence between as though she had married him from such exalted the wish she had been urging and the return to motives as would have entitled her to his utmost England thus suggested to her, Miriam went in respect. But Florence did not require an explana- search of Mr St Quentin, and communicated to tion from Miriam, in order to understand the him the contents of Mrs Ritchie's letter. Miriam position: the instincts of the woman and the spoke on this occasion with more warmth and less wife were equally strong in her case, and she was formality than there had for a long time been in in full possession of the whole matter, and also of her manner to her husband. She was moved by a the dislike and distrust with which Mr St Quentin right and generous impulse, and the half-pitying, regarded herself.

half-remorseful feelings which actuated her were I hope she may not find out that she has reflected in her speaking face, in her bright, tearful exchanged one kind of tyranny for another, more eyes, and in her rapid and unstudied words. Mr intolerable, and from which there is no escape,' St Quentin listened to her with unmoved politeFlorence would think, when Miriam indulged in ness, sarcastic scrutiny, and entire unbelief. strictures upon Mr St Quentin's "tiresomeness 'I suppose I may prepare to start immediately ?' and obstinate ways. "May Heaven preserve her was Miriam's question in conclusion, 'I will tell from temptation ; 'she is in an awfully dangerous Mrs Ritchie when to expect us, and write to Mr position.'

Martin to prepare papa.' It was an unpleasant shock and surprise to *You will do nothing of the kind,' said Mr St Miriam to find that her power was not absolute-a Quentin. I have no more intention of returning shock from which she recoiled into perfect silence to England than I had a month ago, when you upon the matter in dispute. If this spirit of wanted to go. This cleverly apropos letter does opposition were still further roused, and should not change my mind in the least. extend in other directions, all her calculations “What!' exclaimed Miriam. 'Do you mean to would be defeated—not only the small ones, with say that I am not to go to my father?. “Cleverly trifling results to be worked out by her supremacy, apropos letter !" Do you dare to insinuate that but the big sum of all, the calculation on the this letter is not the truth ?' correctness of whose total she had staked her life, 'I mean to say that I shall not return to her youth, her happiness. "To marry an old man, England.?. and find myself unable to rule him, would be too • Then I will go by myself.' bad a fate,' Miriam would mutter to herself, as if You will do so at your peril. If you do, you protesting that a thing would be too bad' were never return to any home of mine; and, considering

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your frankly avowed abhorrence of your father's, And so I am beaten, and he wins at all points. Í hardly believe you will adopt a course which Florence, I never hated my father, when he made would have that result. I don't believe a word me most wretched; but I do, I do hate this old

; of Mrs Ritchie's letter; I believe this is a concerted man!' plan of yours—you have a taste for confidences

‘Hush, my dearest-hush!' with servants, you know—and that that letter has been written to order—a childish expedient to

A PIONEER OF COMMERCE induce me to yield to your wishes, when you saw that you could not have your own way quite so ENGLISA traders want to send tea from the proentirely as you imagined.'

vince of Assam into Thibet, where tea is the chief *Your meanness is beyond my comprehension,' necessity, the principal luxury-in short, almost said Miriam, looking at him with infinite disdain, the only object of life-in order to destroy the as she stood, her stately head drawn up, and her Chinese monopoly of this great branch of comfine face-whose girlish sweetness was rapidly passing away-pale and set, and beneath my merce, by destroying the influence of the Thibetan anger. It provokes only my contempt.'

Lamas, who support the monopoly. They are Indeed! I am unfortunate in incurring so still, to all appearance, very far from success

, lofty and becoming a rebuke from a lady who has and, on looking at the map of the countries, been so suddenly converted into a model of filial though no doubt some of the indications are merely affection and solicitude,' said Mr St Quentin, with conjectural, it seems highly aggravating that the a savage sneer ; but I can bear my misfortune. moral and political difficulties should be so numerBe quite assured of this, madam—in me you have ous and seemingly insurmountable, while the natunot a chance of finding the proverbial “old fool” for ral difficulties are comparatively few and small

. whom you evidently take me.'

Few and small, that is to say, when compared with The hand in which Miriam held the letter the wonderful achievements of travel which have extended towards him, dropped to her side, and a made the desolate places of the north, and the visible shudder of disgust crept over her. She wastes of the great central deserts, known to us. stood for one moment uncertain, as though she By degrees we are acquiring some acquaintance were going to speak, and then turned abruptly with China, and the exclusiveness of Japan is, for away, and left the room.

all the purposes of the naturalist, a thing of the

past. A few brave and determined men, of whom •What shall I do, Florence ? I am completely Mr Cooper* is one of the most distinguished, have puzzled. I know I ought to go to papa ; I am sure made attempts, more or less successful, to penetrate the case is a bad one, and my right place is beside that wonderful unknown region of the earth, which him now.

But I cannot be sure that there is any lies contiguous at its several extremities to the change in his mood; and he might only be empire of China and the peninsula of Hindustan. savagely angry with me, if I returned to the Firs of the three great trade-routes which, in former unasked, and incurred the penalty of a separation days, led from China westwards intó Mongolia, from Mr St Quentin by doing so. I suppose he has and thence to India and Burmah, but one remains the power to carry out his threat ? But no matter; open at the present day, the great highway from I have paid too high a price for what he had Sz-chuan to Lhassa, the capital of Central Thibet, to give me' (there was a strange disturbance and vid Ta-tsian-loo and Bathang: The hopelessly loathing in her face), “to risk the loss of it all foreign sound and look of Chinese names, and a now, for the sake of going to my father, who kind of dreadful sameness which abides with their never cared for me, and who would certainly be bewildering variety, make it difficult to follow furious. And yet, that this old man should refuse Chinese topography, but the map shews us the me; and more than that, should dare to insult course of these ancient thoroughfares. Various me with so ineffably mean and low a suspicion ! causes have combined to close the other routes, How does such baseness come into people's heads, and to leave the empire of China with but one I wonder ? If I give in to him in this, I shall road, leading westward, by which she supplies never be able to carry any other point. Florence, Thibet annually with nearly six million pounds of what must I do?'

brick tea, which finds its way west as far as the Florence, who had been listening to her with borders of Cashmere. Causes political, religious, silent tears, raised her gentle eyes to her face, and and economical, combine to shut out India from said : “Miriam, I will go to Mr Clint.'

communication with China by this route ; and it “You !'

was with the view of discovering a shorter and Yes. Listen to me, my dear sister. You can more direct line of communication between the trust my care of him, and you know I will tell two countries that Mr Cooper, starting from Shangyou the truth. If I send for you, come to your hai, made a long-projected journey, which did not father at all hazards—I cheerfully accept that prove entirely successful, but which has added responsibility--but otherwise, do not press this largely to our knowledge of China, and taught disagreement with your husband to extremities. us almost all we know about Eastern Thibet. He Mr Clint was never rough with me, and I feel sure purposed to establish relations between the great I can manage him; and Mrs Ritchie and I are Chinese commercial city, Yunnan, and Rangoon, very good friends. Never fear but that I will do and thus to make Rangoon, instead of Calcutta, my duty to Walter's father and yours. Mr St the dépôt of trade between our Indian possessions Quentin has no power to control my movements. and Yunnan. The importance of the object was I shall be in safety in the place where Walter wished me to be: nothing can possibly happen to me; and indeed, indeed, you will be better Petticoats ; or, an Overland Journey from China towards

* Travels of a Pioneer of Commerce in Pigtail and without me now. Yes, Miriam, I will go.'

India. By TTCooper. London: John Murray

A PIONEER OF COMMERCE.

107

immense ; the difficulties of the undertaking very province is received and stored, and the office of serious. There was," says the pioneer, the the paymaster of the Western Frontier Army. It jealous animosity of the officials, and, as I then is an interesting city, whose citizens are very believed, of the people, towards foreigners ; wild enlightened, and where Christianity is flourishing. tribes; barriers of terrific snow-clad mountains ; From this point the traveller's face was fairly set the danger of carrying so large a sum of money as towards Thibet, and his route lay through the most would suffice for a journey which could not take beautiful and fertile province of the Flowery Land. less than a year to accomplish ; and last, but Near the walled city of Nin-cheang-foo, they passed greatest of all, I did not know a word of the a grotesque bridge, built in the shape of a dragon, Chinese language. He got over most of his diffi- the legs composing the arch thirty feet in diameter, culties by the aid of the French missionaries, whose and the roadway carried along his back, while the posts extend in an unbroken chain to beyond the wings rose as parapets on either side. At Chentu, western border of China, and of whom he gives an trouble arose; the viceroy refused Mr Cooper a interesting account. They are obliged to adopt passport for Thibet ; but after much difficulty, the dress and manners of the natives, and all who delay, and expense, he relented, and gave him volunteer for the Chinese mission renounce their full and satisfactory recommendation, ordering all own country for ever. They can never leave Chinese and Thibetan officers to aid him, and China, and they are forbidden to afford information stating that on his arrival at Lhassa he was to respecting the country to foreigners. Thus only present it to the minister, who would change it for can the excessive and unsleeping jealousy of the one authorising him to proceed into Nepaul or authorities and officials be overcome. The mis- Darjeeling. sions are flourishing, large congregations of native When he had neared the frontier, a terrible Christians existing throughout the interior of the incident of mountain-travel occurred to Mr Cooper, Fast and mysterious Celestial Empire.

which he thus relates : Our road led along the A ludicrous but indispensable portion of Mr right bank of the Tatowho, which flowed directly Cooper's preparation was his metamorphosis into at the base of the precipitous cliffs, some hundreds a Chinaman; and he had to undergo many re- of feet below. Just before entering a deep gorge, hearsals to accustom himself to the tail and petti- a narrow path about three feet wide, cut in the coats, and to attain a proper and unembarrassed perpendicular side of the precipice, led upwards gait. At length we find him starting from Hankow, to a shoulder of the mountain, from the angle of in very light marching order, in January 1868, to which we looked sheer down on the river, six all appearance a respectable elderly Chinaman, hundred feet below. One of my chair-coolies clean shaved, and with a fine pigtail, attended by became giddy, and fell; the chair-pole nearest the one George Phillips, a highly educated Christian edge snapped, and the chair, with the weight of native, in the capacity of servant and interpreter, my body, hung suspended over the precipice. For and armed with an imposing document in Chinese, a second or two, I sat looking down into the two feet square in size, authorising the English frightful depth at my feet, paralysed and unable scholar,' Tang-Koopah, to travel on the Great to move. The bearers, though as much terrorRiver, and through the countries beyond to India. stricken as myself, held on to the chair until some The substitution of scholar' for tradesman’ in of our baggage-coolies came up, and dragged the the description of the traveller, afterwards proved chair on to the ledge again. When I got out, I nearly to be a most unfortunate mistake. He was hoisted fainted ; in fact, but for the coolies commencing to into his sedan-chair, pronounced by the admiring cry and make a great noise, I believe I should bystanders to be a very number one Chinaman,' have become insensible, and it was a day or two and carried off by coolies to the boat which was before my nerves recovered the shock. At the to take him, by the Great River highway, across the entrance of the gorge, they met a string of two dreary, banditti-infested plains of Hoopah. The hundred coolies, carrying a large consignment of banks of the river Yang-tsu swarm with people tea, sent as a present by the Chinese government engaged in the incessant and varied industries of to the Grand Lama at Lhassa. the Chinese; and numberless junks are always dis- At the head of the terrible and gloomy gorge of charging their loads, to be carried off by hundreds Ta-tsian-loo, lies the border town of that name, of coolies and long strings of mules. Many rapids with its combined Chinese and Thibetan inhabithave to be passed, and the voyage does not want ants, in a deep valley between the snow-capped for incident, such as the sight of the great opium- mountains, where they slope back from the western market at Wan-chien, and the dragon procession mouth of the gorge. A stream runs through the there, an immemorial usage. Mr Cooper found middle, dividing the Thibetan quarter on the left spirit-rapping largely practised among the natives bank from the Chinese quarter on the right. The of the far interior, people who had never even Chinese inhabitants, chiefly Mohammedans, are heard of Europe or America. The result of his largely outnumbered by the Mantsu population. A observations during this river-voyage is a con- few days after his arrival, Mr Cooper was visited by viction on Mr Cooper's part that, by the intro- the chief Lama of the Lamasery, situated outside the duction of steamers, for which there is an abundant west gate, and felt himself really in Thibet. The supply of coal on the spot, our China merchants Lama was a tall, fair, courteous young man, who could secure to themselves the whole trade of was difficult to be convinced that Tang-Koopah was Eastern, Central, and Western China (exclusive of a simple traveller, and not a proselytiser; but when Yunnan). Of Ching-chung, he says: “It may be he was convinced, he became much more cordial, called the Liverpool of Western China. It is a and invited the stranger to visit his Lamasery. walled city of the first rank, containing a popula- This was a large square edifice, like a prison, which tion of two hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants, they entered through a gate of massive wood-work, and is of great political importance, as it contains that opened into a dark archway, secured at the the imperial treasury, where all the revenue of the further end by similar gates. Along each side

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